A Digital Book On The False God Allah - The Old Middle Eastern Moon God:

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A Digital Book On The False God Allah - The Old Middle Eastern Moon God:

Post  Admin on Sun Nov 18, 2012 12:00 am

A Digital Book On The False God Allah - The Old Middle Eastern Moon God:

Note: I can be contacted at iris89cheerful@gmail.com

The Contents of the Book:

Part 1 - Who Really Is 'Allah' The Supreme God Of The Makkans [Residents of Ancient Mecca]

Part 2 - The Facts on Allah

Part 3 - The Middle Eastern Moon God

Part 4 - The Family of Allah

Now Part 1:

Who Really Is 'Allah' The Supreme God Of The Makkans [Residents of Ancient Mecca]
INTRODUCTION AND HYPOTHESIS:

The Old Testament specifically denies the Muslim claim that the pre-Islamic Ishmaelites knew and worshiped the true God (YHWH) of Abraham. The data conclusively shows that as the timeline of the centuries unfolded the Ishmaelites forsook the God of their ancestors Abraham and Jacob, Yahweh or Jehovah (YHWH), for the worship of some false god. The false god whom they worshiped as the true God was quite possibly Baal. The data also shows that Hubal was the high god worshiped at Mecca, which is supportted by the view that he was the Allah of pre-Islamic times. He Allah or Hubal was the high god of the Makkans [residents of ancient Mecca]; although, they had many other gods and goddesses such as the daughter celestial goddesses of Allah who was the old middle eastern Moon god.

A great wall supposedly built by Dhul-Qarnayn literally meaning "He of the Two Horns", is a figure mentioned in the Qur'an, the sacred scripture of Islam, where he is described as a great and righteous ruler who built a long wall that keeps Gog and Magog from attacking the people of the West. Moreover, he is regarded by some Muslims as a prophet. The epithet was also familiar among the pre-Islamic Arabs [pagans per the prophet], who applied it to at least three different kings. Now this may seem strange to mention in the introduction, but is important as it clearly shows that Muhammad adopted pagan myths into the Quran as well as using Bible accounts as its framework. Accounts to prove he adopted this pagan myth are sound at the Cave chapter of the Quran at Sura 18:83-98 which will be dealt with shortly.

SURA 18:83-98 [CAVE CHAPTER OF THE QURAN] AND THE DHUL-QARNAYN:

[18.83] And they ask you about Zulqarnain. Say: I will recite to you an account of him.
[18.84] Surely We established him in the land and granted him means of access to every thing.
[18.85] So he followed a course.
[18.86] Until when he reached the place where the sun set, he found it going down into a black sea, and found by it a people. We said: O Zulqarnain! either give them a chastisement or do them a benefit.
[18.87] He said: As to him who is injust, we will chastise him, then shall he be returned to his Lord, and He will chastise him with an exemplary chastisement: And as for him who believes and does good, he shall have goodly reward, and We will speak to him an easy word of Our command.
[18.89] Then he followed (another) course.
[18.90] Until when he reached the land of the rising of the sun, he found it rising on a people to whom We had given no shelter from It;
[18.91] Even so! and We had a full knowledge of what he had.
[18.92] Then he followed (another) course.
[18.93] Until when he reached (a place) between the two mountains, he found on that side of them a people who could hardly understand a word.
[18.94] They said: O Zulqarnain! surely Gog and Magog make mischief in the land. Shall we then pay you a tribute on condition that you should raise a barrier between us and them
[18.95] He said: That in which my Lord has established me is better, therefore you only help me with workers, I will make a fortified barrier between you and them;
[18.96] Bring me blocks of iron; until when he had filled up the space between the two mountain sides, he said: Blow, until when he had made it (as) fire, he said: Bring me molten brass which I may pour over it.
[18.97] So they were not able to scale it nor could they make a hole in it.
[18.98] He said: This is a mercy from my Lord, but when the promise of my Lord comes to pass He will make it level with the ground, and the promise of my Lord is ever true.
[source - The Holy Qur'an, translated by M.H. Shakir and published by Tahrike Tarsile Qur'an, Inc., in 1983.]

Dhul-Qarnayn in the Qur'an.
Main article: Alexander in the Qur'an (Theory)
The story of Dhul-Qarnayn as described in the Qur'an follows very closely some passages of the Alexander Romance, a thoroughly embellished compilation of Alexander the Great's exploits from Hellenistic and early Christian sources which underwent numerous expansions and revisions throughout Antiquity and the Middle Ages. The Alexander Romance was enormously popular in the Hellenistic world, including Jewish communities, among which Alexander had practically gained the status of a folk hero[3]. Some adaptations containing all the elements of the Qur'anic account can be found in early Hellenistic documents, such as the Armenian recension of the Alexander Romance. Actually the main elements of the story (an iron gate constructed by Alexander blocking the passage of Scythian tribes; identification of said Scythians with Gog and Magog) can already be found in Josephus[4][5] and in Saint Jerome, although in fragmented occurrences (see Alexander in the Qur'an for details).

[1]For these reason the widely accepted view is that the (indirect) model for Dhul Qarnayn is Alexander the Great. The majority of medieval Muslim scholars were happy to identify Dhul-Qarnayn as Alexander. However, some Muslim scholars have asserted that the medieval scholars were mistaken and that Dhul-Qarnayn cannot be Alexander.

[2]Cyrus the Great as Dhul Qarnain
Main article: Cyrus the Great in the Qur'an (theory)
Some contemporary Muslim scholars, such as Maududi and Maulana Abul Kalam Azad, have suggested that Dhul-Qarnayn is Cyrus the Great. This theory has been endorsed by Iranian scholars Allameh Tabatabaei [in his Tafsir al-Mizan) and Grand Ayatollah Makarim al-Shirazi (Bargozideh Tafseer-i Nemuneh, Vol 3, p69].

[3]The archaic Dhul-Qarnayn
Some early Islamic commentators stipulated that Dhul-Qarnayn must have been a contemporary of Abraham. Others postulated an Alexander who lived 2000 years before Alexander the Great.

[4]The Arab Dhul-Qarnayn
Two early Arabian kings were known as Dhul-Qarnayn: the northern Arabian king Al-Mundhir al-Akbar ibn Ma' as-Sama' (so called for his two curled locks), and the early South Arabian king Tubba' al-Aqran. South Arabian interpreters of the Qur'an argue that the Qur'anic Dhul-Qarnayn was their king Tubba'. Other supporters of the Yemeni Dhul-Qarnayn theory included (the Persian) Biruni in his Athar al-baqiyah, Asma'i in his Tarikh al-Arab ("History of Arab"), and Sirah of Ibn Hisham, among others.
Others have suggested that Dhul-Qarnayn could be the Egyptian pharoah Narmer , who unified northern and southern Egypt. Among supporters of the Arab Dhul-Qarnayn theory were Mughrizi in his book al-Khutat, and Allama Sayyed Habeddin al-Shahrestani.

[5]The angelic Dhul-Qarnayn
There are scattered references in which Ali ibn Abi Talib gives the epithet Dhul-Qarnayn. Since Dhul-Qarnayn was a righteous ruler, this may simply be a way of praising by Ali. Mughrizi also quotes Mukhtar ibn Abi Ubayd as saying that Ali always referred to Dhul-Qarnayn as "an angel without wings". The 8th century scholar Al-Jahiz, in his (???????), also writes of Dhul-Qarnayn being born to a human mother and angelic father.[source - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia]

Of course this is the same kind of story/legend as that where the Quran took the old middle eastern Moon god, 'Allah,' and tried to blend him, a puppet celestial god of Satan, into the true God (YHWH) of Abraham; to wit, from epithets that were familiar among the pre-Islamic Arabs. Let's look at some facts from history and archaeology on this fact.

It should not come as a surprise that the word "Allah" was not something invented by Muhammad or revealed for the first time in the Quran.

The well-known Middle East scholar H.A.R. Gibb has pointed out that the reason that Muhammad never had to explain who Allah was in the Quran is that his listeners had already heard about Allah long before Muhammad was ever born [source - Mohammedanism: An Historical Survey, New York: Mentor Books, 1955, p.38].

One Muslim I have corresponded with said the following:
<<"You did not see what point I have written in my last post, allow me to explain in a better way. Dhul-Qarnayn may have a meaning but in the Quran it is given as he is a sort of a king or a leader. If you understood what I have said, I have said that the"wall" of Dhul-Qarnayn. We are not talking about names and where it's origin is from, we are talking about the Quran being the truth. If you do not see this then go get more information as we all say; we never stop learning.

ALLAH AS THE SUPREME GOD OF THE ANCINET PAGAN MAKKANS (RESIDENTS OF MECCA):

This section opens with a statement by a learned Muslim testifying to the fact that Allah was the supreme god of the ancient pagan Makkans (Residents of Mecca).

<<"The thing you said that about the Makkans knowing about Allah before Muhammed(S.A.W) is true. From prophet Ibrahim and Ismail to (S.A.W), Allah was was brought as the true God. The Makkans knew that Allah was a god, but they said that He was the supreme god from all the others, they would say that He was beyond the universe so they needed other small gods to transmit their prayers to Him. The Makkans were not angry at Allah but if you have searched the facts and so, they despised Muhammed(S.A.W), because they said that he was spreading the menace and dishonoring their gods. They did not say anything about Allah(S.T), for He was their supreme god and dishonoring it would bring badness over them. So we see that the other prophets before Muhammed(S.A.W) brought the information that Allah was the only true God but then, like every prophet, they listened then betrayed the prophets for their ignorance and changed it like they did to the bible, but the true religion will never fall(Islam). The prophet Muhammed(S.A.W) which had enemies but with the truth in his hands he succeeded on giving all the world the truth to save them from the hell fire, but still a lot of people do not except this as their arrogance is blinding them. You see now that the truth was given to the world, each one of the nations, but they disobeyed it and got punished for it as they didn't pass the test. Prophet Muhammed(S.A.W) brought them(Makkans) a book, he told them to worship only one god, he didn't tell them of how this god looked like and so on. This was a test for them to beleive in the truth as the shaitan will make it look as it is not the truth and everyone knew it that beleiving in something that is in the open, simple, and very understandable and not seeing of how their god looks like would be a challange but would also be rewarded greatly in the here after. Islam is the truth as they(Makkans/disbeleivers) knew that life is a test than you(an educated person) should know better.[source - a Muslim of learning]">>

So now we have established the fact that Allah was the supreme god of the ancient Makkans. Let's look at some of the facts related to the ancient pagan Makkans and their supreme pagan god Allah.

First the basic premise of this writer is false; to wit,
<<"We are not talking about names and where it's origin is from, we are talking about the Quran being the truth. If you do not see this then go get more information as we all say; we never stop learning.">>

Second his admittance that with respect the old middle eastern Moon god, 'Allah,' actually being the supreme god of the none worshippers of the true God (YHWH) of Abraham, the Makkans:
<<"The thing you said that about the Makkans knowing about Allah before Muhammed(S.A.W) is true. From prophet Ibrahim and Ismail to (S.A.W), Allah was was brought as the true God. The Makkans knew that Allah was a god, but they said that He was the supreme god from all the others, they would say that He was beyond the universe so they needed other small gods to transmit their prayers to Him.">>

Dr. Arthur Jeffery, one of the foremost Western Islamic scholars in modern times and professor of Islamic and Middle East Studies at Columbia University, notes:

<<"The name Allah, as the Quran itself is witness, was well known in pre-Islamic Arabia. Indeed, both it and its feminine form, Allat, are found not infrequently among the theophorous names in inscriptions from North Africa">> [Islam: Muhammad, and His Religion, New York: The Liberal Arts Press, 1958, p. 85].

The Encyclopedia of Religion and Ethics, states, <<"The origin of this (Allah) goes back to pre-Muslim times. Allah is not a common name meaning "God" (or a "god"), and the Muslim must use another word or form if he wishes to indicate any other than his own peculiar deity">> [Encyclopedia of Religion and Ethics, I:326, Hastings].

The Encyclopedia of World Mythology and Legend, states, <<"The name Allah goes back before Muhammad">> [source - Encyclopedia of World Mythology and Legend, I:41, Anthony Mercatante, New York, The Facts on File, 1983].

And, <<"The word "Allah" comes from the compound Arabic word, al-ilah. Al is the definite article "the" and ilah is an Arabic word for "god." It is not a foreign word. It is not even the Syriac word for God. It is pure Arabic.">> [There is an interesting discussion of the origins of Allah, in "Arabic Lexicographical Miscellanies" by J. Blau in the Journal of Semitic Studies, Vol. XVII, #2, 1972, pp. 173-190].

And, Neither is Allah a Hebrew or Greek word for God as found in the Bible. Allah is a purely Arabic term used in reference to an Arabian deity.

Hastings' Encyclopedia of Religion and Ethics I:326, T & T Clark, states:
<<"Allah" is a proper name, applicable only to their [Arabs'] peculiar God.">>'
[source - Hastings' Encyclopedia of Religion and Ethics I:326].
According to the Encyclopedia of Religion:

And, <<"Allah" is a pre-Islamic name . . . corresponding to the Babylonian Bel">> [source - Encyclopedia of Religion, I:117 Washington DC, Corpus Pub., 1979].

