Abrahamic Religion - What Is It?

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Abrahamic Religion - What Is It?

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Abrahamic Religion - What Is It?

INTRODUCTION:

Many use the term "Abrahamic Religion" when referring to Christianity, Judaism, and Islam, and sometimes with regard The Druze, the Bahá'í Faith, etc. But in brief, the term means coming through and/or originating with the descendants of Abraham in its simpliest form.

To Abraham, the true God (YHWH) of Abraham, Isaac, Ishmael, Jacob, Noah, etc., the creator of all there is, he promised that his descendants would forever inhabit the land. Abraham's first son, Ishmael, the ancestor of all original Muslims, was not by his wife, but by her servant, Hagar; whereas, his second son whom the true God (YHWH) of Abraham, Isaac, Ishmael, Jacob, Noah, etc., the creator of all there is, said the promised seed would come was by his legal wife Sarah, and per Genesis 17:19, "And God said, Sarah thy wife shall bear thee a son indeed; and thou shalt call his name Isaac: and I will establish my covenant with him for an everlasting covenant, and with his seed after him." (Authorized King James Bible; AV).

Thus, the Islamic religion came through Abraham since a descendant of his son, Ishmael, Muhammad (pbuh), started it about 2,000 years after Abraham's death. His son, Ishmael, like all of his household, was a worshipper of the true God (YHWH) of Abraham, Issac, Ishmael, Noah, Moses, etc., the creator of all there is, but many centuries later, many of the descendants of Ishmael went to following false god(s) such as Allah and Baal which some believe to be one and the same.

Both the Jewish and Christian religions came through Abraham's son Isaac, the one to whom the everlasting covenant was established with. Both of these religions originally worshipped exclusively the true God (YHWH) of Abraham, Issac, Ishmael, Noah, Moses, etc., the creator of all there is, but later some in the so called Christian branch that came out of Judaism went following pagan god(s). All the founders or genuine (true) followers of Christianity, the apostles of Jesus (Yeshua) were born Jews, the descendants of Abraham's son Isaac. However, later the "path" or way to be genuine followers of Jesus (Yeshua) was opened to none descendants of Abraham's son Isaac.

THE ISLAMIC ABRAHAMIC RELIGION:

PART A - GENERAL ON ISLAM:

First let's look at what an encyclopedia says about Islam.

<<<"Islam, is a monotheistic religion originating with the teachings of Muhammad, a 7th century Arab religious and political figure. It is the second-largest religion in the world today, with an estimated 1.4 billion adherents, spread across the globe, known as Muslims.[1] The word "Islam" means "submission", referring to the total surrender of one's self to God Allah), and the word Muslim means "one who submits (to God)".[2]

Muslims believe that God revealed the Qur'an to Muhammad and that Muhammad is God's final prophet. The Qur'an and the traditions of Muhammad in the Sunnah are regarded as the fundamental sources of Islam.[3][4] Muslims do not regard Muhammad as the founder of a new religion, but as the restorer of the original monotheistic faith of Adam, Abraham, Jesus, Moses, Noah, and other prophets. They hold that part of the messages of these prophets became distorted over time either in interpretation, in text, or both.[5][6][7] Like Judaism, and Christianity, Islam is an Abrahamic religion.[8]

Today Islam is the predominant religion in North Africa, West Africa the Horn of Africa, the Middle East, Central Asia, Southeast Asia and parts of the Indian subcontinent. Large communities can also be found in China, the Balkan Peninsula and Russia. Only about 20 percent of Muslims originate from Arab countries.[9] Islam is the second largest religion after Christianity in many European countries, such as France, which has the largest Muslim population in Western Europe and the United Kingdom.[10][11]"

Etymology and meaning: The word islam is "the infinitive of the fourth form of the Arabic triconsonantal root s-l-m meaning 'to submit,' 'to surrender'";[12] therefore Islam effectively means "submission to God". Followers of Islam are expected to submit to God by worshiping him, following his commands, and avoiding polytheism.[2] The word islam is also based upon the Arabic word for peace (salam) and could be applicible to the religion of Islam if it is taken to mean that "true peace resides in submission to God".[13]
The word islam takes on a number of different meanings in the Qur'an. In some verses (ayat), the quality of Islam as an internal conviction is stressed, for example: "Whomsoever God desires to guide, He expands his breast to Islam."[14] Other verses establish the connection between islam and din (usually translated as "religion"), and assert that only the surrender of one's self to God can render unto him the worship which is his due: "Today, I have perfected your religion (din) for you; I have completed My blessing upon you; I have approved Islam for your religion."[15] The final category of verses describe Islam as an action (of returning to God), more than simply a verbal affirmation.[16][2]
Beliefs

Muslims believe that God revealed his final message to humanity through the Islamic prophet Muhammad via the angel Gabriel.[17] They consider Muhammad to have been God's final prophet, the "Seal of the Prophets", and the Qur'an to be the revelations he received in his 23 years of preaching.[18] Muslims hold that all of God's messengers since Adam preached the message of Islam - submission to the will of the one God. To Muslims, Islam is the eternal religion, described in the Qur'an as "the primordial nature upon which God created mankind".[19][20][clarify] Furthermore, the Qur'an states that the proper name Muslim was given by Abraham.[21][20]

As a historical phenomenon, however, Islam was originated in Arabia in early 7th century.[20] Islamic texts depict Judaism and Christianity as prophetic successor traditions to the teachings of Abraham. The Qur'an calls Jews and Christians "People of the Book", and distinguishes them from polytheists. However, Muslims believe that parts of the previously revealed scriptures, the Tawrat (Torah) and the Injil (Gospels), had become distorted as indicated in the Qur'an - either in interpretation, in text, or both.[22]

Islamic belief has six main components - belief in God; his revelations; his angels; his messengers; the "Day of Judgement"; and the divine decree.[23][24]
God

Allah, God, Islamic concept of God, and Tawhid [no Trinity]. The fundamental concept in Islam is the oneness of God (tawhid): monotheism which is simple and uncompounded, not composed or made up of parts.[25][clarify] The oneness of God is the first of Islam's five pillars, expressed by the Shahadah (testification). By declaring the Shahadah, a Muslim attests to the belief that there are no gods but God, and that Muhammad is God's messenger.[26]

In Arabic, God is called Allah. Etymologically, this name is thought to be derived from a contraction of the Arabic words al- (the) and ilah (deity, masculine form) - al-ilah meaning "the God".[27]

The first sura in a Qur'anic manuscript by Hattat Aziz Efendi.
The Qur'an is considered by Muslims to be the literal word of God, and is the central religious text of Islam. It has also been called, in English, the Koran and, archaically, the Alcoran. The word Qur'an means "recitation".[32] Although the Qur'an is often referred to as a "book", when Muslims speak in the abstract about "the Qur'an", they usually mean the scripture as recited in Arabic rather than the printed work or any translation of it.[33] Muslims believe that the verses of the Qur'an were revealed to Muhammad by God through the Angel Gabriel on numerous occasions between the years 610 and his death on July 6, 632.

References:
1. ^ Teece (2003), p.10
2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k "Islam", Encyclopaedia of Islam Online
3. ^ Ghamidi (2001): Sources of Islam
4. ^ Esposito (1996), p.41
5. ^ "If...they [Christians] mean that the Qur'an confirms the textual veracity of the scriptural books which they now possess-that is, the Torah and the Gospels-this is something which some Muslims will grant them and which many Muslims will dispute. However, most Muslims will grant them most of that." Ibn Taymiyya cited in Accad (2003)
6. ^ Esposito (1998), p.12; Esposito (2002b), pp.4-5; F. E. Peters (2003), p.9
7. ^ a b c "Muhammad", Encyclopaedia of Islam Online
8. ^ Gregorian (2003), p.ix
9. ^ Esposito (2002b), p.21
10. ^ Muslims in Europe: Country guide. BBC News (2005-12-23). Retrieved on 2006-09-28.
11. ^ Religion In Britain. Office for National Statistics (2003-02-13). Retrieved on 2006-08-27.
12. ^ "Islam", Encyclopedia of the Qur'an (2005)
13. ^ Sells (2003), p.30
14. ^ Qur'an 6:125, Qur'an 61:7, Qur'an 39:22
15. ^ Qur'an 5:3, Qur'an 3:19, Qur'an 3:83
16. ^ Qur'an 9:74, Qur'an 49:14
17. ^ Watton (1993), "Introduction"
18. ^ "Qur'an", Encyclopedia of Christianity (2001)
19. ^ Qur'an 30:30
20. ^ a b c "Islam", Encyclopedia of Religion
21. ^ Qur'an 22:78
22. ^ "Tahrif", Encyclopaedia of Islam Online
23. ^ Sahih Muslim 1:1
24. ^ "Iman", Encyclopaedia of Islam Online
25. ^ "Tawhid", Britannica Concise Encyclopedia
26. ^ Griffith (2006), p.248
27. ^ "Allah", Encyclopaedia of Islam Online
32. ^ a b c Teece (2003), pp.12,13
33. ^ C. Turner (2006), p.42
[source - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia]>>>.

PART B - ON THE QURAN:

Muslims believe that Muhammad (pbuh) received the Quran from an angel, but reality is very different. It is a distorted copy of the inspired word of the true God (YHWH) of Abraham, Issac, Ishmael, Noah, Moses, etc., the creator of all there is, the Bible, although most of Islam denies this reality. Details can be found in a recent book review as follows:

<<<" A book review of Christoph Luxenberg, a world renown linguistic scholar, clearly reveals that the Quran is nothing but a distorted knockoff of the inspired word of the true God (YHWH) of Abraham, Isaac, and Ishmael, creator of all there is, the Bible.

This book review is contained in, "HUGOYE: JOURNAL OF SYRIAC STUDIES," book review of Christoph Luxenberg (ps.) Die syro-aramaeische Lesart des Koran; Ein Beitrag zur Entschlüsselung der Qur'ansprache. Berlin, Germany: Das Arabische Buch, First Edition, 2000. Pp. ix + 306, Vol. 6, No. 1, January 2003.
[http://syrcom.cua.edu/Hugoye/Vol6No1/HV6N1PRPhenixHorn.html ]

THE evidence:

Let's look at the evidence contained in the book review of Christoph Luxenberg's latest book in German, "Die syro-aramaeische Lesart des Koran; Ein Beitrag zur Entschlüsselung der Qur'ansprache." He clearly shows that the Quran draws on personal names of Biblical origins, that the name "Quran' even indicates its origin, that it was NEVER intended to replace the written source - the Bible, that it was distorted from the writings of Muhammad early on, as follows:

<<<"The rest of the section draws on personal names of Biblical origin in the Qur'an to demonstrate that the so-called Arabic matres lectionis, 'alif, waw, and ya, must also be polyvalent. Luxenberg points out that Islamic tradition admits a reading of the mater for long /a/ in certain instances as /e/ because this pronunciation was a peculiarity of the Arabic of Mecca. Luxenberg shows that the term harf, "sign" must also carry a meaning synonymous to qira'at, "(way of) reading" and that this is not only supplying the vowels in an unvocalized text, but also supplying the diacritical points that distinguish consonants. It is only gradually that these diacritical points became fixed so that consonants came to have just one reading. This process of determining the value of each letter of the Qur'an unfolded over some three hundred years. This is known from the oldest manuscripts of the Qur'an which do not have the diacritical points distinguishing readings of a single consonant. By the time these became commonly used, Arabian commentators were no longer aware that many words were either straight Aramaic or were calques peculiar to Meccan Arabic. From this resulted the difficulties that the Qur'an posed to even the earliest Arabian commentators...

The section concludes by demonstrating that the technical meaning of "lectionary" is preserved in the word qur'an. Most striking is the conclusion that the term umm kitab, an aramaism, must be a written source and that the Qur'an was never intended to replace this written source. One might complain that the details of the argument for the reading of suras 12:1-2 and 3:7 are squeezed into footnotes, but nevertheless the argument is clear. Luxenberg proves that the term qur'an itself is the key to unlocking the passages that have given commentators in and outside of the tradition frustration. If quryan means "lectionary," and if the text itself claims to be a clarification of an earlier text, then that earlier text must be written in another language. The only candidate is the Old and New Testament in Syriac, the Peshitta. Hence the influence of Aramaic on the Arabic of Muhammad has an identifiable, textual origin. At the very end of the work, Luxenberg makes a compelling argument that sura 108 is a close allusion to the Peshitta of 1 Peter 5:8-9. Indeed this sura, which is only three lines long, is one of the most difficult passages for the Arabian as well as the Western commentators. Luxenberg shows why: it is composed of transcriptions into Arabic writing of the Syriac New Testament text, i.e., there is almost no "Arabic" in the sura. These are "revealed" texts, and insofar as the Qur'an contains quotations or paraphrases of them, the Qur'an is also "revealed." ...

Many dialects of Arabic existed at the time of Muhammad. In the ten places where the Qur'an claims to have been written in Arabic, Luxenberg shows first that these passages have grammatical forms which are difficult for the commentators and have varying interpretations among the translators. He notes that in sura 41:44, the Arabic fassala means "to divide," but the context here requires "make distinct" or better "interpret." Nowhere else does the Arabic word have this meaning, and the Syriac-Arabic lexica do not give the one as a translation for the other; tarjama (a direct borrowing from Syriac) is the usual Arabic word for "interpret." However, the Syriac praš / parreš can mean both "divide" as well as "interpret" (like Hebrew hibdil; also this is an example of a "semantic calque" mentioned above). Tabari too understands fassala to be a synonym for bayyana (sura 44:3), which also has the meaning "interpret." Sura 41:44 also clearly attests to a source for the Qur'an that is written in a foreign language. Luxenberg, following Tabari, notes a corruption in the text of this verse that clearly shows that part of the Qur'an has a non-Arabic source. His argument here is somewhat weak if not for the further evidence deduced from eleven other locations in the Qur'an where Luxenberg consistently applies these and similar arguments to difficulties all of which center on the terms related to the revelation and language of the Qur'an. These arguments leave little doubt, that Luxenberg has uncovered a key misunderstanding of these terms throughout the Qur'an....

In section twelve Luxenberg demonstrates that not only the origin and language of the Qur'an are different from what the commentators who wrote two hundred years after its inception claim it to be, but that several key passages contain words or idioms that were borrowed from Syriac into Arabic. From his analysis of sura 19:24 (in the so-called "Marian Sura"): "Then he called to her from beneath her: 'Grieve not; thy Lord hath placed beneath thee a streamlet,'" he concludes that it should be read "He called to her immediately after her laying-down (to give birth 'Grieve not; thy Lord has made your laying-down legitimate.'" Luxenberg's lengthy discussion of the complexities of this passage resolve grammatical difficulties in the Arabic in a way that fits the context: Jesus gives Mary the courage to face her relatives even with a child born out of wedlock. The section then presents lengthy arguments dealing with various lexical, morphological, syntactic and versification problems in sura 11:116-117...