The Encyclopedia Britannica adds, <<"Allah is found . . . in Arabic inscriptions prior to Islam">> [Encyclopedia Britannica, I:643].

The Encyclopedia of Islam is in agreement and say, <<"The Arabs, before the time of Mohammed, accepted and worshipped, after a fashion, a supreme god called Allah">> [Encyclopedia off Islam, I:302, Leiden: E.J. Brill, 1913, Houtsma].

This same encyclopedia went on to say, <<"Allah was known to the pre-Islamic . . . Arabs; he was one of the Meccan deities">> [Encyclopedia off Islam, I:406, ed. Gibb].

And pre-Islamic poetry attest to this fact, <<"Ilah . . . appears in pre-Islamic poetry . . . By frequency of usage, al-ilah was contracted to Allah, frequently attested to in pre-Islamic poetry">> [Encyclopedia off Islam, III:1093, 1971].

And Dr. Kenneth Cragg, former editor of the very prestigious scholarly journal Muslim World and an outstanding modern Western Islamic scholar, whose works are generally published by Oxford University, comments:

<<"The name Allah is also evident in archeological and literary remains of pre-Islamic Arabia">> [The Call of the Minaret, New York: Oxford University Press, 1956, p. 31].

And the Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia on 02/28/2006), states, <<" Theories on the identity of Dhul-Qarnayn
According to Tafsir Ibn Kathir, a widely used 14th-century commentary on the Qur'an:
"The Quraysh sent An-Nadr bin Al-Harith and `Uqbah bin Abi Mu`it to the Jewish rabbis in Al-Madinah, and told them: `Ask them (the rabbis) about Muhammad, and describe him to them, and tell them what he is saying. They are the people of the first Book, and they have more knowledge of the Prophets than we do.' So they set out and when they reached Al-Madinah, they asked the Jewish rabbis about the Messenger of Allah. They described him to them and told them some of what he had said. They said, `You are the people of the Tawrah and we have come to you so that you can tell us about this companion of ours.' They (the rabbis) said, `Ask him about three things which we will tell you to ask, and if he answers them then he is a Prophet who has been sent (by Allah); if he does not, then he is saying things that are not true, in which case how you will deal with him will be up to you. Ask him about some young men in ancient times, what was their story For theirs is a strange and wondrous tale. Ask him about a man who travelled a great deal and reached the east and the west of the earth. What was his story And ask him about the Ruh (soul or spirit) -- what is it If he tells you about these things, then he is a Prophet, so follow him, but if he does not tell you, then he is a man who is making things up, so deal with him as you see fit.[1]
According to Maududi's conservative 20th-century commentary:
"This Surah was sent down in answer to the three questions which the mushriks of Makkah, in consultation with the people of the Book, had put to the Holy Prophet in order to test him. These were: (1) Who were "the Sleepers of the Cave"? (2) What is the real story of Khidr? and (3) What do you know about Zul-Qarnain? As these three questions and the stories involved concerned the history of the Christians and the Jews, and were unknown in Hijaz, a choice of these was made to test whether the Holy Prophet possessed any source of the knowledge of the hidden and unseen things. Allah, however, not only gave a complete answer to their questions but also employed the three stories to the disadvantage of the opponents of Islam in the conflict that was going on at that time at Makkah between Islam and un-belief.">> [source - the Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia on 02/28/2006]

ACCEPTANCE BY MUHAMMAD OF THE MAKKAH'S SUPREME GOD DID NOT MEAN PEACE WITH THE MAKKAH.

Let's consider the Attack by the Makkans against Muhammad by an impeccable Muslim source.
"The Prophet, after arriving in Madinah, first formed an alliance with the Jews. Next, he approached all the nearby tribes and tried to persuade them to make an alliance or at least enter into a no-war pact. Many did. Thus the small group evicted from Makkah assumed strategic importance.

The Makkans who had earlier planned to kill the Prophet, were now determined to annihilate this nascent community of Islam. Having failed in all other ways they decided on a military solution...
As soon as the Hudaybiyah Treaty was signed, the Prophet sent letters to various neighbouring Arab and non-Arab rulers, including Chosroes of Iran and Heraclitus of the Byzantine Empire. He invited them to Islam, and assured them that he did not covet their kingdoms or riches. They could retain both, but only if they surrendered themselves to serve and worship the One God.

The Quraysh, however, soon broke the Treaty of Hudaybiyah. It was, thus, time to deal with their continuing hostility. The Prophet marched to Makkah, and captured the town. The fall of Makkah witnessed unparalleled acts of mercy forgiveness and generosity. Not a single drop of blood was shed. Everybody who remained indoors was granted security of life and property. The Prophet forgave all who had been his bitterest foes all his life, who had persecuted him and planned to kill him, who had driven him out of Makkah, and who had marched thrice to Madinah to defeat the Muslims.
[source - The Secretary General Mansura, Multan Road, Lahore, Pakistan. Ph: 92-42-7844605-9 Fax: 92-42-5419504]

Also, <<"It had become impossible for the Prophet (peace be upon him) to preach and for the ummah to live securely in Makkah.">> [source - Ministry of Hajj Kingdom of Asudi Arabia]

And, <<"Tawheed al-'Ebaadah (Maintaining The Unity of Worship)
In spite of the wide implications of the first two categories of Tawheed, firm belief in them alone is not sufficient to fulfill the Islamic requirements of Tawheed. Tawheed ar-Ruboobeeyah and Tawheed al-Asmaa was-Sifaat must be accompanied by their complement, Tawheed al-'Ebaadah, in order for Tawheed to be considered complete according to Islaam. This point is substantiated by the fact that Allaah Himself has related in clear terms that the Mushrikoon (idolators) of the Prophet's time confirmed many aspects of the first two forms of Tawheed. In the Qur'aan Allaah tells the Prophet (saws) to say to the pagans:
"Say: 'Who is it that gives you all sustenance from the sky and earth, governs sight and hearing, brings forth life from dead (matter) and death from the living, and plans the affairs of man?' They will all say 'Allaah'."35
"If you asked them who created them, they would surely say, 'Allaah' "36
"If you asked them who brings down water from the sky and with it brings the earth to life after its death? They will most certainly say, 'Allaah'."37

The pagan Makkans all knew that Allaah was their creator, sustainer, their Lord and Master yet that knowledge did not make them Muslims according to God. In fact,">>[source - USC - MSA Compendium of Muslim Text]

WHAT GOD REALLY IS THE MOON GOD ALLAH?

Let's look at the facts from renown historical writings:

"Namely that "Allah" is synonymous with the god Hubal of the pagan Makkans! ... Generally, objects of worship belonged to three genres: metal and wooden" [source - Bismika Alllahuma » Hubal In The Worship of Pre-Islamic Arab ].

And, "At the time of Muhammad, the Ka'abah was OFFICIALLY DEDICATED to the god Hubal, a deity who had been imported into Arabia from the Nabateans in what is now Jordan. But the pre-eminence of the shrine as well as the common belief in Mecca seems to suggest that it may have been dedicated originally to al-Llah, the High God of the Arabs ..." [Karen Armstrong, Muhammad: A Biography of the Prophet [Harper San Francisco; ISBN: 0062508865; Reprint edition, October 1993], pp. 61-62;]

And, "Pre-Islamic Arabia also had its stone deities. They were stone statues of shapeless volcanic or meteoric stones found in the deserts and believed to have been sent by astral deities. The most prominent deities were Hubal, the male god of the Ka'ba, and the three sister goddesses al-Lat, al-Manat, and al-Uzza; Muhammad's tribe, the Quraysh, thought these three goddesses to be the daughters of Allah. Hubal was the chief god of the Ka'ba among 360 other deities. He was a man-like statue whose body was made of red precious stone and whose arms were of solid gold. (George W. Braswell, Jr., Islam Its Prophets, Peoples, Politics and Power" [Broadman & Holman Publishers, Nashville, TN; July, 1996], p. 44]

And, "The name Allah was used as the personal name of the moon god, in addition to other titles that could be given to him.

Allah, the moon god, was married to the sun goddess. Together they produced three goddesses who were called "the daughters of Allah." These three goddesses were called Al-Lat, Al-Uzza, and Manat.

The daughters of Allah, along with Allah and the sun goddess were viewed as 'high" gods. That is, they were viewed as being at the top of the pantheon of Arabian deities.

Along with Allah, however, they worshipped a host of lesser gods and "daughters of Al-lah'" [Encyclopedia of World Mythology and Legend, I:61]".

These female puppet celestial goddess, Al-Lat, Al-Uzza, and Manat, "These were also called 'the Daughters of Allah' and were supposed to intercede before God. When the Apostle of God was sent, God revealed unto him [concerning them] the following:" [source - Al-Tabari, Jami' al-Bay'dn fi Tafsir al-Qur'an, Cairo, 1323-1330, vol. xxvii, pp.34-36. Also F. V. Winnett, "The Daughters of Allah," in The Moslem World, vol. xxx (1940), pp. 113-130.]

And, "In Arabia, the sun god was viewed as a female goddess and the moon as the male god. As has been pointed out by many scholars such as Alfred Guilluame, the moon god was called by various names, one of which was Allah! [Islam: Muhammad, and His Religion, New York: The Liberal Arts Press, 1958,, p. 7].

And, "The word "Allah" comes from the compound Arabic word, al-ilah. Al is the definite article "the" and ilah is an Arabic word for "god." It is not a foreign word. It is not even the Syriac word for God. It is pure Arabic." [source - Arabic Lexicographical Miscellanies" by J. Blau in the Journal of Semitic Studies, Vol. XVII, #2, 1972, pp. 173-190].

Allah was also known as Hubel, ""Among the gods worshiped by the Quraysh, the greatest was Hubal
...
Some additional details on this cleromantic deity, the most powerful of the pagan idols of Mecca, is supplied by the Meccan historian Azraqi ...
Amr ibn Luhayy brought with him (to Mecca) an idol called Hubal from the land of Hit in Mesopotamia. Hubal was one of the Quraysh's greatest idols so he set it up at the well inside the Kab'a and ordered the people to worship it. Thus a man coming back from a journey would visit it and circumambulate the House before going to his family, and would shave his hair before it ... "[Peters, Hajj: The Muslim Pilgrimage to Mecca and the Holy Places [Princeton University Press, NJ, 1994], pp. 24-25]

And, ""Khuza 'ah thus shared the guilt of Jurhum. They were also to blame in other respects: a chieftain of theirs, on his way back from a journey to SYRIA, had asked the MOABITES to give him ONE OF THEIR IDOLS. They gave him HUBAL, which he brought back to the Sanctuary, setting it up within the Ka'bah itself; and it became THE CHIEF IDOL OF MECCA." [Muhammad: His Life Based on the Earliest Sources, Inner Traditions International, LTD. One Park Street, Rochestor Vermont 05767, 1983, p. 5].

And this Hubel or Allah the Moon god is indicated to be known by others as the Biblically condemned god, 'Baal.' Commenting on 'Abd al-Muttalib's rediscovery of the well of Zamzam and its treasures, Lings writes:
"... So 'Abd al-Muttalib continued to dig without any actual move being made to stop him; and some of the people were already leaving the sanctuary when suddenly he struck the well's stone covering and uttered a cry of thanksgiving to God. The crowd reassembled and increased; and when he began to dig out the treasure which Jurhum had buried there, everyone claimed the right to share in it. 'Abd al-Muttalib agreed that lots should be cast for each object, as to whether it should be kept in the sanctuary or go to him personally or be divided amongst the tribe. This had become the recognised way of deciding an issue of doubt, and it was done by means of divining arrows inside the Ka'bah, in front of THE MOABITE IDOL HUBAL ..." (Lings, p. 11; bold and capital emphasis ours)
'Amr then asked them to give him an idol he could take to Arab lands where it could be worshipped, and they gave him one named Hubal. This he brought to Mecca and set on a pedestal and ordered the people to worship and venerate it. (The Life of the Prophet Muhammad (Al-Sira al-Nabawiyya), Volume I, translated by professor Trevor Le Gassick, reviewed by Dr. Ahmed Fareed" [Garnet Publishing Limited, 8 Southern Court, south Street Reading RG1 4QS, UK; The Center for Muslim Contribution to Civilization, 1998], p. 42]

Interestingly, Ibn Kathir shows that the god of Muhammad's family was Hubal, and that his grandfather even prayed to Allah by facing Hubal's idol! Ibn Ishaq stated, "It is claimed that when 'Abd al-Mutallib received such opposition from Quraysh over the digging of zamzam, he vowed that if ten sons were born to him who grew up and protected him, he would sacrifice one of them for God at the ka'ba."

"Eventually he had ten sons grown up whom he knew would give him protection. Their names were al-Harith, al-Zubayr, Hajl, Dirar, al-Muqawwim, Abu Lahab, al-'Abbas, Hamza, Abu Talib, and 'Abd Allah. He assembled them and told them of his vow and asked them to honour his pledge to God, Almighty and All-glorious is He. They obeyed, and asked him what he wanted them to do. He asked each of them to take an arrow, write his name on it and return to him.
"They did so and went with them inside the ka'ba to the site of their god Hubal, where there was the well in which offerings to the ka'ba would be placed. There, near Hubal, were seven arrows which they would use for divining a judgement over some matter of consequence, a question of blood-money, kinship, or the like. They would come to Hubal to seek a resolution, accepting whatever they were ordered to do or to refrain from." [source - The Life of the Prophet Muhammad (Al-Sira al-Nabawiyya), Volume I, translated by professor Trevor Le Gassick, reviewed by Dr. Ahmed Fareed [Garnet Publishing Limited, 8 Southern Court, south Street Reading RG1 4QS, UK; The Center for Muslim Contribution to Civilization, 1998 , pp. 126-127].