In that same section, one also finds a study of how Syriac roots were misread and altered by later commentators. In one case, the word jaw (sura 16:79) misread "air, atmosphere" is from Syriac gaw, which means both "insides, inner part" and can also be used as a preposition meaning "inside." In sura 16:79 Luxenberg demonstrates that the prepositional use makes more sense than the solution posed by the commentators. Classical Arabic grammar, which was created three hundred years after the Qur'an, does not recall the prepositional meaning of the word. However, dialects of Arabic preserve the original Syriac prepositional use. So where sura 16:79 reads fi jaw as-sama' "in(side) heaven" referring to birds held aloft and kept from falling down by God, the dialects agree: fi jawwat al-bet "inside the house" is perfectly good Arabic. The misreading of Qur'anic Arabic jaw as "air" has become part of the technical vocabulary of modern standard Arabic: "air mail," "air force," "airline," and "weather report" all use jaw. The imaginary meaning of the grammarians lives on. ...

Section sixteen follows this investigation as it points to a similar misreading of paradise's grapes as youths, Arabic wildun. Sura 76:19 "Round amongst them go boys of perpetual youth, whom when one see, he thinks them pearls unstrung" (sura 16.1, citing Bell's translation). Wildun is a genuinely Arabic word, but it is used in a sense which is borrowed from Syriac yalda. Youths like pearls is somewhat suspicious, especially given that "pearls" are a metaphor for the grapes of paradise from the previous section. Luxenberg uncovered that Syriac has the expression yalda dagpetta, "child of the vine," appearing in the Peshitta: Matthew 26:29, Mark 14:25, and Luke 22:18, in which Christ foreshadows his death and resurrection: "I will not drink of this child of the vine (yalda dagpetta) until the day when I drink it new in the kingdom of my Father." Here it is the juice of the grape that is the "child." Entries in the Arabic-Syriac lexica for each of yalda and gpetta give in addition to "child" and "vine" "fruit" and "wine," respectively. Luxenberg gives further evidence from suras 37:45, 43:71, and 76:15 that Ephraem the Syrian's depiction of the grapes of paradise is behind the original Qur'anic text.

A central question that this investigation raises is the motivation of cUthman in preparing his redaction of the Qur'an. Luxenberg presents the two hadith traditions recounting how cUthman came to possess the first manuscript. If Luxenberg's analysis is even in broad outline correct, the content of the Qur'an was substantially different at the time of Muhammad and Uthman's redaction played a part in the misreading of key passages. Were these misreadings intentional or not? The misreadings in general alter the Qur'an from a book that is more or less harmonious with the New Testament and Syriac Christian liturgy and literature to one that is distinct, of independent origin. " [source - book review is contained in, "HUGOYE: JOURNAL OF SYRIAC STUDIES," book review of Christoph Luxenberg (ps.) Die syro-aramaeische Lesart des Koran; Ein Beitrag zur Entschlüsselung der Qur'ansprache. Berlin, Germany: Das Arabische Buch, First Edition, 2000. Pp. ix + 306, Vol. 6, No. 1, January 2003.]>>>.

THE Reality:

Muhammad (pbuh) had Christians in his family from whom he learned about the Bible from and scribes to read it to him as he was illiterate. After learning much about the Bible, he started dictating to his scribes what he wanted written down, and as all know a process like this can only product a distorted product as compared to the original, the inspired word of the true God (YHWH) of Abraham, Isaac, Ishmael, and Jacob, creator of all there is, the Bible.

Now most in Islam will not agree with this reality, the truth, per John 8:32, "And ye shall know the truth, and the truth shall make you free" (Authorized King James Bible; AV), but the facts sustain it. Let's look at his connection to Christianity through his relatives as reported in an Islamic source.

Many Muslims have argued that Muhammad only met Jews or Christians only on very few occasions, by far too short to be sufficient to gain any real knowledge of the earlier scriptures. In particular, they were not translated into Arabic at this time. The content of the Qur'an therefore does not come from human sources but can only be through direct revelation from God.

I agree that the scriptures probably did not exist in Arabic at that time, at least not completely or widely known, but with the other statements I am not in agreement. And even the non-existence of scriptures in Arabic is irrelevant as we will see in the following.

The Muslim sources tell us about a certain Waraqa bin Nawfal and in what way Muhammad was related to him.
<<<"Sahih Bukhari, Volume 1, Book 1, Number 3: Narrated 'Aisha:

(the mother of the faithful believers) The commencement of the Divine Inspiration to Allah's Apostle was in the form of good dreams which came true like bright day light, and then the love of seclusion was bestowed upon him. He used to go in seclusion in the cave of Hira where he used to worship (Allah alone) continuously for many days before his desire to see his family. He used to take with him the journey food for the stay and then come back to (his wife) Khadija to take his food like-wise again till suddenly the Truth descended upon him while he was in the cave of Hira. The angel came to him and asked him to read. The Prophet replied, "I do not know how to read.

The Prophet added, "The angel caught me (forcefully) and pressed me so hard that I could not bear it any more. He then released me and again asked me to read and I replied, 'I do not know how to read.' Thereupon he caught me again and pressed me a second time till I could not bear it any more. He then released me and again asked me to read but again I replied, 'I do not know how to read (or what shall I read)?' Thereupon he caught me for the third time and pressed me, and then released me and said, 'Read in the name of your Lord, who has created (all that exists) has created man from a clot. Read! And your Lord is the Most Generous." (96.1, 96.2, 96.3) Then Allah's Apostle returned with the Inspiration and with his heart beating severely. Then he went to Khadija bint Khuwailid and said, "Cover me! Cover me!" They covered him till his fear was over and after that he told her everything that had happened and said, "I fear that something may happen to me." Khadija replied, "Never! By Allah, Allah will never disgrace you. You keep good relations with your Kith and kin, help the poor and the destitute, serve your guests generously and assist the deserving calamity-afflicted ones."

Khadija then accompanied him to her cousin Waraqa bin Nawfal bin Asad bin 'Abdul 'Uzza, who, during the PreIslamic Period became a Christian and used to write the writing with Hebrew letters. He would write from the Gospel in Hebrew as much as Allah wished him to write. He was an old man and had lost his eyesight. Khadija said to Waraqa, "Listen to the story of your nephew, O my cousin!" Waraqa asked, "O my nephew! What have you seen?" Allah's Apostle described whatever he had seen. Waraqa said, "This is the same one who keeps the secrets (angel Gabriel) whom Allah had sent to Moses. I wish I were young and could live up to the time when your people would turn you out." Allah's Apostle asked, "Will they drive me out?" Waraqa replied in the affirmative and said, "Anyone (man) who came with something similar to what you have brought was treated with hostility; and if I should remain alive till the day when you will be turned out then I would support you strongly." But after a few days Waraqa died and the Divine Inspiration was also paused for a while. ...

Some essential statements above:
1. "his desire to see his family."
2. "You keep good relations with your Kith and kin"

This shows that Muhammad was a "family man", and given that the middle eastern culture is well known for its family orientedness (something I very much appreciate in Muslims) and that in this setting Muhammad was seemingly even a very good example (otherwise this would not have been mentioned as special virtue) we can deduce that he probably spend much time with his relatives keeping a good relationship, and that means regular visiting.

Furthermore, nobody will deny that Muhammad was already religious before he had this first encounter in the cave on Mt. Hira. After all, he went there to meditate and pray. As the hadith says, it was a habit of his: "He USED to go in seclusion in the cave of Hira where he used to worship (Allah alone) continuously for many days..."

The big question now is:
What will such a religious man talk about when he visits his relatives? Would it be too much to guess that religion will be a major part of these conversations?
And what do we see happening here when Muhammad is disturbed and frightened by a "religious experience"? After calming down a bit at home with his wife, who is the person they visit first?

Waraqa bin Nawfal. Seemingly, he is seen by Khadija and Muhammad as an authority in spiritual matters. And he is the cousin of his wife. And he is a Christian familiar with the scriptures since, after all, he is making copies of the scriptures, whether for personal study or for a fellowship/church of Christians.
So, these are the facts:">>>.

So Islam's argument that he, Muhammad (pbuh) had little contact with either Jews or Christians is an outright lie as is the other claims made for the Quran. Most of the other claims are quite similar to those of Joseph Smith for the Book of Mormon; to wit, the book was received from an angel.

PART C - THE MYTHICAL GOD, THE OLD MIDDLE EASTERN CELESTIAL MOON GOD, "ALLAH," WHO ONLY EXIST IN THE IMAGINATIONS OF DECEIVED MEN, BUT HAS NO PHYSICAL EXISTANCE,

Many in Islam claim their god is the same as the true God (YHWH) of Abraham, Isaac, Ishmael, and Jacob, creator of all there is, but this is not true as will be shown:

Origins of the word "Allah," let's look at the facts from renown historical sources:

The well-known Middle East scholar H.A.R. Gibb has pointed out that the reason that Muhammad never had to explain who Allah was in the Quran is that his listeners had already heard about Allah long before Muhammad was ever born [source - (Mohammedanism: An Historical Survey, New York: Mentor Books, 1955, p.38)].

Dr. Arthur Jeffery, one of the foremost Western Islamic scholars in modern times and professor of Islamic and Middle East Studies at Columbia University, notes:

"The name Allah, as the Quran itself is witness, was well known in pre-Islamic Arabia. Indeed, both it and its feminine form, Allat, are found not infrequently among the theophorous names in inscriptions from North Africa" [source - Islam: Muhammad, and His Religion, New York: The Liberal Arts Press, 1958, p. 85].

The word "Allah" comes from the compound Arabic word, al-ilah. Al is the definite article "the" and ilah is an Arabic word for "god." It is not a foreign word. It is not even the Syriac word for God. It is pure Arabic. [source - There is an interesting discussion of the origins of Allah, in "Arabic Lexicographical Miscellanies" by J. Blau in the Journal of Semitic Studies, Vol. XVII, #2, 1972, pp. 173-190].

Neither is Allah a Hebrew or Greek word for God as found in the Bible. Allah is a purely Arabic term used in reference to an Arabian deity. [source - Hastings' Encyclopedia of Religion and Ethics I:326, T & T Clark], states:

'"Allah" is a proper name, applicable only to their [Arabs'] peculiar God. '

According to the Encyclopedia of Religion:

'"Allah" is a pre-Islamic name . . . corresponding to the Babylonian Bel' [source - Encyclopedia of Religion, I:117 Washington DC, Corpus Pub., 1979].

For those who find it hard to believe that Allah was a pagan name for a peculiar pagan Arabian deity in pre-Islamic times, the following quotations may be helpful:

"Allah is found . . . in Arabic inscriptions prior to Islam" [source - Encyclopedia Britannica, I:643].

"The Arabs, before the time of Mohammed, accepted and worshipped, after a fashion, a supreme god called Allah" [Encyclopedia off Islam, I:302, Leiden: E.J. Brill, 1913, Houtsma].

"Allah was known to the pre-Islamic . . . Arabs; he was one of the Meccan deities" [Encyclopedia off Islam, I:406, ed. Gibb).

"Ilah . . . appears in pre-Islamic poetry . . . By frequency of usage, al-ilah was contracted to Allah, frequently attested to in pre-Islamic poetry" (Encyclopedia off Islam, III:1093, 1971].

"The name Allah goes back before Muhammad" [source - Encyclopedia of World Mythology and Legend, I:41, Anthony Mercatante, New York, The Facts on File, 1983].

"The origin of this (Allah) goes back to pre-Muslim times. Allah is not a common name meaning "God" (or a "god"), and the Muslim must use another word or form if he wishes to indicate any other than his own peculiar deity" [source - Encyclopedia of Religion and Ethics, I:326, Hastings].

To the testimony of the above standard reference works, we add those of such scholars as Henry Preserved Smith of Harvard University who has stated:

"Allah was already known by name to the Arabs" [source - The Bible and Islam: or, The Influence of the Old and New Testament on the Religion of Mohammed, New York, Charles Scribner's Sons, 1897, p. 102]

"Ilah is the Arabic for "deity". It is cognate to Northwest Semitic ' and Akkadian ilu. The word is from a Proto-Semitic archaic biliteral meaning "god" (possibly with a wider meaning of "strong"), which was extended to a regular triliteral by the addition of a h (as in Hebrew Eloah). ...[omitted as not English characters] with an optional diacritic alif to mark ...; (as is the case with Allah), or (more rarely) with a full alif...; .The feminine is;hah "goddess", with the article, al...[omitted as not English characters]; according to Lane's 1893 Lexicon referring to the great serpent in particular, "because it was a special object of the worship of some of the ancient Arabs", or the new moon (see also Allat).In Islamic context, an ilah is the concept of a deity, lord or god and does not necessarily refer to Allah. The term is used throughout the Qur'an in passages detailing the existence of Allah as the only Ilah, and of the beliefs of non-Muslims in other Ilah(s)."[source - Wikipedia free Encyclopedia]

[source - The Archeology of the Middle East]"[additional references - "South Arabia's stellar religion has always been dominated by the Moon-god in various variations" (Berta Segall, The Iconography of Cosmic Kingship, the Art Bulletin, vol.xxxviii, 1956, p.77).; Isaac Rabinowitz, Aramaic Inscriptions of the Fifth Century, JNES, XV, 1956, pp.1-9; Edward Linski, The Goddess Atirat in Ancient Arabia, in Babylon and in Ugarit: Her Relation to the Moon-god and the Sun-goddess, Orientalia Lovaniensia Periodica, 3:101-9; H.J.Drivers, Iconography and Character of the Arab Goddess Allat, found in Études Preliminaries Aux Religions Orientales Dans L'Empire Roman, ed. Maarten J. Verseren, Leiden, Brill, 1978, pp.331-51); Richard Le Baron Bower Jr. and Frank P. Albright, Archaeological Discoveries in South Arabia, Baltimore, John Hopkins University Press, 1958, p.78ff; Ray Cleveland, An Ancient South Arabian Necropolis, Baltimore, John Hopkins University Press, 1965; Nelson Gleuck, Deities and Dolphins, New York, Farrar, Strauss and Giroux, 1965).; Another Aramaic Record of the North Arabian goddess Han'Llat, JNES, XVIII, 1959, pp.154-55.]

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Re: Abrahamic Religion - What Is It?

Post  Admin on Thu Nov 21, 2013 8:28 pm

Part 2

Allah - the Moon God The Archeology of The Middle EastThe religion of Islam has as its focus of worship a deity by the name of "Allah." The Muslims claim that Allah in pre-Islamic times was the biblical God of the Patriarchs, prophets, and apostles. The issue is thus one of continuity. Was "Allah" the biblical God or a pagan god in Arabia during pre-Islamic times? The Muslim's claim of continuity is essential to their attempt to convert Jews and Christians for if "Allah" is part of the flow of divine revelation in Scripture, then it is the next step in biblical religion. Thus we should all become Muslims. But, on the other hand, if Allah was a pre-Islamic pagan deity, then its core claim is refuted. Religious claims often fall before the results of hard sciences such as archeology. We can endlessly speculate about the past or go and dig it up and see what the evidence reveals. This is the only way to find out the truth concerning the origins of Allah. As we shall see, the hard evidence demonstrates that the god Allah was a pagan deity. In fact, he was the Moon-god who was married to the sun goddess and the stars were his daughters. [source - Yeshua Communications Network]