"Allah (allah, al-ilah, the god) was the principal, though not the only, deity of Makkah. The name is an ancient one. It occurs in two South Arabic inscriptions, one a Minean found at al-'Ula and the other Sabean, but abounds in the form HLH in the Lihyanite inscriptions of the fifth century B.C. Lihyan, which evidently got the god from Syria, was the first center of the worship of this deity in Arabia. The name occurs as Hallah in the Safa inscriptions five centuries before Islam and also in a pre-Islamic Christian Arabic inscription found in umm-al-Jimal, Syria, and ascribed to the sixth century. The name of Muhammad's father was 'Abd-Allah ('Abdullah, the slave or worshiper of Allah). The esteem in which Allah was held by the pre-Islamic Makkans as the creator and supreme provider and the one to be invoked in time of special peril may be inferred from such koranic passages as 31:24, 31; 6:137, 109; 10:23. Evidently he was the tribal deity of the Quraysh." [Palgrave Macmillan, 2002; ISBN: 0-333-63142-0 paperback], pp. 100-101].

And, "Ibn Kathir noted that Muhammad's family worshiped Hubal, with the Oxford Dictionary of Islam stating that Hubal was the Quraysh's patron deity. If Hitti is correct regarding Allah being the Quraysh's' tribal deity then this provides additional proof that Allah was a name for Hubal. Note the following syllogism:

1. Hubal was the chief deity of the Quraysh.
2. Allah was the chief deity of the Quraysh.
3. Therefore, Hubal was Allah in pre-Islamic times.

There is another indirect piece of evidence which links Allah to Baal. Writer, Franz Rosenthal, while commenting on the mass confusion which surrounded the Muslims regarding the precise meaning of as-samad (Cf. 112:2), posits a possible origin for the word. He says:
... There is enough room for suspicion to permit us having a look at some outside evidence.

There, we encounter a noteworthy phenomenon: the not infrequent religious connotation of the root smd.

In Ugaritic, smd appears as a stick or club that is wielded by Ba'l. In the Kilammu inscription, line 15, we find b'l smd, apparently, b'l as the owner of his divine club. In the Bible, the adherence of the Israelites to Baal of Peor is expressed by the nip'al of the root smd. The verb is translated by the Septuagint heteleuse (Numeri 25:3, 5; Ps. 106:28). The use of the verb doubtlessly reflects North Canaanite religious terminology.

From Arabic sources, we learn that an idol of 'Ad was allegedly called samud, which brings us rather close to the environment of Muhammad
...
In view of this material, the suggestion may be made that as-samad in the Qur'an is a survival of an ancient Northwest Semitic religious term, which may no longer have been understood by Muhammad himself, nor by the old poets (if the sawahid should be genuine). This suggestion would well account for the presence of the article with the word in the Qur'an, and it would especially well account for the hesitation of the commentators vis-a-vis so prominent a passage. Such hesitation is what we would expect if we are dealing with a pagan survival from the early period of the revelation." [What the Koran Really Says: Language, Text, & Commentary, "Some Minor Problems in the Qur'an", edited with translation by Ibn Warraq {Prometheus Books, October, 2002, Hardcover; ISBN: 157392945X}, part 5.2, pp. 336-337]

Let's face it the proper name 'Allah' was much in use in pre-Islamic times and applied to pagan deities, now it is shown that 'Allah' is indicated to be the same as the pagan deity condemned by the Bible, 'Baal.'
"Allah, the paramount deity of pagan Arabia, was the target of worhip in varying degrees of intensity from the southernmost tip of Arabia to the Mediterranean. To the Babylonians he was "Il" (god); to the Canaanites, and later the Israelites, he was "El"; the South Arabians worshiped him as "Ilah," and the Bedouins as "al-Ilah" (the deity). With Muhammad he becomes Allah, God of the Worlds, of all believers, the one and only who admits of no associates or consorts in the worship of Him. Judaic and Christian concepts of God abetted the transformation of Allah from a pagan deity to the God of all monotheists. There is no reason, therefore, to accept the idea that "Allah" passed to the Muslims from Christians and Jews." [Caesar E. Farah, Ph.D., Islam {Barron's Educational Series, 2000, sixth edition paperback} p. 28]

CONCLUSION:

Clearly Islam owes term 'Allah' to the pagan/heathen Arabs. "We have evidence that it entered into numerous personal names in Northern Arabia and among the Nabatians. It occurs among the Arabs of later times, in theophorus names and on its own. Wellhausen also cites pre-Islamic literature where Allah is mentioned as a great deity. We also have the testimony of the Koran itself where He is recognized as a giver of rain, a creator, and so on; the Meccans only crime was to worship other gods beside Him. Eventually, Allah was only applied to the Supreme Deity. "In any case it is an extremely important fact that Muhammad did not find it necessary to introduce an altogether novel deity, but contented himself with ridding the heathen Allah of his companions subjecting him to a kind of dogmatic purification ... Had he not been accustomed from his youth to the idea of Allah as the Supreme God, in particular of Mecca, it may well be doubted whether he would ever have come forward as the preacher of Monotheism." [Ibn Warraq, Why I Am Not A Muslim {Prometheus Books, Amherst NY, 1995}, pp. 39-40, 42]

Ibn Warraq continues on, "Interesting is the name HUBAL (in Arabic and Hebrew script the vowels were not noted). This shows a very suspicious connection to the Hebrew HABAAL (= the Baal). As we all know this was an idol mentioned in the Bible (Num. 25:3, Hosea 9:10, Deut. 4:3, Josh. 22:17 and Ps. 106:28-29). Where was Baal worshipped? In Moab! It was the "god of fertility". Amr ibn Luhaiy brought Hubal from Moab to Arabia.

The name 'Allah' (from 'al-Ilah' - the god or 'al-Liah' = the one worshipped) was well used in pre-Islamic times. It was rather a title than a name and, was used for a diversity of deities. As we shall see later, an idol called Hubal was addressed as Allah. Muhammad's grandfather reportedly prayed to Hubal and addressed him as Allah. The deities al-Lat, al-Uzza and Manat were called "the daughters of Allah" (Surah 53:19). "Allah was viewed, already before Muhammad, as the Lord of the Ka'ba, while, if not surely, but very probably, this sanctuary was devoted to Hubal, whose image was placed inside" (RESTE ARABISCHEN HEIDENTHUMS, p. 221 by J. Wellhausen). "While the rituals performed are still addressed to the respective deities, Allah is seen as the creator, the father and with that the superior Lord. But he is viewed to be too general, neutral and impersonal a Lord" [Ibn Warraq, Why I Am Not A Muslim {Prometheus Books, Amherst NY, 1995}, p. 219].

Therefore, "But the vague notion of Supreme (NOT SOLE) divinity which Allah seems to have connoted in Meccan religion was to BECOME both universal and transcendental; it was to be turned by the Kur'anic preaching, into the affirmation of the living God, the Exalted One." [Encyclopedia of Islam, 1960, p. 406; capital emphasis ours].

Part 2, The Facts on Allah:

The Fact on The Name "Allah"

It should not come as a surprise that the word "Allah" was not something invented by Muhammad or revealed for the first time in the Quran.

The well-known Middle East scholar H.A.R. Gibb has pointed out that the reason that Muhammad never had to explain who Allah was in the Quran is that his listeners had already heard about Allah long before Muhammad was ever born [Mohammedanism: An Historical Survey, New York: Mentor Books, 1955, p.38]

Dr. Arthur Jeffery, one of the foremost Western Islamic scholars in modern times and professor of Islamic and Middle East Studies at Columbia University, notes:

"The name Allah, as the Quran itself is witness, was well known in pre-Islamic Arabia. Indeed, both it and its feminine form, Allat, are found not infrequently among the theophorous names in inscriptions from North Africa" [Islam: Muhammad, and His Religion, New York: The Liberal Arts Press, 1958, p. 85]

The word "Allah" comes from the compound Arabic word, al-ilah. Al is the definite article "the" and ilah is an Arabic word for "god." It is not a foreign word. It is not even the Syriac word for God. It is pure Arabic. (There is an interesting discussion of the origins of Allah, in "Arabic Lexicographical Miscellanies" by J. Blau in the Journal of Semitic Studies, Vol. XVII, #2, 1972, pp. 173-190)[source - Arabic Lexicographical Miscellanies by J. Blau in the Journal of Semitic Studies, Vol. XVII, #2, 1972, pages 173-190]

Neither is Allah a Hebrew or Greek word for God as found in the Bible. Allah is a purely Arabic term used in reference to an Arabian deity. Hastings' Encyclopedia of Religion and Ethics I:326, T & T Clark, states:

'"Allah" is a proper name, applicable only to their [Arabs'] peculiar God. '

According to the Encyclopedia of Religion:

'"Allah" is a pre-Islamic name . . . corresponding to the Babylonian Bel' [Encyclopedia of Religion, I:117 Washington DC, Corpus Pub., 1979]

For those who find it hard to believe that Allah was a pagan name for a peculiar pagan Arabian deity in pre-Islamic times, the following quotations may be helpful:

"Allah is found . . . in Arabic inscriptions prior to Islam" [Encyclopedia Britannica, I:643]

"The Arabs, before the time of Mohammed, accepted and worshipped, after a fashion, a supreme god called Allah" [Encyclopedia off Islam, I:302, Leiden: E.J. Brill, 1913, Houtsma]

"Allah was known to the pre-Islamic . . . Arabs; he was one of the Meccan deities" [Enyclopedia of Islam, I:406, ed. Gibb]

"Ilah . . . appears in pre-Islamic poetry . . . By frequency of usage, al-ilah was contracted to Allah, frequently attested to in pre-Islamic poetry" [Encyclopedia of Islam, III:1093, 1971]

"The name Allah goes back before Muhammad" [Encyclopedia of World Mythology and Legend, I:41, Anthony Mercatante, New York, The Facts on File, 1983]

"The origin of this (Allah) goes back to pre-Muslim times. Allah is not a common name meaning "God" (or a "god"), and the Muslim must use another word or form if he wishes to indicate any other than his own peculiar deity" [Encyclopedia of Religion and Ethics, I:326, Hastings]

To the testimony of the above standard reference works, we add those of such scholars as Henry Preserved Smith of Harvard University who has stated:

"Allah was already known by name to the Arabs" [The Bible and Islam: or, The Influence of the Old and New Testament on the Religion of Mohammed, New York, Charles Scribner's Sons, 1897, p. 102].

Dr. Kenneth Cragg, former editor of the prestigious scholarly journal Muslim World and an outstanding modern Western Islamic scholar, whose works are generally published by Oxford University, comments:

"The name Allah is also evident in archeological and literary remains of pre-Islamic Arabia" [The Call of the Minaret, New York: Oxford University Press, 1956, p. 31].

Dr. W. Montgomery Watt, who was Professor of Arabic and Islamic Studies at Edinburgh University and Visiting Professor of Islamic studies at College de France, Georgetown University, and the University of Toronto, has done extensive work on the pre-Islamic concept of Allah. He concludes:

"In recent years I have become increasingly convinced that for an adequate understanding of the career of Muhammad and the origins of Islam great importance must be attached to the existence in Mecca of belief in Allah as a "high god." In a sense this is a form of paganism, but it is so different from paganism as commonly understood that it deserves separate treatment" [William Montgomery Watt, Muhammad's Mecca, p. vii. Also see his article, "Belief in a High God in Pre-Islamic Mecca", Journal of Semitic Studies, Vol. 16, 1971, pp. 35-40]

Caesar Farah in his book on Islam concludes his discussion of the pre-Islamic meaning of Allah by saying:

"There is no reason, therefore, to accept the idea that Allah passed to the Muslims from the Christians and Jews" [Islam: Beliefs and Observations, New York, Barrons, 1987, p. 28].

According to Middle East scholar E.M. Wherry, whose translation of the Quran is still used today, in pre-Islamic times Allah-worship, as well as the worship of Ba-al, were both astral religions in that they involved the worship of the sun, the moon, and the stars [A Comprehensive Commentary on the Quran, Osnabruck: Otto Zeller Verlag, 1973, p. 36].

Also, I have shown 'Allah' is a proper name for the Moon god, and the title for any god in Arabic is 'Ilah.' The title god in Arabic is 'Ilah,' and not Allah. 'Ilah' is a title; whereas, Allah is a proper name of a specific 'Ilah,' so get a dose of reality. Also, several New Testament Bibles in Arabic the title ' Ar-Rab' means "The Lord" is used.

APPENDIX:

[1]Interestingly, here are the meanings of several important words in Arabic:

Jesus in Arabic is Yesua

Word in Arabic is Kalam

Spirit in Arabic is Ruh

God in Arabic is Ilah

The in Arabic is El

[2] Astral Religions
In Arabia, the sun god was viewed as a female goddess and the moon as the male god. As has been pointed out by many scholars such as Alfred Guilluame, the moon god was called by various names, one of which was Allah! (Islam, p. 7).

The name Allah was used as the personal name of the moon god, in addition to other titles that could be given to him.

Allah, the moon god, was married to the sun goddess. Together they produced three goddesses who were called "the daughters of Allah." These three goddesses were called Al-Lat, Al-Uzza, and Manat.

The daughters of Allah, along with Allah and the sun goddess were viewed as "high" gods. That is, they were viewed as being at the top of the pantheon of Arabian deities.

"Along with Allah, however, they worshipped a host of lesser gods and "daughters of Al-lah" [SOURCE - Encyclopedia of World Mythology and Legend, I:61].

[3] The old middle eastern Moon god who has gone by many names is still well venerated. This is shown by "The Archeology of The Middle East" which states, "The religion of Islam has as its focus of worship a deity by the name of "Allah." The Muslims claim that Allah in pre-Islamic times was the biblical God of the Patriarchs, prophets, and apostles. The issue is thus one of continuity. Was "Allah" the biblical God or a pagan god in Arabia during pre-Islamic times? The Muslim's claim of continuity is essential to their attempt to convert Jews and Christians for if "Allah" is part of the flow of divine revelation in Scripture, then it is the next step in biblical religion. Thus we should all become Muslims. But, on the other hand, if Allah was a pre-Islamic pagan deity, then its core claim is refuted. Religious claims often fall before the results of hard sciences such as archeology. We can endlessly speculate about the past or go and dig it up and see what the evidence reveals. This is the only way to find out the truth concerning the origins of Allah. As we shall see, the hard evidence demonstrates that the god Allah was a pagan deity. In fact, he was the Moon-god who was married to the sun goddess and the stars were his daughters.

Archaeologists have uncovered temples to the Moon-god throughout the Middle East. From the mountains of Turkey to the banks of the Nile, the most wide-spread religion of the ancient world was the worship of the Moon-god. In the first literate civilization, the Sumerians have left us thousands of clay tablets in which they described their religious beliefs. As demonstrated by Sjoberg and Hall, the ancient Sumerians worshipped a Moon-god who was called many different names. The most popular names were Nanna, Suen and Asimbabbar. His symbol was the crescent moon. Given the amount of artifacts concerning the worship of this Moon-god, it is clear that this was the dominant religion in Sumeria. The cult of the Moon-god was the most popular religion throughout ancient Mesopotamia. The Assyrians, Babylonians, and the Akkadians took the word Suen and transformed it into the word Sin as their favorite name for the Moon-god. As Prof. Potts pointed out, "Sin is a name essentially Sumerian in origin which had been borrowed by the Semites." [source - The Archeology of the Middle East]"[additional references - "South Arabia's stellar religion has always been dominated by the Moon-god in various variations" (Berta Segall, The Iconography of Cosmic Kingship, the Art Bulletin, vol.xxxviii, 1956, p.77).; Isaac Rabinowitz, Aramaic Inscriptions of the Fifth Century, JNES, XV, 1956, pp.1-9; Edward Linski, The Goddess Atirat in Ancient Arabia, in Babylon and in Ugarit: Her Relation to the Moon-god and the Sun-goddess, Orientalia Lovaniensia Periodica, 3:101-9; H.J.Drivers, Iconography and Character of the Arab Goddess Allat, found in Études Preliminaries Aux Religions Orientales Dans L'Empire Roman, ed. Maarten J. Verseren, Leiden, Brill, 1978, pp.331-51); Richard Le Baron Bower Jr. and Frank P. Albright, Archaeological Discoveries in South Arabia, Baltimore, John Hopkins University Press, 1958, p.78ff; Ray Cleveland, An Ancient South Arabian Necropolis, Baltimore, John Hopkins University Press, 1965; Nelson Gleuck, Deities and Dolphins, New York, Farrar, Strauss and Giroux, 1965).; Another Aramaic Record of the North Arabian goddess Han'Llat, JNES, XVIII, 1959, pp.154-55.[source - There is Only One True God by Iris the Preacher 2005]

Part 3, The Old Middle Eastern Moon God - Allah:

ANSWERS ON THE MOON GOD ALLAH

One individual asked,
I checked your website, http://www.freewebs.com/iris_the_preacher , and there's this sentence in the page that caught my attention:
"...Also, there is the false moon god Allah to contend with as put forth by Muslims."


FIRST, This individual was in error, as the Arabic word for deity or god is Ilah. Let's look at the facts from an encyclopedia,
?ilah is the Arabic for "deity". It is cognate to Northwest Semitic 'el and Akkadian ilu. The word is from a Proto-Semitic archaic biliteral ?-l meaning "god" (possibly with a wider meaning of "strong"), which was extended to a regular triliteral by the addition of a h (as in Hebrew Eloah). The word is spelled either ??? with an optional diacritic alif to mark the a (as is the case with Allah), or (more rarely) with a full alif, ???? .
The feminine is ?ilahah ????? "goddess", with the article, al-?ilahah ????? according to Lane's 1893 Lexicon referring to the great serpent in particular, "because it was a special object of the worship of some of the ancient Arabs", or the new moon (see also Allat).
In Islamic context, an ilah is the concept of a deity, lord or god and does not necessarily refer to Allah. The term is used throughout the Qur'an in passages detailing the existence of Allah as the only Ilah, and of the beliefs of non-Muslims in other Ilah(s).[source - Wikipedia free Encyclopedia]


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Re: A Digital Book On The False God Allah - The Old Middle Eastern Moon God:

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SECOND, Here is some more enlightenment for you,
[source - The Archeology of the Middle East]"[additional references - "South Arabia's stellar religion has always been dominated by the Moon-god in various variations" (Berta Segall, The Iconography of Cosmic Kingship, the Art Bulletin, vol.xxxviii, 1956, p.77).; Isaac Rabinowitz, Aramaic Inscriptions of the Fifth Century, JNES, XV, 1956, pp.1-9; Edward Linski, The Goddess Atirat in Ancient Arabia, in Babylon and in Ugarit: Her Relation to the Moon-god and the Sun-goddess, Orientalia Lovaniensia Periodica, 3:101-9; H.J.Drivers, Iconography and Character of the Arab Goddess Allat, found in Études Preliminaries Aux Religions Orientales Dans L'Empire Roman, ed. Maarten J. Verseren, Leiden, Brill, 1978, pp.331-51); Richard Le Baron Bower Jr. and Frank P. Albright, Archaeological Discoveries in South Arabia, Baltimore, John Hopkins University Press, 1958, p.78ff; Ray Cleveland, An Ancient South Arabian Necropolis, Baltimore, John Hopkins University Press, 1965; Nelson Gleuck, Deities and Dolphins, New York, Farrar, Strauss and Giroux, 1965).; Another Aramaic Record of the North Arabian goddess Han'Llat, JNES, XVIII, 1959, pp.154-55.

THIRD, Also, you should go read the following of which I am only posting the introduction,
Allah - the Moon God

The Archeology of The Middle East
The religion of Islam has as its focus of worship a deity by the name of "Allah." The Muslims claim that Allah in pre-Islamic times was the biblical God of the Patriarchs, prophets, and apostles. The issue is thus one of continuity. Was "Allah" the biblical God or a pagan god in Arabia during pre-Islamic times? The Muslim's claim of continuity is essential to their attempt to convert Jews and Christians for if "Allah" is part of the flow of divine revelation in Scripture, then it is the next step in biblical religion. Thus we should all become Muslims. But, on the other hand, if Allah was a pre-Islamic pagan deity, then its core claim is refuted. Religious claims often fall before the results of hard sciences such as archeology. We can endlessly speculate about the past or go and dig it up and see what the evidence reveals. This is the only way to find out the truth concerning the origins of Allah. As we shall see, the hard evidence demonstrates that the god Allah was a pagan deity. In fact, he was the Moon-god who was married to the sun goddess and the stars were his daughters. [source - Yeshua Communications Network]
You can read all at:

http://www.biblebelievers.org.au/moongod.htm

FOURTH, You overlook this source which has many links on the subject, but here I will only quote the introduction,
Hubal and Allah the Moon God?

Islam: Truth or Myth? start page

Introduction to basic facts of history:

Moon worship has been practiced in Arabia since 2000 BC. The crescent moon is the most common symbol of this pagan moon worship as far back as 2000 BC.
In Mecca, there was a god named Hubal who was Lord of the Kabah.
This Hubal was a moon god.
One Muslim apologist confessed that the idol of moon god Hubal was placed upon the roof of the Kaba about 400 years before Muhammad. This may in fact be the origin of why the crescent moon is on top of every minaret at the Kaba today and the central symbol of Islam atop of every mosque throughout the world:
About four hundred years before the birth of Muhammad one Amr bin Lahyo ... a descendant of Qahtan and king of Hijaz, had put an idol called Hubal on the roof of the Kaba. This was one of the chief deities of the Quraish before Islam. (Muhammad The Holy Prophet, Hafiz Ghulam Sarwar (Pakistan), p 18-19, Muslim)
The moon god was also referred to as "al-ilah". This is not a proper name of a single specific god, but a generic reference meaning "the god". Each local pagan Arab tribe would refer to their own local tribal pagan god as "al-ilah".
"al-ilah" was later shortened to Allah before Muhammad began promoting his new religion in 610 AD.
There is evidence that Hubal was referred to as "Allah".
When Muhammad came along, he dropped all references to the name "Hubal" but retained the generic "Allah".
Muhammad retained almost all the pagan rituals of the Arabs at the Kaba and redefined them in monotheistic terms.
Regardless of the specifics of the facts, it is clear that Islam is derived from paganism that once worshiped a moon-god.
Although Islam is today a monotheist religion, its roots are in paganism.[source - Brother Andrew]
You can read all at and go also to the links, go to:

http://www.bible.ca/islam/islam-moon-god.htm

FIFTH, One expert of Islam, Starjade, has a lot to say on the celestian Moon god, one of the puppet gods of Satan the Devil and the false prophet at:

http://www.geocities.com/end_of_times/chapterseven.htm

And,

http://www.geocities.com/end_of_times/sura...eighthytwo.html

And,

http://www.geocities.com/end_of_times/surapge1.html

SIXTH, Now here is something else you should read to see the proof of what I stated in my two articles which incidentally were NOT about the Moon god, a puppet celestial god of Satan the Devil, but about the only true God (YHWH) maker of heaven and earth, a point you obviously missed. But since you made the challenge, I am answering it with abundant evidence of the obvious. Now here is an introduction to another important article on the subject,
Was Allah The Moon God of Ancient Arab Pagan?
By Syed Kamran Mirza
Historical evidences, impartial logic, well versed references and all available circumstantial judgments can very well prove that-(a) Allah name of deity was pre-existed much before the arrival of Islam, ( Pre-Islamic Pagan peoples worshipped Allah as their supreme deity (moon-god). Allah's name existed in pre-Islamic Arab. In ancient Arab the Allah was considered to be the supreme God/deity (as Moon-God) and Arab Pagans worshipped Allah before Islam arrived.
Let us examine below some valid questions and answers :
Did the Pagan Arabs in pre-Islamic times worship 360 gods? Yes
Did the pagans Arabs worship the sun, moon and the stars? Yes
Did the Arabs built temples to the Moon-god? Yes
Did different Arab tribes give the Moon-god different names/titles? Yes
What were some of the names/titles? Sin, Hubul, Ilumquh, Al-ilah.
Was the title "al-ilah" (the god) used as the Moon-god? Yes
Was the word "Allah" derived from "al-ilah?" Yes
Was the pagan "Allah" a high god in a pantheon of deities? Yes.
Was he worshipped at the Kabah? Yes.
Was Allah only one of many Meccan gods? Yes
Did they place a statue of Hubul on top of the Kabah? Yes.
At that time was Hubul considered the Moon-god? Yes.
Was the Kabah thus the "house of the Moon-god"? Yes.
Did the name "Allah" eventually replace that of Hubul as the name of the Moon god? Yes.
Did they call the Kabah the "house of Allah"? Yes.
Were al-Lat, al-Uzza and Manat called "the daughters of Allah"? Yes.
Yusuf Ali explains in fn. 5096, pg. 1445, that Lat, Uzza and Manat were known as "the daughters of God [Allah]"
Did the Qur'an at one point tell Muslims to worship al-Lat, al-Uzza and Manat? Yes. In Surah 53:19-20.
Have those verses been "abrogated" out of the present Qur'an? Yes.
What were they called? "The Satanic Verses."[source - Was Allah The Moon God of Ancient Arab Pagan?
By Syed Kamran Mirza ]
Now to read the complete article, go to:

http://www.faithfreedom.org/Articles/skm30804.htm

SEVENTH, Go read, "English - Allah Had No Son" by Jack T. Chick LLC, which is an interesting cartoon that reveals the truth about the Moon god, 'Allah,'. You can view this at:

http://www.chick.com/reading/tracts/0042/0042_01.asp

EIGHTH, And here is another item you should go read and also visit all of the links,
Archaeological photo gallery of the Arabian Moon-God
The names of the moon god in Arabia were Wadd, `Amm, Sin, Il Mukah, Hubal and Allah.
The crescent moon symbol of Islam is a remnant of ancient pagan moon worship.
Now go to:

http://www.bible.ca/islam/islam-photos-moo...archealolgy.htm

NINTH, Go read the following also,
Allah, the moon god of the Kaba:
Islam Truth or Myth? ^ | Brother Andrew
Posted on 12/18/2002 6:24:27 AM PST by robowombat
Allah, the moon god of the Kaba:
Go read the entire article and visit links at:

http://www.freerepublic.com/focus/f-news/808560/posts

TENTH, Go read the following also,
Thoth
(Thot, Thout; Egyptian Djhowtey, Djehuti, Tehuti, Zehuti)
Egyptian moon god. Over time, he developed as a god of wisdom, and came to be associated with magic, music, medicine, astronomy, geometry, surveying, drawing and writing. Thoth was generally depicted in human form with the head of an ibis, wearing a crown consisting of a crescent moon topped by a moon disk. He could also be depicted wholly as an ibis or a baboon. Both the ibis and the baboon were sacred to him. His principal sanctuary was at Hermopolis (Khmunu) in the Nile delta region.
Go read the entire article at,

http://sobek.colorado.edu/LAB/GODS/throth.html

ELEVENTH, Go to,
Information Center
Go look at the many links on the subject of the Moon god at,

http://www.chick.com/information/religions/islam/

TWELTH, Go read,
Thoth, God of the Moon, Magic and Writing...by Caroline Seawright
Go look this article on the subject of the Moon god at,

http://www.thekeep.org/~kunoichi/kunoichi/...ream/thoth.html

THIRTEEN, Go read,
ALLAH - The Moon God

The religion of Islam has as its focus of worship a deity by the name of "Allah." The Muslims claim that Allah in pre-Islamic times was the biblical God of the Patriarchs, prophets, and apostles. The issue is thus one of continuity. Was "Allah" the biblical God or a pagan god in Arabia during pre-Islamic times? The Muslim's claim of continuity is essential to their attempt to convert Jews and Christians for if "Allah" is part of the flow of divine revelation in Scripture, then it is the next step in biblical religion. Thus we should all become Muslims. But, on the other hand, if Allah was a pre-Islamic pagan deity, then its core claim is refuted. Religious claims often fall before the results of hard sciences such as archeology. We can endlessly speculate about the past or go and dig it up and see what the evidence reveals. This is the only way to find out the truth concerning the origins of Allah. As we shall see, the hard evidence demonstrates that the god Allah was a pagan deity. In fact, he was the Moon-god who was married to the sun goddess and the stars were his daughters.
Now look at this article at,

http://www.abrahamic-faith.com/moon-god.html

Sequel to ANSWERS ON THE MOON GOD ALLAH

Now let's look at more facts on the name of the old middle eastern celestial Moon god, "Allah,"
Allah is the name of the only God in Islam. Allah is a pre-Islamic name coming from the compound Arabic word Al-ilah which means the God, which is derived from al (the) ilah (deity). It was formerly the name of the chief god among the numerous idols (360) in the Kaaba in Mecca before Mohammed made them into monotheists. Today a Muslim is one who submits to the God Allah.
Islam means submission to (Allah), but originally it meant that strength which characterized a desert warrior who, even when faced with impossible odds, would fight to the death for his tribe. [source - Dr. M. Baravmann, The Spiritual Background of Early Islam, E. J. Brill, Leiden, 1972]


And,

Many believe the word "Allah" was derived from the mid- eastern word "el" which in Ugaritic, Caananite and Hebrew can mean a true or false God. This is not the case, "The source of this (Allah) goes back to pre-Muslim times. Allah is not a common name meaning "God" (or a "god"), and the Muslim must use another word or form if he wishes to indicate any other than his own peculiar deity." [source - Encyclopedia of Religion and Ethics (ed. Hastings), I:326.]

And,

According to the Encyclopedia of Religion, Allah corresponded to the Babylonian god Baal, and Arabs knew of him long before Mohammed worshipped him as the supreme God. Before Islam the Arabs recognized many gods and goddesses, each tribe had their own deity. There were also nature deities. Allah was the god of the local Quarish tribe, which was Mohammed's tribe before he invented Islam to lead his people out of their polytheism. Allah was then known as the Moon God, who had 3 daughters who were viewed as intercessors for the people into Allah. Their names were Al-at, Al-uzza, and Al-Manat, which were three goddesses; the first two daughters of Allah had names which were feminine forms of Allah. Hubal was the chief God of the Kaaba among the other 360 deities. Hubal was the chief God of the Kaaba among the other 360 deities. Hubal was a statue likeness of a man whose body was made of red precious stones whose arms were made of gold. [source reference - Islam George Braswell Jr.]

And,

"Historians like Vaqqidi have said Allah was actually the chief of the 360 gods being worshipped in Arabia at the time Mohammed rose to prominence. Ibn Al-Kalbi gave 27 names of pre-Islamic deities...Interestingly, not many Muslims want to accept that Allah was already being worshipped at the Ka'ba in Mecca by Arab pagans before Mohammed came. Some Muslims become angry when they are confronted with this fact. But history is not on their side. Pre-Islamic literature has proved this." [source - G. J. O. Moshay, Who Is This Allah? (Dorchester House, Bucks, UK, 1994), pg. 138].

And,

History has shown Mecca and the holy stone al-Kaaba were holy sites for pre-Islamic pagan Arabs. The Kaaba in Mecca was formerly named Beit-Allah meaning House of Allah. We are told it was first built in heaven. This is in contradistinction to what Moses was instructed to build, something overlooked by the Muslims in their reading of the Bible.

The Koran tells us that Mohammed drove the other idols away; he made one God now the only god and he was its messenger. He kept the Kaaba as a holy, sacred place and confirmed that the black stone had the power to take away man's sins. He obligated every believer to make a pilgrimage to the stone at least once in his lifetime. (Sura 22:26-37) No Old Testament saint ever had a pilgrimage to the Kaaba and kissed its black stone despite stories that Abraham and Ishmael restored it.

Mohammed used the name Allah which was formerly the name of a specific idol without ever distinguishing it from the idol the Meccan's were already worshipping. This was a modification of their former worship but never a complete break. He never did say for the people to stop their worship of the wrong Allah, for the right one. It can still be monotheism and not be the God of the Bible
Al-Lat which is a T at the end of the name of Allah, was represented by a square stone whose major sanctuary was in the city of Taif. In the sanctuary was a black stone in the town of Qudayd between Mecca and Medina. She was the goddess of fate, a female counterpart of Allah. Al-uzza was the goddess of east Mecca. It has been said there were human sacrifices made to her and Islamic tradition tells of a story of Mohammed's grandfather almost sacrificing his son the father of Mohammed to her. What prevented this was his seeking counsel from a fortune teller which told him to ransom his son with one hundred camels. Muslims look to this as the will of Allah to bring Mohammed into existence. (Reference Muhammad husain haykal, Hayat mohammed)

"The name Allah, as the Qur'an itself is witness, was well known in pre-Islamic Arabia. Indeed, both it and its feminine form, Allat, are found not infrequently among the theophorous names in inscriptions from North Africa." [source - Arthur Jeffrey, ed., Islam: Muhammad and His Religion (1958), p. 85.)]
.


Part 4, The Mythical Family of The Mythical God Allah:

The Family of Allah:

INTRODUCTION:

As we all know, the family of the true God (YHWH) of Abraham, Issac, Ishmael, Noah, Moses, etc., the creator of all there is, consist of himself; his only begotten Son, Jesus (Yeshua), referred to in the Bible as the Son of God at numerous places. As an example, at Matthew 14:33, "Then they that were in the ship came and worshipped him, saying, Of a truth thou art the Son of God." (Authorized King James Bible; AV). Also, the true God (YHWH) of Abraham, Issac, Ishmael, Noah, Moses, etc., the creator of all there is, family of loyal angels in heaven and his family of loyal followers on earth.

Not only does the true God (YHWH) of Abraham, Issac, Ishmael, Noah, Moses, etc., the creator of all there is, the real God have a family; the mythical god, "Allah" has a family also.

But there has been little said on the family of Allah. In fact, most do not know what was known in ancient Arabia, Allah was the male god and his wife was the female goddess. This is what Professor Guillaume had to say on this couple, <<<" In Arabia, the sun god was viewed as a female goddess and the moon as the male god. As has been pointed out by many scholars such as Alfred Alfred Guilluame, the moon god was called by various names, one of which was Allah!"[source - "Islam", by Professor Guillaume, p. 7].

This couple produced three goddesses, and they were the daughters of Allah and were called, Al-Lat, Al-Uzza, and Manat. This is what the Encyclopedia of World Mythology and Legend had to say on them in brief, <<<" The name Allah was used as the personal name of the moon god, in addition to other titles that could be given to him.

Allah, the moon god, was married to the sun goddess. Together they produced three goddesses who were called "the daughters of Allah." These three goddesses were called Al-Lat, Al-Uzza, and Manat.

The daughters of Allah, along with Allah and the sun goddess were viewed as "high" gods. That is, they were viewed as being at the top of the pantheon of Arabian deities.

"Along with Allah, however, they worshipped a host of lesser gods and "daughters of Al-lah" [source - Encyclopedia of World Mythology and Legend, I:61]>>>.

One writer said this of the family of Allah, <<<" Muslims usually argue that their 'Allah' is the same deity as the Judeo-Christian God. For sincere Jews or Christians, that statement ought to be considered as a profound blasphemy, since it destroys their concept of God. By accepting such a thesis one is admitting Islam as the true religion, above Judaism and Christianity. One has not come across any arguments that can prove that 'Allah' is just another name for the Judeo-Christian God. The Islamic scholar Caesar Farah states: "There is no reason, therefore, accept the idea that Allah passed to the Muslims from the Christians and Jews." (Ceasar Farah, Islam: Beliefs and Observations (New York, 1987), 28.) And as their characters are examined, they seem to be of a completely different nature and reveal contradicting scriptures.

'Allah', in fact, has a genealogy that can be traced through Yemen to Babylon, the mother of all idolatry. In Babylon, paganism began at the time of Nimrod, the alleged builder of the Tower of Babel. After the confusion of languages, Babylonian idolatry spread all over the world. Nimrod had been dei-fied and was known as Baal, Molech,.... and finally, as Allah. The Baal worship was conducted by sacrifices, prostrations and kissing the idol, (See I. Kings 19:18) which was the same type of service conducted at the Kaaba and other places in Arabia. There are also traces of a direct Baal worship among the Arabs: "And God helped him [King Uzziah of Juda] against the Philistines, and against the Arabians that dwelt in Gur-baal, and the Mehunims [probably Mineanites from Yemen]." (II Chron. 26:7) It was common to add Baal's name to the city where he was worshipped and thus it was obviously so in Gur. Inscriptions with Baal's name have been found in Central Arabia at some oasis where Arabian inhabitants had settled. The great scholar William Robertson Smith argues that the most developed cults of Arabia belong not to the pure nomads, but to these agricultural and trading settlements, which the Bedouin visited only as pilgrims, not to pay stated homage to the lord of the land from which they drew their life, but in fulfilment of vows. (William Robertson Smith, The Religion of the Semites. The Fundamental Institutions (London, 1902), 109.)

Concerning the Kaaba, Muslims' holiest place, Ibn Ishaq gives us an example of such fulfilment of vows, when he reports the story of a Jurhum woman who "had been barren and vowed to Allah that if she bore a son she would give him to the Kaaba as a slave to serve it and to look after it." (quoted in; Guillaume, The Life of Muhammad, 49.) In Mesopotamia, and consequently in all the known world, the firstfruits of the crops or cattle were sacrificed to the fertility god. A sacred plot of land was offered to the deity, where he could abide and accept their offerings. In Mecca, the earlier fertility god named Baal was replaced with desert gods, the Aramaic Allah and the Yemenite Hubal.

The ancient world usually worshipped a pantheon of gods, where higher and lesser gods battled for supremacy. All these pantheons had many similarities, for example, always including a relationship between a high male-god and a mothergoddess. Religious beliefs were often a spiritual form or the exaltation of the society the worshippers happened to be a part of. In primitive tribal societies, the family was the integral part which formed the basis of solidarity, wealth, protection and daily support. Thus, a family of deities was the normal state of worship.

In Arabian archaeology a large number of inscriptions on rocks, tablets and walls, have pointed to the worship of a family of four; one male and his three 'daughters' or goddesses. Those three goddesses are sometimes engraved together with Allah, represented by a crescent moon above them. But Allah was the 'Lord of the Kaaba... Lord of Manat, al-Lat, and al-Uzza...and even as 'Lord of Sirius'.'(Peters, Muhammad, 98.) His 'daughters' were his associates, helpers and were themselves worshipped, after the manner of ancient Babylonian customs and symbolised by astronomical symbols".[Source - Islam and Goddess Worship; http://notendur.centrum.is/~snorrigb/fem4.htm]>>>.