"Hubal and Allah the Moon God?Islam: Truth or Myth? start page Introduction to basic facts of history:Moon worship has been practiced in Arabia since 2000 BC. The crescent moon is the most common symbol of this pagan moon worship as far back as 2000 BC. In Mecca, there was a god named Hubal who was Lord of the Kabah. This Hubal was a moon god. One Muslim apologist confessed that the idol of moon god Hubal was placed upon the roof of the Kaba about 400 years before Muhammad. This may in fact be the origin of why the crescent moon is on top of every minaret at the Kaba today and the central symbol of Islam atop of every mosque throughout the world: About four hundred years before the birth of Muhammad one Amr bin Lahyo ... a descendant of Qahtan and king of Hijaz, had put an idol called Hubal on the roof of the Kaba. This was one of the chief deities of the Quraish before Islam. (Muhammad The Holy Prophet, Hafiz Ghulam Sarwar (Pakistan), p 18-19, Muslim)The moon god was also referred to as "al-ilah". This is not a proper name of a single specific god, but a generic reference meaning "the god". Each local pagan Arab tribe would refer to their own local tribal pagan god as "al-ilah". "al-ilah" was later shortened to Allah before Muhammad began promoting his new religion in 610 AD. There is evidence that Hubal was referred to as "Allah". When Muhammad came along, he dropped all references to the name "Hubal" but retained the generic "Allah". Muhammad retained almost all the pagan rituals of the Arabs at the Kaba and redefined them in monotheistic terms. Regardless of the specifics of the facts, it is clear that Islam is derived from paganism that once worshiped a moon-god. Although Islam is today a monotheist religion, its roots are in paganism."[source - Brother Andrew]

Was Allah The Moon God of Ancient Arab Pagan? By Syed Kamran Mirza Historical evidences, impartial logic, well versed references and all available circumstantial judgments can very well prove that-(a) Allah name of deity was pre-existed much before the arrival of Islam, ( Pre-Islamic Pagan peoples worshipped Allah as their supreme deity (moon-god). Allah's name existed in pre-Islamic Arab. In ancient Arab the Allah was considered to be the supreme God/deity (as Moon-God) and Arab Pagans worshipped Allah before Islam arrived. Let us examine below some valid questions and answers :Did the Pagan Arabs in pre-Islamic times worship 360 gods? YesDid the pagans Arabs worship the sun, moon and the stars? YesDid the Arabs built temples to the Moon-god? YesDid different Arab tribes give the Moon-god different names/titles? YesWhat were some of the names/titles? Sin, Hubul, Ilumquh, Al-ilah. Was the title "al-ilah" (the god) used as the Moon-god? YesWas the word "Allah" derived from "al-ilah?" YesWas the pagan "Allah" a high god in a pantheon of deities? Yes.Was he worshipped at the Kabah? Yes.Was Allah only one of many Meccan gods? YesDid they place a statue of Hubul on top of the Kabah? Yes.At that time was Hubul considered the Moon-god? Yes.Was the Kabah thus the "house of the Moon-god"? Yes.Did the name "Allah" eventually replace that of Hubul as the name of the Moon god? Yes.Did they call the Kabah the "house of Allah"? Yes.Were al-Lat, al-Uzza and Manat called "the daughters of Allah"? Yes.Yusuf Ali explains in fn. 5096, pg. 1445, that Lat, Uzza and Manat were known as "the daughters of God [Allah]"Did the Qur'an at one point tell Muslims to worship al-Lat, al-Uzza and Manat? Yes. In Surah 53:19-20.Have those verses been "abrogated" out of the present Qur'an? Yes.What were they called? "The Satanic Verses."[source - Was Allah The Moon God of Ancient Arab Pagan? By Syed Kamran Mirza ]

"ALLAH - The Moon GodThe religion of Islam has as its focus of worship a deity by the name of "Allah." The Muslims claim that Allah in pre-Islamic times was the biblical God of the Patriarchs, prophets, and apostles. The issue is thus one of continuity. Was "Allah" the biblical God or a pagan god in Arabia during pre-Islamic times? The Muslim's claim of continuity is essential to their attempt to convert Jews and Christians for if "Allah" is part of the flow of divine revelation in Scripture, then it is the next step in biblical religion. Thus we should all become Muslims. But, on the other hand, if Allah was a pre-Islamic pagan deity, then its core claim is refuted. Religious claims often fall before the results of hard sciences such as archeology. We can endlessly speculate about the past or go and dig it up and see what the evidence reveals. This is the only way to find out the truth concerning the origins of Allah. As we shall see, the hard evidence demonstrates that the god Allah was a pagan deity. In fact, he was the Moon-god who was married to the sun goddess and the stars were his daughters."[source - www.abrahamic-faith.com/moon-god.html ]

"In fact the common symbol used in much of Islam, the Crescent Moon, like in the Green Crescent the Arab equivalent of the Red Cross, as used by the Ottomans, on most Mosques, etc. But here is what history and archaeology shows:

The symbol of the worship of the moon god in Arabian culture and elsewhere throughout the Middle East was the crescent moon.

Archaeologists have dug up numerous statues and hieroglyphic inscriptions in which a crescent moon was seated on top of the head of the deity to symbolize the worship of the moon god. In the same fashion as the sun is pictured above the Egyptian deity.

Now there are strong indicators that the heathen god, Baal, was the god of very early antiquity that actually evolved into the present day Moon god "Allah," by way of an intermediary figure, the god "Hubal al'iah." In fact in his name you can actually see how the name for the pagan Moon god became.

While the moon was generally worshiped as a female deity in the Ancient Near East, the Arabs viewed it as a male deity."[source - The Islamic Invasion by Dr. Robert Morey; Harvest Home Publishers, 1992. ISBN 0-89081-983-1]

"ALLAH...The term is a contraction of the Arabic al-ilah, "the God." Both the idea and the word existed in pre-Islamic Arabian tradition, in which some evidence of a primitive monotheism can also be found. Although they recognized other, lesser gods, the pre-Islamic Arabs recognized Allah as the supreme God."[source - Microsoft(r) Encarta(r) Online Encyclopedia 2000]

"Allah was also known as Hubel, ""Among the gods worshiped by the Quraysh, the greatest was Hubal
...
Some additional details on this cleromantic deity, the most powerful of the pagan idols of Mecca, is supplied by the Meccan historian Azraqi ...
Amr ibn Luhayy brought with him (to Mecca) an idol called Hubal from the land of Hit in Mesopotamia. Hubal was one of the Quraysh's greatest idols so he set it up at the well inside the Kab'a and ordered the people to worship it. Thus a man coming back from a journey would visit it and circumambulate the House before going to his family, and would shave his hair before it ... "[Peters, Hajj: The Muslim Pilgrimage to Mecca and the Holy Places [Princeton University Press, NJ, 1994], pp. 24-25]

""Khuza 'ah thus shared the guilt of Jurhum. They were also to blame in other respects: a chieftain of theirs, on his way back from a journey to SYRIA, had asked the MOABITES to give him ONE OF THEIR IDOLS. They gave him HUBAL, which he brought back to the Sanctuary, setting it up within the Ka'bah itself; and it became THE CHIEF IDOL OF MECCA." [Muhammad: His Life Based on the Earliest Sources, Inner Traditions International, LTD. One Park Street, Rochestor Vermont 05767, 1983, p. 5].