Now that we know who his family consisted of, let's look at the details:

DETAILS ON THE MOON GOD "ALLAH" :

Muslims believe that God revealed his final message to humanity through the Islamic prophet Muhammad via the angel Gabriel.[Reference - "Introduction" by Watton (1993)] They consider Muhammad to have been God's final prophet, the "Seal of the Prophets", and the Qur'an to be the revelations he received in his 23 years of preaching.[source - "Qur'an", Encyclopedia of Christianity (2001)] Muslims hold that all of God's messengers since Adam preached the message of Islam - submission to the will of the one God. To Muslims, Islam is the eternal religion, described in the Qur'an as "the primordial nature upon which God created mankind".[References - 19. ^ Qur'an Sura 30:30; and "Islam", Encyclopedia of Religion]. Furthermore, the Qur'an states that the proper name Muslim was given by Abraham.[Reference - Qur'an Sura 22:78; and "Tahrif", Encyclopaedia of Islam Online].

As a historical phenomenon, however, Islam was originated in Arabia in early 7th century.[Reference - "Islam", Encyclopedia of Religion]. Islamic texts depict Judaism and Christianity as prophetic successor traditions to the teachings of Abraham. The Qur'an calls Jews and Christians "People of the Book", and distinguishes them from polytheists. However, Muslims believe that parts of the previously revealed scriptures, the Tawrat (Torah) and the Injil (Gospels), had become distorted as indicated in the Qur'an - either in interpretation, in text, or both.[Reference - "Tahrif", Encyclopaedia of Islam Online]

Islamic belief has six main components - belief in God; his revelations; his angels; his messengers; the "Day of Judgement"; and the divine ecree.[References - Sahih Muslim 1:1; and "Iman", Encyclopaedia of Islam Online]

Allah, God, Islamic concept of God, and Tawhid [no Trinity]. The fundamental concept in Islam is the oneness of God (tawhid): monotheism which is simple and uncompounded, not composed or made up of parts.[Resource - "Tawhid", Britannica Concise Encyclopedia]. The oneness of God is the first of Islam's five pillars, expressed by the Shahadah (testification). By declaring the Shahadah, a Muslim attests to the belief that there are no gods but God, and that Muhammad is God's messenger.[Reference - Griffith (2006), p.248].

In Arabic, God is called Allah. Etymologically, this name is thought to be derived from a contraction of the Arabic words al- (the) and ilah (deity, masculine form) - al-ilah meaning "the God".[Source - "Allah", Encyclopaedia of Islam Online].

The first sura in a Qur'anic manuscript by Hattat Aziz Efendi, says, <<<"The Qur'an is considered by Muslims to be the literal word of God, and is the central religious text of Islam. It has also been called, in English, the Koran and, archaically, the Alcoran. The word Qur'an means "recitation".[Reference - a b c Teece (2003), pp.12,13]. Although the Qur'an is often referred to as a "book", when Muslims speak in the abstract about "the Qur'an", they usually mean the scripture as recited in Arabic rather than the printed work or any translation of it.[Reference - C. Turner (2006), p.42] Muslims believe that the verses of the Qur'an were revealed to Muhammad by God through the Angel Gabriel on numerous occasions between the years 610 and his death on July 6, 632.">>>[Note, much of the above was taken from the Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia].

Now that the general concept of how Islam views "Allah" is hopefully understood, let's proceed with historical details on this mythical celestial god.

Many in Islam claim their god is the same as the true God (YHWH) of Abraham, Isaac, Ishmael, and Jacob, creator of all there is, but this is not true as will be shown:

Origins of the word "Allah," let's look at the facts from renown historical sources:

The well-known Middle East scholar H.A.R. Gibb has pointed out that the reason that Muhammad never had to explain who Allah was in the Quran is that his listeners had already heard about Allah long before Muhammad was ever born [source - (Mohammedanism: An Historical Survey, New York: Mentor Books, 1955, p.38)].

Dr. Arthur Jeffery, one of the foremost Western Islamic scholars in modern times and professor of Islamic and Middle East Studies at Columbia University, notes:

"The name Allah, as the Quran itself is witness, was well known in pre-Islamic Arabia. Indeed, both it and its feminine form, Allat, are found not infrequently among the theophorous names in inscriptions from North Africa" [source - Islam: Muhammad, and His Religion, New York: The Liberal Arts Press, 1958, p. 85].

The word "Allah" comes from the compound Arabic word, al-ilah. Al is the definite article "the" and ilah is an Arabic word for "god." It is not a foreign word. It is not even the Syriac word for God. It is pure Arabic. [source - There is an interesting discussion of the origins of Allah, in "Arabic Lexicographical Miscellanies" by J. Blau in the Journal of Semitic Studies, Vol. XVII, #2, 1972, pp. 173-190].

Neither is Allah a Hebrew or Greek word for God as found in the Bible. Allah is a purely Arabic term used in reference to an Arabian deity. [source - Hastings' Encyclopedia of Religion and Ethics I:326, T & T Clark], states:

'"Allah" is a proper name, applicable only to their [Arabs'] peculiar God. '

According to the Encyclopedia of Religion:

'"Allah" is a pre-Islamic name . . . corresponding to the Babylonian Bel' [source - Encyclopedia of Religion, I:117 Washington DC, Corpus Pub., 1979].

For those who find it hard to believe that Allah was a pagan name for a peculiar pagan Arabian deity in pre-Islamic times, the following quotations may be helpful:

"Allah is found . . . in Arabic inscriptions prior to Islam" [source - Encyclopedia Britannica, I:643].

"The Arabs, before the time of Mohammed, accepted and worshipped, after a fashion, a supreme god called Allah" [Encyclopedia off Islam, I:302, Leiden: E.J. Brill, 1913, Houtsma].

"Allah was known to the pre-Islamic . . . Arabs; he was one of the Meccan deities" [Encyclopedia off Islam, I:406, ed. Gibb).

"Ilah . . . appears in pre-Islamic poetry . . . By frequency of usage, al-ilah was contracted to Allah, frequently attested to in pre-Islamic poetry" (Encyclopedia off Islam, III:1093, 1971].

"The name Allah goes back before Muhammad" [source - Encyclopedia of World Mythology and Legend, I:41, Anthony Mercatante, New York, The Facts on File, 1983].

"The origin of this (Allah) goes back to pre-Muslim times. Allah is not a common name meaning "God" (or a "god"), and the Muslim must use another word or form if he wishes to indicate any other than his own peculiar deity" [source - Encyclopedia of Religion and Ethics, I:326, Hastings].

To the testimony of the above standard reference works, we add those of such scholars as Henry Preserved Smith of Harvard University who has stated:

"Allah was already known by name to the Arabs" [source - The Bible and Islam: or, The Influence of the Old and New Testament on the Religion of Mohammed, New York, Charles Scribner's Sons, 1897, p. 102]

"Ilah is the Arabic for "deity". It is cognate to Northwest Semitic ' and Akkadian ilu. The word is from a Proto-Semitic archaic biliteral meaning "god" (possibly with a wider meaning of "strong"), which was extended to a regular triliteral by the addition of a h (as in Hebrew Eloah). ...[omitted as not English characters] with an optional diacritic alif to mark ...; (as is the case with Allah), or (more rarely) with a full alif...; .The feminine is;hah "goddess", with the article, al...[omitted as not English characters]; according to Lane's 1893 Lexicon referring to the great serpent in particular, "because it was a special object of the worship of some of the ancient Arabs", or the new moon (see also Allat).In Islamic context, an ilah is the concept of a deity, lord or god and does not necessarily refer to Allah. The term is used throughout the Qur'an in passages detailing the existence of Allah as the only Ilah, and of the beliefs of non-Muslims in other Ilah(s)."[source - Wikipedia free Encyclopedia]

[source - The Archeology of the Middle East]"[additional references - "South Arabia's stellar religion has always been dominated by the Moon-god in various variations" (Berta Segall, The Iconography of Cosmic Kingship, the Art Bulletin, vol.xxxviii, 1956, p.77).; Isaac Rabinowitz, Aramaic Inscriptions of the Fifth Century, JNES, XV, 1956, pp.1-9; Edward Linski, The Goddess Atirat in Ancient Arabia, in Babylon and in Ugarit: Her Relation to the Moon-god and the Sun-goddess, Orientalia Lovaniensia Periodica, 3:101-9; H.J.Drivers, Iconography and Character of the Arab Goddess Allat, found in Études Preliminaries Aux Religions Orientales Dans L'Empire Roman, ed. Maarten J. Verseren, Leiden, Brill, 1978, pp.331-51); Richard Le Baron Bower Jr. and Frank P. Albright, Archaeological Discoveries in South Arabia, Baltimore, John Hopkins University Press, 1958, p.78ff; Ray Cleveland, An Ancient South Arabian Necropolis, Baltimore, John Hopkins University Press, 1965; Nelson Gleuck, Deities and Dolphins, New York, Farrar, Strauss and Giroux, 1965).; Another Aramaic Record of the North Arabian goddess Han'Llat, JNES, XVIII, 1959, pp.154-55.]

Allah - the Moon God The Archeology of The Middle EastThe religion of Islam has as its focus of worship a deity by the name of "Allah." The Muslims claim that Allah in pre-Islamic times was the biblical God of the Patriarchs, prophets, and apostles. The issue is thus one of continuity. Was "Allah" the biblical God or a pagan god in Arabia during pre-Islamic times? The Muslim's claim of continuity is essential to their attempt to convert Jews and Christians for if "Allah" is part of the flow of divine revelation in Scripture, then it is the next step in biblical religion. Thus we should all become Muslims. But, on the other hand, if Allah was a pre-Islamic pagan deity, then its core claim is refuted. Religious claims often fall before the results of hard sciences such as archeology. We can endlessly speculate about the past or go and dig it up and see what the evidence reveals. This is the only way to find out the truth concerning the origins of Allah. As we shall see, the hard evidence demonstrates that the god Allah was a pagan deity. In fact, he was the Moon-god who was married to the sun goddess and the stars were his daughters. [source - Yeshua Communications Network]


"Hubal and Allah the Moon God?Islam: Truth or Myth? start page Introduction to basic facts of history:Moon worship has been practiced in Arabia since 2000 BC. The crescent moon is the most common symbol of this pagan moon worship as far back as 2000 BC. In Mecca, there was a god named Hubal who was Lord of the Kabah. This Hubal was a moon god. One Muslim apologist confessed that the idol of moon god Hubal was placed upon the roof of the Kaba about 400 years before Muhammad. This may in fact be the origin of why the crescent moon is on top of every minaret at the Kaba today and the central symbol of Islam atop of every mosque throughout the world: About four hundred years before the birth of Muhammad one Amr bin Lahyo ... a descendant of Qahtan and king of Hijaz, had put an idol called Hubal on the roof of the Kaba. This was one of the chief deities of the Quraish before Islam. (Muhammad The Holy Prophet, Hafiz Ghulam Sarwar (Pakistan), p 18-19, Muslim)The moon god was also referred to as "al-ilah". This is not a proper name of a single specific god, but a generic reference meaning "the god". Each local pagan Arab tribe would refer to their own local tribal pagan god as "al-ilah". "al-ilah" was later shortened to Allah before Muhammad began promoting his new religion in 610 AD. There is evidence that Hubal was referred to as "Allah". When Muhammad came along, he dropped all references to the name "Hubal" but retained the generic "Allah". Muhammad retained almost all the pagan rituals of the Arabs at the Kaba and redefined them in monotheistic terms. Regardless of the specifics of the facts, it is clear that Islam is derived from paganism that once worshiped a moon-god. Although Islam is today a monotheist religion, its roots are in paganism."[source - Brother Andrew]

Was Allah The Moon God of Ancient Arab Pagan? By Syed Kamran Mirza Historical evidences, impartial logic, well versed references and all available circumstantial judgments can very well prove that-(a) Allah name of deity was pre-existed much before the arrival of Islam, ( Pre-Islamic Pagan peoples worshipped Allah as their supreme deity (moon-god). Allah's name existed in pre-Islamic Arab. In ancient Arab the Allah was considered to be the supreme God/deity (as Moon-God) and Arab Pagans worshipped Allah before Islam arrived. Let us examine below some valid questions and answers :Did the Pagan Arabs in pre-Islamic times worship 360 gods? YesDid the pagans Arabs worship the sun, moon and the stars? YesDid the Arabs built temples to the Moon-god? YesDid different Arab tribes give the Moon-god different names/titles? YesWhat were some of the names/titles? Sin, Hubul, Ilumquh, Al-ilah. Was the title "al-ilah" (the god) used as the Moon-god? YesWas the word "Allah" derived from "al-ilah?" YesWas the pagan "Allah" a high god in a pantheon of deities? Yes.Was he worshipped at the Kabah? Yes.Was Allah only one of many Meccan gods? YesDid they place a statue of Hubul on top of the Kabah? Yes.At that time was Hubul considered the Moon-god? Yes.Was the Kabah thus the "house of the Moon-god"? Yes.Did the name "Allah" eventually replace that of Hubul as the name of the Moon god? Yes.Did they call the Kabah the "house of Allah"? Yes.Were al-Lat, al-Uzza and Manat called "the daughters of Allah"? Yes.Yusuf Ali explains in fn. 5096, pg. 1445, that Lat, Uzza and Manat were known as "the daughters of God [Allah]"Did the Qur'an at one point tell Muslims to worship al-Lat, al-Uzza and Manat? Yes. In Surah 53:19-20.Have those verses been "abrogated" out of the present Qur'an? Yes.What were they called? "The Satanic Verses."[source - Was Allah The Moon God of Ancient Arab Pagan? By Syed Kamran Mirza ]

"ALLAH - The Moon GodThe religion of Islam has as its focus of worship a deity by the name of "Allah." The Muslims claim that Allah in pre-Islamic times was the biblical God of the Patriarchs, prophets, and apostles. The issue is thus one of continuity. Was "Allah" the biblical God or a pagan god in Arabia during pre-Islamic times? The Muslim's claim of continuity is essential to their attempt to convert Jews and Christians for if "Allah" is part of the flow of divine revelation in Scripture, then it is the next step in biblical religion. Thus we should all become Muslims. But, on the other hand, if Allah was a pre-Islamic pagan deity, then its core claim is refuted. Religious claims often fall before the results of hard sciences such as archeology. We can endlessly speculate about the past or go and dig it up and see what the evidence reveals. This is the only way to find out the truth concerning the origins of Allah. As we shall see, the hard evidence demonstrates that the god Allah was a pagan deity. In fact, he was the Moon-god who was married to the sun goddess and the stars were his daughters."[source - www.abrahamic-faith.com/moon-god.html ]

"In fact the common symbol used in much of Islam, the Crescent Moon, like in the Green Crescent the Arab equivalent of the Red Cross, as used by the Ottomans, on most Mosques, etc. But here is what history and archaeology shows:

The symbol of the worship of the moon god in Arabian culture and elsewhere throughout the Middle East was the crescent moon.