And this Hubel or Allah the Moon god is indicated to be known by others as the Biblically condemned god, 'Baal.' Commenting on 'Abd al-Muttalib's rediscovery of the well of Zamzam and its treasures, Lings writes:
"... So 'Abd al-Muttalib continued to dig without any actual move being made to stop him; and some of the people were already leaving the sanctuary when suddenly he struck the well's stone covering and uttered a cry of thanksgiving to God. The crowd reassembled and increased; and when he began to dig out the treasure which Jurhum had buried there, everyone claimed the right to share in it. 'Abd al-Muttalib agreed that lots should be cast for each object, as to whether it should be kept in the sanctuary or go to him personally or be divided amongst the tribe. This had become the recognised way of deciding an issue of doubt, and it was done by means of divining arrows inside the Ka'bah, in front of THE MOABITE IDOL HUBAL ..." (Lings, p. 11; bold and capital emphasis ours)
'Amr then asked them to give him an idol he could take to Arab lands where it could be worshipped, and they gave him one named Hubal. This he brought to Mecca and set on a pedestal and ordered the people to worship and venerate it. (The Life of the Prophet Muhammad (Al-Sira al-Nabawiyya), Volume I, translated by professor Trevor Le Gassick, reviewed by Dr. Ahmed Fareed" [Garnet Publishing Limited, 8 Southern Court, south Street Reading RG1 4QS, UK; The Center for Muslim Contribution to Civilization, 1998], p. 42]

In the Collier's CD-ROM Encyclopedia, we find the following information on Baal:
"Referred to as Aliyan (I Prevail), Baal triumphed over the champions he encountered in battle. He came to be distinguished by the name of the locality in which he was adored and by the special character or function attributed to him. Every major aspect of religious life could, moreover, develop the cult of its own Baal. In general, he was credited with being the male author of fertility in soil and flock, and offerings in kind were presented to him at proper festivals." [source - Collier's CD-ROM Encyclopedia]

This Baal was considered in earliest times to be the supreme god of the people we now know as Arabs, and cultures usually always maintain there supreme god even though he/she may change his form or even name. Therefore, this is a very strong indicator that in all probability he evolved into Hubal al'iah who later evolved into Allah, but always remaining the supreme god of the people of the area.

"Archaeological, linguistic, and non-Arabic data support the view that there were among the Arabs, long before the emergence of Islam, worshipers of a supreme god known as Allah...leaves little doubt that the Meccans, despite their idolatry, recognized that Allah was Creator and Supreme Provider...Allah was recognized as a High God to whom the inhabitants of the desert and the townsfolk turned in all great difficulties. Two pagan bards, Nabighah and Labid, used the name "Allâh" in connection with the Supreme Deity, while the so-called Hanifs, in their search for an acceptable religion, rejected polytheism and sought freedom from sin by appeal to the will of Allah." [source - Collier's CD-ROM Encyclopedia].

Notes: As can be readily seen from the foregoing, it is very likely that Baal evolved into Allah in progressive steps which are indicated to be as follows,

Baal evolved into Hubal al'iah and Hubal al'iah into Allah the middle eastern Moon god.

How so, the Meccans at the time were pagan heathens and worshipped this heathen god from time im-memorable in his various evolutionary forms. Of course this is the way heathen beliefs usually progress, but let's look once more at Allah as the modern Moon god.

Dr. W. Montgomery Watt, who was Professor of Arabic and Islamic Studies at Edinburgh University and Visiting Professor of Islamic studies at College de France, Georgetown University, and the University of Toronto, has done extensive work on the pre-Islamic concept of Allah. He concludes:

"In recent years I have become increasingly convinced that for an adequate understanding of the career of Muhammad and the origins of Islam great importance must be attached to the existence in Mecca of belief in Allah as a "high god." In a sense this is a form of paganism, but it is so different from paganism as commonly understood that it deserves separate treatment" [William Montgomery Watt, Muhammad's Mecca, p. vii. Also see his article, "Belief in a High God in Pre-Islamic Mecca", Journal of Semitic Studies, Vol. 16, 1971, pp. 35-40].

Caesar Farah in his book on Islam concludes his discussion of the pre-Islamic meaning of Allah by saying:

"There is no reason, therefore, to accept the idea that Allah passed to the Muslims from the Christians and Jews" [Islam: Beliefs and Observations, New York, Barrons, 1987, p. 28].

According to Middle East scholar E.M. Wherry, whose translation of the Quran is still used today, in pre-Islamic times Allah-worship, as well as the worship of Ba-al, were both astral religions in that they involved the worship of the sun, the moon, and the stars [A Comprehensive Commentary on the Quran, Osnabruck: Otto Zeller Verlag, 1973, p. 36].

But one part time Bible scholar pointed out in simple terms that there is no way that "Allah," could be the same as the true God (YHWH) of Abraham, Isaac, Ishmael, and Jacob, creator of all there is, as follows:

1) If Allah is a proper name, then he could not be the same god (obviously)[as "YHWH" of the Bible], there is only one name declared as the universal name for all generations, and forever. (YHVH or YHWH)

2) If Allah is only a word for god in Arabic, then why did he never reveal that his name is YHWH [in the Quran]? There are many terms used in the Bible that refer to YHWH's attributes, but from the Scriptural standpoint, there is only one proper name, YHWH. Yet, in Muslim tradition, there are 99 Names for Allah. Thus, these two could not be the same.


THE JEWISH RELIGION:

"Judaism, Tanakh, The sacred scriptures of Judaism are comprised of the Tanakh, a Hebrew acronym that stands for Torah (Law or Teachings), Nevi'im (Prophets), and Ketuvim (Writings). These are complemented by and supplemented with various originally oral traditions: Midrash, the Mishnah, the Talmud, and collected rabbinical writings. The Hebrew text of the Tanakh, and the Torah in particular, is considered holy, down to the last letter: transcribing is done with painstaking care. An error in a single letter, ornamentation or symbol of the over 300,000 stylized letters which make up the Hebrew Torah text renders a Torah scroll unfit for use, hence a Torah scribe is a specialist skill and takes considerable time to write and check."[reference - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia]

"Judaism has seldom, if ever, been monolithic in practice (although it has always been monotheistic in theology), and differs from many religions in that its central authority is not vested in any person or group but rather in its writings and traditions. Despite this, Judaism in all its variations has remained tightly bound to a number of religious principles, the most important of which is the belief that there is a single, omniscient, omnipotent, omnibenevolent, transcendent God, who created the universe and continues to be involved in its governance. According to traditional Jewish belief, the God who created the world established a covenant with the Jewish people, and revealed his laws and commandments to them in the form of the Torah. The practice of Judaism is devoted to the study and observance of these laws and commandments, as written in the Torah and expounded in the Talmud. As of 2006, adherents of Judaism numbered around 14 million followers,[1] making it the world's eleventh-largest organized religion." ."[source - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia]

"The Tanakh is largely an account of the Israelites' relationship with God as reflected in their earliest history until the building of the Second Temple (c. 350 BCE). This relationship is often portrayed as contentious, as Hebrews struggle between their faith in God and their attraction for other gods, and as some Hebrews, such as Abraham (most notably and directly); Jacob, the father of all Israelites - later known as Israel; and Moses struggle with God.

According to Orthodox Judaism and most religious Jews, the Biblical patriarch Abraham was the first Hebrew. Rabbinic literature records that he was the first since the generation of Noah to publicly reject idolatry and preach monotheism. As a result, God promised him many children: "Look now toward heaven and count the stars/So shall be your progeny." (Genesis 15:5) Abraham's first child was Ishmael and his second son was Isaac, whom God said would continue Abraham's work and inherit the Land of Israel (then called Canaan), after having been exiled and redeemed. God sent the patriarch Jacob and his children to Egypt, where after many generations they became enslaved. God later commanded Moses to redeem the Israelites from slavery triggering the Exodus from Egypt, when God led the Israelites to Mount Sinai in 1313 BCE (Jewish Year 2448) and gave them the Torah, summarized in the five books of Moses: Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, and Deuteronomy. These books, together with Nevi'im and Ketuvim are known as Torah SheB'Ksav: literally the "Written Torah", in contradistinction to the Oral Torah. Eventually, God led them to the land of Israel.
God designated the descendants of Aaron, Moses' brother, to be a priestly class within the Israelite community. They first officiated in the tabernacle (a portable house of worship), and later their descendants were in charge of worship in the Temple in Jerusalem.

Once the Israelites had settled in the land of Israel, the tabernacle was planted in the city of Shiloh for over 300 years during which time God provided great men, and occasionally women, to rally the nation against attacking enemies, some of which were sent by God as a punishment for the sins of the people. This is described in the Book of Joshua and the Book of Judges. As time went on, the spiritual level of the nation declined to the point that God allowed the Philistines to capture the tabernacle in Shiloh.