Archaeologists have dug up numerous statues and hieroglyphic inscriptions in which a crescent moon was seated on top of the head of the deity to symbolize the worship of the moon god. In the same fashion as the sun is pictured above the Egyptian deity.

Now there are strong indicators that the heathen god, Baal, was the god of very early antiquity that actually evolved into the present day Moon god "Allah," by way of an intermediary figure, the god "Hubal al'iah." In fact in his name you can actually see how the name for the pagan Moon god became.

While the moon was generally worshiped as a female deity in the Ancient Near East, the Arabs viewed it as a male deity."[source - The Islamic Invasion by Dr. Robert Morey; Harvest Home Publishers, 1992. ISBN 0-89081-983-1]

"ALLAH...The term is a contraction of the Arabic al-ilah, "the God." Both the idea and the word existed in pre-Islamic Arabian tradition, in which some evidence of a primitive monotheism can also be found. Although they recognized other, lesser gods, the pre-Islamic Arabs recognized Allah as the supreme God."[source - Microsoft(r) Encarta(r) Online Encyclopedia 2000]

"Allah was also known as Hubel, ""Among the gods worshiped by the Quraysh, the greatest was Hubal

...

Some additional details on this cleromantic deity, the most powerful of the pagan idols of Mecca, is supplied by the Meccan historian Azraqi

...

Amr ibn Luhayy brought with him (to Mecca) an idol called Hubal from the land of Hit in Mesopotamia. Hubal was one of the Quraysh's greatest idols so he set it up at the well inside the Kab'a and ordered the people to worship it. Thus a man coming back from a journey would visit it and circumambulate the House before going to his family, and would shave his hair before it ... "[Peters, Hajj: The Muslim Pilgrimage to Mecca and the Holy Places [Princeton University Press, NJ, 1994], pp. 24-25]

""Khuza 'ah thus shared the guilt of Jurhum. They were also to blame in other respects: a chieftain of theirs, on his way back from a journey to SYRIA, had asked the MOABITES to give him ONE OF THEIR IDOLS. They gave him HUBAL, which he brought back to the Sanctuary, setting it up within the Ka'bah itself; and it became THE CHIEF IDOL OF MECCA." [Muhammad: His Life Based on the Earliest Sources, Inner Traditions International, LTD. One Park Street, Rochestor Vermont 05767, 1983, p. 5].

And this Hubel or Allah the Moon god is indicated to be known by others as the Biblically condemned god, 'Baal.' Commenting on 'Abd al-Muttalib's rediscovery of the well of Zamzam and its treasures, Lings writes:

"... So 'Abd al-Muttalib continued to dig without any actual move being made to stop him; and some of the people were already leaving the sanctuary when suddenly he struck the well's stone covering and uttered a cry of thanksgiving to God. The crowd reassembled and increased; and when he began to dig out the treasure which Jurhum had buried there, everyone claimed the right to share in it. 'Abd al-Muttalib agreed that lots should be cast for each object, as to whether it should be kept in the sanctuary or go to him personally or be divided amongst the tribe. This had become the recognised way of deciding an issue of doubt, and it was done by means of divining arrows inside the Ka'bah, in front of THE MOABITE IDOL HUBAL ..." (Lings, p. 11; bold and capital emphasis ours) 'Amr then asked them to give him an idol he could take to Arab lands where it could be worshipped, and they gave him one named Hubal. This he brought to Mecca and set on a pedestal and ordered the people to worship and venerate it. (The Life of the Prophet Muhammad (Al-Sira al-Nabawiyya), Volume I, translated by professor Trevor Le Gassick, reviewed by Dr. Ahmed Fareed" [Garnet Publishing Limited, 8 Southern Court, south Street Reading RG1 4QS, UK; The Center for Muslim Contribution to Civilization, 1998], p. 42]

In the Collier's CD-ROM Encyclopedia, we find the following information on Baal:

"Referred to as Aliyan (I Prevail), Baal triumphed over the champions he encountered in battle. He came to be distinguished by the name of the locality in which he was adored and by the special character or function attributed to him. Every major aspect of religious life could, moreover, develop the cult of its own Baal. In general, he was credited with being the male author of fertility in soil and flock, and offerings in kind were presented to him at proper festivals." [source - Collier's CD-ROM Encyclopedia]

This Baal was considered in earliest times to be the supreme god of the people we now know as Arabs, and cultures usually always maintain there supreme god even though he/she may change his form or even name. Therefore, this is a very strong indicator that in all probability he evolved into Hubal al'iah who later evolved into Allah, but always remaining the supreme god of the people of the area.

"Archaeological, linguistic, and non-Arabic data support the view that there were among the Arabs, long before the emergence of Islam, worshipers of a supreme god known as Allah...leaves little doubt that the Meccans, despite their idolatry, recognized that Allah was Creator and Supreme Provider...Allah was recognized as a High God to whom the inhabitants of the desert and the townsfolk turned in all great difficulties. Two pagan bards, Nabighah and Labid, used the name "Allâh" in connection with the Supreme Deity, while the so-called Hanifs, in their search for an acceptable religion, rejected polytheism and sought freedom from sin by appeal to the will of Allah." [source - Collier's CD-ROM Encyclopedia].

Notes: As can be readily seen from the foregoing, it is very likely that Baal evolved into Allah in progressive steps which are indicated to be as follows,

Baal evolved into Hubal al'iah and Hubal al'iah into Allah the middle eastern Moon god.

How so, the Meccans at the time were pagan heathens and worshipped this heathen god from time im-memorable in his various evolutionary forms. Of course this is the way heathen beliefs usually progress, but let's look once more at Allah as the modern Moon god.

Dr. W. Montgomery Watt, who was Professor of Arabic and Islamic Studies at Edinburgh University and Visiting Professor of Islamic studies at College de France, Georgetown University, and the University of Toronto, has done extensive work on the pre-Islamic concept of Allah. He concludes:

"In recent years I have become increasingly convinced that for an adequate understanding of the career of Muhammad and the origins of Islam great importance must be attached to the existence in Mecca of belief in Allah as a "high god." In a sense this is a form of paganism, but it is so different from paganism as commonly understood that it deserves separate treatment" [William Montgomery Watt, Muhammad's Mecca, p. vii. Also see his article, "Belief in a High God in Pre-Islamic Mecca", Journal of Semitic Studies, Vol. 16, 1971, pp. 35-40].

Caesar Farah in his book on Islam concludes his discussion of the pre-Islamic meaning of Allah by saying:

"There is no reason, therefore, to accept the idea that Allah passed to the Muslims from the Christians and Jews" [Islam: Beliefs and Observations, New York, Barrons, 1987, p. 28].

According to Middle East scholar E.M. Wherry, whose translation of the Quran is still used today, in pre-Islamic times Allah-worship, as well as the worship of Ba-al, were both astral religions in that they involved the worship of the sun, the moon, and the stars [A Comprehensive Commentary on the Quran, Osnabruck: Otto Zeller Verlag, 1973, p. 36].

But one part time Bible scholar pointed out in simple terms that there is no way that "Allah," could be the same as the true God (YHWH) of Abraham, Isaac, Ishmael, and Jacob, creator of all there is, as follows:

1) If Allah is a proper name, then he could not be the same god (obviously)[as "YHWH" of the Bible], there is only one name declared as the universal name for all generations, and forever. (YHVH or YHWH)

2) If Allah is only a word for god in Arabic, then why did he never reveal that his name is YHWH [in the Quran]? There are many terms used in the Bible that refer to YHWH's attributes, but from the Scriptural standpoint, there is only one proper name, YHWH. Yet, in Muslim tradition, there are 99 Names for Allah. Thus, these two could not be the same.

THE FEMALE SUN-GOD WHO WAS ALLAH'S WIFE:

An opening statement, <<<" According to Middle East scholar E.M.Wherry, whose translation of the Koran is still used today, in pre-Islamic times Allah-worship, as well as the worship of Baal, were both astral religions in that they involved the worship of the sun, the moon, and the stars." [Source - A Comprehensive Commentary on the Quran, Osnabrück: Otto Zeller Verlag, 1973, p.36].

Now in ancient Arabia, Allah's wife, the female celestial sun goddess, per Alfred Guilluame,"The sun-god was viewed as a female goddess and the moon god, "Allah," was viewed at the male god." [Reference - Islam, by Alfred Guilluame, p. 7].

<<<"Allah, the moon god, was married to the sun goddess. Together they produced three goddesses who were called 'the daughters of Allah'. These three goddesses were called Al-Lat, Al-Uzza, and Manat.

"The daughters of Allah, along with Allah and the sun goddess were viewed as "high" gods. That is, they were viewed as being at the top of the pantheon of Arabian deities" [Source - Robert Morey, The Islamic Invasion, Eugene, Oregon, Harvest House Publishers, 1977, pp.50-51].
One translator of the Qur'an said, <<<""Long before Muhammad's call, Arabian paganism was showing signs of decay. At the Ka'bah the Meccans worshipped not only Allah, the supreme Semitic God, but also a number of female deities whom they regarded as daughters of Allah. Among these were Al-Lat, Al-Uzza, and Manat, who represented the Sun, Venus, and Fortune respectively." [source - Koran, N.J. Dawood, And a translator of the].

One account involving the female sun-god is as follows, <<<"This 'Carthaginian Astarte' bears also the name of the 'mother of the gods.' When the mother of the Emperor Heliogabalus, Julia Soemias, was elevated to the position of goddess of heaven (and her son to the position of sun-god) she was given the official title 'Mother of the gods, Venus Urania, Queen Juno.' But in Nabataean inscriptions the 'mother of the gods' is also called Allat. Thus we have a right to assume that in Arabic circles Allat corresponded with the great Semitic goddess of motherhood, fertility and heaven, and especially with the form which she assumed in Western Semitic regions. In Taif, where her most important sanctuary was located, she was called simply Al Rabba, 'sovereign,' a title which be-longed also to Ishtar (Belit) and Astarte (Baalat). At the time of Mohammed's appearance Al 'Uzza received the most worship of the three goddesses. The name signifies 'the mighty, the honoured one,' and hence it really has much the same content as Al Rabba. In character too this goddess is very similar to Allat. Only in Northern Arabia does she seem to have retained more definitely her original connection with the planet Venus. Isaac of Antioch relates that the savage Arabs sacrificed boys and girls to the morning star, whom he also calls Al 'Uzza. He also accuses the Syrian ladies of climbing upon the roof at night and praying to the morning star to make their faces radiant Arith beauty. The Arab women do likewise. And yet, Isaac adds ironically, some of them are beautiful and some are ugly, just as are the women of all nations.' The Church Father Nilus relates that the Arabs worshipped the morning star, and on concluding a successful raid gladly sacrificed to it at dawn. Something very precious was used as a sacrifice, preferably a youth in the bloom of adolescence. In Nakhla, a few miles north of Mecca, Al 'Uzza had one of her chief sanctuaries. In the eighth year after the Hegira Mohammed sent the valiant Khalid, who later conquered Syria, with thirty horsemen to destroy this sanctuary. While Khalid was felling the last of the three sacred acacia-trees of the goddess, a naked black woman with flowing hair approached him. Her priest, who was present, cried out: 'Be courageous, Al 'Uzza, and protect thyself!' Khalid shook with terror, but took courage, and with one stroke cleft her head. Then she turned into a black cinder.'" [source - Mohammed: The man and his faith, Tor Andrae, 1936, Translated by Theophil Menzel, 1960, p13-30, Sweedish scholar]>>>.