The people of Israel then told Samuel the prophet that they had reached the point where they needed to be governed by a permanent king, as were other nations, as described in the Books of Samuel. Samuel grudgingly acceded to this request and appointed Saul, a great but very humble man, to be their King. When the people pressured Saul into going against a command conveyed to him by Samuel, God told Samuel to appoint David in his stead.

Once King David was established, he told the prophet Nathan that he would like to build a permanent temple, and as a reward for his actions, God promised David that he would allow his son to build the temple and the throne would never depart from his children (David himself was not allowed to build the temple because he had been involved in many wars, making it inappropriate for him to build a temple representing peace). As a result, it was David's son Solomon who built the first permanent temple according to God's will, in Jerusalem, as described in the Books of Kings.

The Western Wall in Jerusalem is a remnant of the Second Temple. The Temple Mount is the holiest site in Judaism.

After Solomon's death, his Kingdom was split into the two kingdoms of Israel and Judah. After several hundred years, because of rampant idolatry, God allowed Assyria to conquer Israel and exile its people. The southern Kingdom of Judah, whose capital was Jerusalem, home of the Temple, remained under the rule of the House of David, however, as in the north, idolatry increased to the point that God allowed Babylonia to conquer the Kingdom, destroy the Temple which had stood for 410 years, and exile its people to Babylonia, with the promise that they would be redeemed after seventy years. These events are recorded in the Book of Isaiah and the Book of Jeremiah.

After seventy years the Judahites were allowed back into Judaea under the leadership of Ezra, and the Temple was rebuilt, as recorded in the Book of Ezra and the Book of Nehemiah. The Second Temple stood for 420 years, after which it was destroyed by the Roman general (later emperor) Titus. The Israelite temple is to remain in ruins until a descendant of David arises to restore the glory of Israel and rebuild the Temple in Jerusalem.

Rabbinic tradition holds that the details and interpretation of the law, which are called the Oral Torah or oral law, were originally an unwritten tradition based upon what God told Moses on Mount Sinai. However, as the persecutions of the Jews increased and the details were in danger of being forgotten, these oral laws were recorded by Rabbi Judah HaNasi (Rabbi Judah the Prince) in the Mishnah, redacted circa 200 CE. The Talmud was a compilation of both the Mishnah and the Gemara (Aramaic for the word Tradition), rabbinic commentaries redacted over the next three centuries. The process of "Gemara" took place in the two major centers of Jewish scholarship, Palestine and Babylonia. Correspondingly, two bodies of analysis developed, and two works of Talmud were created. The older compilation is called the Jerusalem Talmud. It was compiled sometime during the fourth century in Israel. The Babylonian Talmud was compiled from discussions in the houses of study by the scholars Ravina I, Ravina II, and Rav Ashi by 500 C.E., although it continued to be edited later.

Common editions of the Talmud today have the Mishnah followed by its associated Gemara commentary. Then, the next Mishnah, often only a few lines or short paragraph, followed by the commentary relevant to that Mishnah which may be pages long, and so on until that particular tractate of Mishnah is completed. There may be many chapters of Mishnah in any given tractate (Ma'sechta in Hebrew). [source - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia]


CHIRITIANITY:

The Christian religion came out of Judaism. When the promised Messiah arrived as recorded in the Book of Matthew, most of the Jews did not accept him. Therefore, since most of the Jews rejected the true God (YHWH) of Abraham, Isaac, Ishmael, and Jacob, creator of all there is, only begotten Son, Jesus (Yeshua), he rejected them. Let's look at proof of his rejection from the inspired word of the true God (YHWH) of Abraham, Issac, Ishmael, Noah, Moses, etc., the creator of all there is. Let's consider the following scriptural proof of this rejection:

Matthew 21:42 Jesus saith unto them, Did ye never read in the scriptures, The stone which the builders rejected, the same is become the head of the corner: this is the Lord's doing, and it is marvellous in our eyes? (Authorized King James Bible; AV)

Mark 8:31 And he began to teach them, that the Son of man must suffer many things, and be rejected of the elders, and of the chief priests, and scribes, and be killed, and after three days rise again. (AV)

Mark 12:10 And have ye not read this scripture; The stone which the builders rejected is become the head of the corner: (AV)

Luke 7:30 But the Pharisees and lawyers rejected the counsel of God against themselves, being not baptized of him. (AV)

Luke 9:22 Saying, The Son of man must suffer many things, and be rejected of the elders and chief priests and scribes, and be slain, and be raised the third day. (AV)

Luke 17:25 But first must he suffer many things, and be rejected of this generation. (AV)

Judaism and Christianity are two closely related Abrahamic religions that in some ways parallel each other and in other ways fundamentally diverge in theology and practice.

The sacred scriptures of most Christian sects are the Old Testament, which is largely the same as the Hebrew Bible, and the New Testament, which comprises four accounts of the life and teachings of Jesus (the Four Gospels, traditionally attributed to his apostles Matthew and John and to Mark the Evangelist and Luke the Evangelist) and several writings by the apostles and early Fathers such as Paul. They are considered to be divinely inspired and together comprise the Christian Bible. Thus Christians consider the fundamental teachings of the Old Testament, in particular the Ten Commandments, as valid, although most reject the Sabbath; however they believe that the coming of Jesus as the messiah and savior of mankind as predicted in the Old Testament, and the fact that Jesus was raised Jewish and became a teacher of Judaism, would shed light on the true relationship between God and mankind - by restoring the emphasis of universal love and compassion the other commandments, by de-emphasizing the more "legalistic" and material precepts of Mosaic Law (such as the dietary constraints and temple rites), since it, the Old Law Covenant has been fulfilled by Jesus (Yeshua), and replaced by the New Covenant of Jesus (Yeshua). Many Christians believe that the link between Old and New Testaments in the Bible means that Judaism has been superseded by Christianity as the "new Israel" - and some hold that Jesus' teachings described Israel not as a geographic place but as an association with God and promise of salvation in heaven.

CLASSIFICATION of Christian groups:

There are two basic classifications of Christians, the false (counterfeit) and the true. "Most religions of the world take a two part single path as they have some good and some bad. However, so called Christianity did NOT follow in the mold of other religions such as the Hindus, Islam, Buddhists, Zoroastrians, etc. Instead, so called Christianity took two different paths. These two paths are as follows:

[1] In 325 AD the greater part of the so called Christian faith went apostate to when the good favor of a pagan emperor, a worshipper of the Unconquered Sun. And this branch of apostate Christians went on to commit many atrocities such as the rape of Goa, the Crusades, the Inquisitions, the burning of individuals at the stake for disagreeing with them including one Bruno for simply saying that the earth revolved around the sun; whereas, they said the sun revolved around the earth.

[2] A second and much smaller group of Christians that remained genuine Christians and did NOT go apostate, but followed in the footsteps of Christ their leader and savior. These did NOT commit any atrocities.

Thus, as can be readily seen, Christianity did not take the same path as most other religions that of having some good and some bad, but instead had a bad large group, and a much smaller good group. The colonial powers, however, brought the bad group to India, Pakistan, the New World [most of South America and North America], and many of the islands of the sea; and they went on committing atrocities in all of these places. This was because the apostate Christians were actually doing Satan the Devils' work per 2 Corinthians 4:4, "In whom the god of this world hath blinded the minds of them which believe not, lest the light of the glorious gospel of Christ, who is the image of God, should shine unto them." (Authorized King James Bible; AV); and John 5:19, "And we know that we are of God, and the whole world lieth in wickedness." (AV).

WRONG OPINION HELD BY MANY:

Due to the wrong actions, atrocities, committed by the first group, the apostate Christians, "[1] In 325 AD the greater part of the so called Christian faith went apostate to when the good favor of a pagan emperor, a worshipper of the Unconquered Sun. And this branch of apostate Christians went on to commit many atrocities such as the rape of Goa, the Crusades, the Inquisitions, the burning of individuals at the stake for disagreeing with them including one Bruno for simply saying that the earth revolved around the sun; whereas, they said the sun revolved around the earth." Many hold wrong opinions of ALL Christians. Why? Because they have generalized the actions and wrongs of the first group and incorrectly applied them to genuine footstep followers of Christ also, the "[2] A second and much smaller group of Christians that remained genuine Christians and did NOT go apostate, but followed in the footsteps of Christ their leader and savior. These did NOT commit any atrocities."

Of course this generalization results in a wrong understanding of Christianity on the part of many. One writer who did NOT understand the crucial difference between these two groups said,

"You use one bunch of Christians to expose the bullsh**t propagated by another bunch of Christians. All of the Christians are more than 50% crap."

Clearly showing he had no comprehension of the two different paths taken by so called Christianity.

Another writer, in this case a Hindu, showed the same lack of comprehension with respect the two different paths taken by so called Christianity and said.

"You just using counterfeit christianity as a tool to dissaccociate yourself from the same christians that commited the most horrendous attrocities, live with it, you all have blood stained on your hands, I admit I am ashamed of what the brahmins, what's dont is done, we are doing what we can to uplift the dalits."

Obviously this individual also does not understand that so called Christianity took two different paths, and is NOT being rational either as he has shown that he can not bear to hear the truth, the facts? Well let's look at the counterfeit side of Christianity and the atrocities they have committed, and maybe individual like these two will start to realize the truth with respect the two different paths so called Christianity took." [source - Discourse on the Two Paths of So Called Christianity - The Genuine and the Counterfeit by Iris the Preacher 2003]

Of course some would take issue with this classification and point to the large groups that exist within Christendom and their fine buildings such as the Roman Catholic Church (RCC), the Lutheran Church, the Methodist, the Church of the East (Orthodox), etc. But they willfully overlook the fact that Jesus (Yeshua) Christ said is genuine (true) followers would be few in number. First let's consider both Luke 13:24 and Matthew 7:13-14 to see this reality, it is in both of these that the road followed by true believers would be narrow and cramped, Luke 13:24, "Strive to enter in at the strait gate: for many, I say unto you, will seek to enter in, and shall not be able." (Authorized King James Bible: AV); And Matthew 7:13-14, "Enter ye in at the strait gate: for wide is the gate, abroad is the way, that leadeth to destruction, and many there be which go in thereat: 14 Because strait is the gate, and narrow is the way, which leadeth unto life, and few there be that find it." (AV); thereby, clearly showing few would be entering the narrow gate "which leadeth unto life." In reality, it will be difficult for even true Christians to enter as testified to at 1 Peter 4:18, "And if the righteous scarcely be saved, where shall the ungodly and the sinner appear." (AV). In order to enter, we must have the right sort of guide, Luke 1:79, "To give light to them that sit in darkness and in the shadow of death, to guide our feet into the way of peace." (AV). Now, if one picks the wrong group, just because it is popular or the so called 'one to belong to in a community' and not because of Bible Truths, there is an important warning given at Matthew 15:14, "Let them alone: they be blind leaders of the blind. And if the blind lead the blind, both shall fall into the ditch." (AV). In fact, being with the wrong group can mean you are NOT having fellowship with the Son of God, Jesus (Yeshua) as testified to at 1 John 1:6, "If we say that we have fellowship with him, and walk in darkness, we lie, and do not [have] the truth." (AV). This danger is made abundantly clear at Luke 12:32 when Jesus (Yeshua) spoke of his true followers as a little flock and not a large one, "Fear not, little flock; for it is your Father's good pleasure to give you the kingdom." (AV). Simply stated, his true followers will be relatively few in number which should cause all sincere individuals to question whether mainstream religion with its vast membership is heading for the narrow gate! Therefore, groups with large numbers could not be the genuine (true) followers of Jesus (Yeshua) Christ or he would in effect become a liar, and he is not that.


NONE ABRAHAMIC RELIGIONS:

There are many none Abrahamic religions. Dharmic religions "are a family of religions that have originated from the Indian subcontinent. They encompass the Vedic religion (now Hinduism), Buddhism, Jainism, and Sikhism. Dharmic religions are one of the three major schools of religion in the world, the others being Abrahamic religions and Taoic religions. The theology and philosophy of Dharmic Religions center on the concept of Dharma, a Sanskrit term for "fixed decree, law, duty", especially in a spiritual sense of "natural law, reality". It is mostly influential across the Indian subcontinent, East Asia and South East Asia with influence felt throughout the world. These Dharmic religions are very closely interrelated." [references - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia]

Taoic religion "is a religion, or religious philosophy, that focuses on the East Asian concept of Tao ("The Way"; pinyin Dao, Korean Do, Japanese To or Do, Vietnamese Ð?o). This forms a large group of religions including Taoism, Confucianism, Shinto, Yiguandao, Chondogyo, Caodaism, Jeung San Do and Chen Tao . Taoic religion as a world religion group is comparable to Abrahamic religion and Dharmic religion. Taoic faiths claim at least 500 million members worldwide.
Ancient Chinese philosophies defined Tao and advocated cultivating De in that Tao. There are ancient schools that have merged into traditions under different names or are no longer active, such as Mohism and many others of the Hundred Schools of Thought, while some such as Taoism persist to the modern day. Taoic religion is usually polytheistic or nontheistic, but henotheistic, monotheistic, pantheistic, panentheistic and agnostic varieties exist, inside and outside of Asia. Taoic religion has Western adherents, though their interpretation may significantly differ from traditional East Asian thought and culture."

CONCLUSION:

All Abrahamic religions can trace their roots to the descendants of Abraham.
Islam, from the descendants of Abraham's son Ishmael who sometime after the passing of Ishmael became worshippers of a celestial Moon god who was called by many names early on, but eventually became called "Allah."
Judism, from the descendants of Abraham's son Isaac with whom the true God (YHWH) of Abraham, Isaac, Ishmael, Jacob, Noah, etc., the creator of all there is, made the "everlasting covenant."
Christianity, from the descendants of Abraham's son Isaac whom the true God (YHWH) of Abraham, Isaac, Ishmael, Jacob, Noah, etc., the creator of all there is, made the "everlasting covenant." Jesus (Yeshua) Christ was born into a Jewish family as testified to at Matthew 1:18-25, "Now the birth of Jesus Christ was on this wise: When as his mother Mary was espoused to Joseph, before they came together, she was found with child of the Holy Ghost. 19 Then Joseph her husband, being a just man, and not willing to make her a publick example, was minded to put her away privily. 20 But while he thought on these things, behold, the angel of the Lord appeared unto him in a dream, saying, Joseph, thou son of David, fear not to take unto thee Mary thy wife: for that which is conceived in her is of the Holy Ghost. 21 And she shall bring forth a son, and thou shalt call his name JESUS: for he shall save his people from their sins. 22 Now all this was done, that it might be fulfilled which was spoken of the Lord by the prophet, saying, 23 Behold, a virgin shall be with child, and shall bring forth a son, and they shall call his name Emmanuel, which being interpreted is, God with us. 24 Then Joseph being raised from sleep did as the angel of the Lord had bidden him, and took unto him his wife: 25 And knew her not till she had brought forth her firstborn son: and he called his name JESUS." (Authorized King James Bible; AV). Also, all of his Apostles were natural born Jews.

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Francis David said it long ago, "Neither the sword of popes...nor the image of death will halt the march of truth. "Francis David, 1579, written on the wall of his prison cell." Read the book, "What Does The Bible Really Teach" and the Bible today, and go to http://www.jw.org!


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