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Re: A Digital Book On The False God Allah - The Old Middle Eastern Moon God:

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Yusuf Ali: pgs. 1619-1623 "The Forms of Pagan Worship., said, <<<"It will be noticed that the sun and the moon and the five planets got identified with a living deity, god or goddess, with the qualities of its own.

Moon worship was equally popular in various forms...It may be noted that the moon was a male divinity in ancient India; it was also a male divinity in ancient Semitic religion, and the Arabic word for the moon (qamar) is of the masculine gender. On the other hand, the Arabic word for the sun (shama) is of the feminine gender. The pagan Arabs evidently looked upon the sun as a goddess and the moon as a god.

If Wadd and Suwa represented Man and Woman, they might well represent the astral worship of the moon and the sun...

The Pagan deities best known in the Ka'ba and round about Mecca were Lat, Uzza and Manat...They were all female goddesses.

In his explanation of why the Qur'an swears by the moon in Surah 74:32,
"Nay, verily by the Moon," Yusuf Alli comments, "The moon was worshipped as a deity in times of darkness"[source - Yusuf Ali, pgs. 1619-1623 and 5798, pg. 1644].

The other gods mentioned in the Quran are all female deities: Al-Lat, al-Uzza, and Manat, which represented the Sun, the planet Venus, and Fortune, respectively; at Mecca they were regarded as the daughters of Allah...As Allah meant 'the god', so Al-Lat means 'the goddess'."
[Source - Alfred Guilaume, Islam, (Penguin, 1956) pgs. 6-7].

As mentioned previously, Allah (the male Moon god) and the Sun-god (female)had three dauthers and these will be dealt with next.

THE DAUGHTERS OF ALLAH - THE MALE MOON GOD, AND THE FEMALE SUN-GOD:

<<<"As well as worshipping idols and spirits, found in animals, plants, rocks and water, the ancient Arabs believed in several major gods and goddesses whom they considered to hold supreme power over all things. The most famous of these were Al-Lat, Al-Uzza, Manat and Hubal. The first three were thought to be the daughters of Allah(God) and their intercessions on behalf of their worshippers were therefore of great significance.

Hubal was associated with the Semitic god Ba'l and with Adonis or Tammuz, the gods of spring, fertility, agriculture and plenty...Hubal's idol used to stand by the holy well inside the Sacred House. It was made of red sapphire but had a broken arm until the tribe of Quraysh, who considered him one of their major gods, made him a replacement in solid gold.

In addition to the sun, moon and the star Al-Zuhara, the Arabs worshipped the planets Saturn, Mercury, and Jupiter, the stars Sirius and Canopus and the constellations of Orion, Ursa Major and Minor, and the seven Pleiades.

Some stars and planets were given human characters,. According to legend, Al-Dabaran, one of the stars in the Hyades group, fell deeply in love with Al-Thurayya, the fairest of the Pleiades stars. With the approval of the Moon, he asked for her hand in marriage. "[Source - Khairt al-Saeh, Fabled Cities, Princes & Jin from Arab Myths and Legends, (New York: Schocken, 1985), p. 28-30.]>>>.


<<<"Along with Allah, however; they worshipped a host of lesser gods and
"daughters of Allah." [Source - Encyclopedia of World Mythology and Legend, I:61}>>>.

<<<" One of the aspects of goddess worship that has survived in Islam, as well as, for example, in Roman Catholicism, is the rosary. Through the ages the worshippers of goddesses had used the rosary for prayers and it is still in use in the worship of female deities all over the world, for example by Hindus in India. The rosary is connected with fertility worship when the deity's name is repeated over and over again. (Compare to Matthew 6:7-13 and Acts 19:34.) It is called tasbih or subha in Arabic, and simply means 'an object which one praises.' The Muslim rosary is supposed to contain 99 beads, representing the titles of 'Allah', but usually it only has 33 beads, slipped through one's fingers three times. (Compare to the Koran 7:180.) This pagan custom, which is dated to Astarte worship from about 800 BCE, still survives in Islam as well as in many other cults around the world.

Ancient Middle Eastern mythology often pictured the Mother goddess with a son, such as Isis-Horus in Egypt and Astarte-Tammuz in the Fertile Crescent. This mother-son worship was established throughout the world. In China there was the Mother Shingmoo, Hertha in ancient Germany, Nutria in ancient Italy (Etrusca), Indrani in India, Aphrodite in Greece, Venus in Rome, Cybele in Asia Minor and Carthage, Diana in Ephesus, Isis in Egypt etc.. In Hijaz, on the other hand, there was no harvest and thus no worship of fertility gods as such. Its patriarchal society soon changed the ancient mother-son worship to father-daughter worship. Allah was the father, and his daughters were Al-Lat, Manat and al-Uzza.
Al-Lat (Allat)

Al-Lat, the female version of the Aramaic Allah, was the 'Lady of the Temple' at the Semitic Pantheon of Palmyra, frequently mentioned in sources from ancient periods. Her cult was shared by the tribes of Bene Maazin and Bene Nurbel in that city. The former tribe probably provided the guardians or priests for her sanctuary, which was probably established after the Nabatean occupation of Syria, including Damascus, in 85 BCE. (Javier Teixidor, The Pantheon at Palmyra, 55-58.)

Al-Lat was the mother goddess (al-Ilahah), representing the sun. She was the mother figure among the gods and goddesses, the Great Earth Mother of ancient mythology, and the Astarte of the Arabs. Javier Teixidor states:

It is not surprising to find at Palmyra different names for the same deity. Allat ... Astarte ... all conceal one sole goddess, the female deity of heaven in whose cult Arab Palmyrenes as well as members of the western tribes were united. (Ibid, 61.)

She was brought to the Hijaz from Palmyra, probably through Teima. Alfred Guillaume states:

Al-Lat... is mentioned by Herodotus; in old Arabian inscriptions; and in the pre-Islamic poets; and was the great mother goddess who, under various names, was worshipped all over the ancient world. Ta'if, a town near Mecca, was the centre of her worship [in Arabia proper]. (Guillaume, The Life of Muhammad, 24, 38.)

In Ta'if there was a temple dedicated to al-Lat, (Guillaume, Islam, 7.) the city's deity, according to Ibn Ishaq, and she was represented by a square-stone. (Hitti, History of the Arabs, 98 ). The Mother goddess was often repres-ent-ed by a stone, mountain, cave, pillar or rock. Stones are among the oldest symb-ols of Mother worship, as Erich Neumann discussed in detail. (Erich Neumann, The Great Mother (Princeton, 1953/1991), 260.) The Meccans had been on friendly terms with the Ta'ifians, especially since most of their food was bought or grown in Ta'if, and that city was also the main commercial centre in the Hijaz, since it lay on the Yemen-Mesopotamia overland trading route. According to Ibn al-Khalbi:

Al-Lat stood in al-Ta'if and was more recent than Manat. She was a cubic rock beside which a certain Jew used to prepare his barley porridge. Her custody was in the hands of Banu Attab ibn Malik of the Thaqif, who had built an edifice over her.... The Quraysh, as well as all the Arabs, were wont to venerate al-Lat. They used to name their children after her, calling them Zayd al-Lat and Taym al-Lat. (Quoted in Peters, Muhammad, 110).

The Nabateans also venerated Allat as the 'mother of the gods', the same as the Urania of Hellenism. According to Tor Andrae:

Thus we have a right to assume that in Arabic circles Allat correspond-ed with the great Semitic goddess of motherhood, fertility and heaven, and especially with the form which she assumed in Western Semitic reg-ions. In Taif, where her most important sancturay was located, she was called simply Al Rabba, 'sovereign', a title which belonged also to Ishtar (Belit) and Astarte (Baalat). (Tor Andrae, Mohammad. The Man and His Faith (London, 1936), 17.)

When Muhammed conquered Mecca and some of its neighbouring tribes, he turned to Ta'if and its temple of al-Lat. A Muslim poet said about the attack on Ta'if:
Don't help al-Lat for Allah is about to destroy her.
How can one who cannot help herself be helped?
She was burned in black smoke and caught fire.
None fighting before her stones, is an outcast.
When the apostle descends on your land
None of her people will be left when he leaves.
(Guillaume, The Life of Muhammad, 588.)

Allat was the equivalent of Ishtar-Astarte in the mother-father Semitic cult worship. In contrast to the Fertile Crescent region, the Arabs worshipped her as the sun, not the moon which is masculine in Arabia. However, the Semitic cults connected the goddess worship with love, and thus, its absence with the opposite. As Erich Neumann states:
Withdrawal of love can appear as a withdrawal of all the functions constituting the positive side of the elementary character. Thus hunger and thirst may take place of food, cold of warmth, defenselessness of protection, nakedness of shelter and clothing, and distress of contentment.... Consequently, the symbols of exile and desert also belong to the present context. (Neumann, The Great Mother, 67-68.)
Thus, the Arabs were left with the loneliness of the desert and in order to make the best of the situation, the moon-goddess of the fertile lands was transformed into the sun-goddess of the desert. Al-Lat was the Great Mother who fed her children as necessary. But when it came to fortune the Arabs turned to Manat.

Manat

Manat is believed to be the Arabs' original goddess, appearing some time before al-Uzza and al-Lat. Her name appears in the house of Baal in 32 CE, but she originated much earlier among the Arabs. Manat seems to have arrived in Arabia from Palmyra, where she was worshipped along with Baal. She was venerated beside several other deities in a temple called 'the house of the gods,' (Teixidor, The Pantheon of Palmyra 3, 12-18 - The Pagan god, 116.) the Palmyran equivalent of the Kaaba. Manat was the controller of the Arabs' fortunes and the mystery of life and death. She was the chief deity of al-Aus and al-Khazraj and other pagan inhabitants of Yathrib (Medina). It seems that she was represented by a wooden image, which was covered in blood during her worship. (Guillaume, The Life of Muhammad, 38-39, 207.) Manat's sanctuary was in a place near Yathrib where the Aus and Khazraj visited on their way back from their pilgrimages to Mecca. Ibn al-Khalbi states:

The Aus and Khazraj, as well as those Arabs among the people of Yathrib and other places who followed their way of life, were accustomed to go on Hajj and observe the 'standing' at all the appointed places, but not shave their heads [as was customary during the pilgrimage]. At the end of Hajj, however, when they were about to return home, they would set out to the place where Manat stood, shave their heads and stay there for a while. (Quoted in Peters, Muhammad, 110.)

This goddess of fate and time in ancient paganism was revered and worshipped with the same zeal as the Mother figure itself. In Greece Moirai, the goddess of fate, was the daughter of the Night, as well as Moros and Erinyes (compare to al-Lat and al-Uzza). Attributed to the goddess of fate was the sharing of booty, land and labour between clans. She was concerned with birth, marriage and death and, in the relation with men, warfare and raids.

Manat was much revered by the Arabs but her worship was dwindling at the time of Muhammed, probably due to Jewish influence in Medina. This shows how easily the al-Aus and al-Khazraj tribes were willing to abandon their religion in favour of Islam.
Al-Uzza

Some sources say that al-Uzza was brought to Mecca by the Quraysh and enjoined to the already established Kaaba worship, but she probably was a local deity in Mecca since the time of 'Amr ibn Lubayy. In Muhammed's time, al-Uzza was the most important of the Meccan local deities, perhaps save for 'the Lord' Hubal. Her main sanctuary was in a valley called Hurad, just outside Mecca. 'It was complete with a haram and a sacrificial altar.' (Ibid, 110.) Alfred Guillaume states that evidence 'for her worship from the fourth century AD is copious. Tradition states that in his youth Muhammad sacrificed a white sheep to her.' The Arabs offered human sacrifices to al-Uzza and
the blood of the victims was smeared or poured on them while the tribes-men danced round the stone... The devotees licked the blood, or dipped their hands in it, and thus a reciprocal bond held them to one another and the deity to whom the stone belonged. Nilus, a Christian writer, gives a fairly full account of such a sacrifice to Uzza. Though there is no trace of human sacrifices in the Quran, it is clear from the authority just quoted and from early Arab sources that human beings were sacrificed to these gods in Duma and Hira. (Guillaume, Islam, 8-9.)

Ibn Ishaq states that al-Uzza had a slaughter place (ghabghab), where the blood was poured out. An Arab poet said:
Asma' was given as a dowry the head of a little red cow Which a man of the Banu Ghanm had sacrificed He saw blemish in her eye when he led her away To al-Uzza's slaughter-place and divided her into goodly portions.
Muhammed had, according to tradition, sacrificed a sheep to her, and it might very well be that it had been done at Mount Hira, which was now Muhammed's place of devotion to the moon-god Allah and his daughter al-Uzza. It has been stated that the Arabs sacrificed infant boys and girls to the morning star, al-Uzza. (Andrae, Mohammed, 17-18.) Ibn al-Khalbi states:

The Quraysh as well as other Arabs who inhabited Mecca did not give to any of their idols anything similar to their veneration of al-Uzza. The next in order of veneration was Al-Lat and then Manat. (Peters, Muhammad, 111.)

During the armed confrontation between the Meccans and Muhammed at Badr (AH 2), the former carried al-Uzza's banner to battle. Tradition says that Muhammed sent Khalid ibn al-Walid, who later conquered Syria for Islam, to destroy al-Uzza's temple in Nakhla. There, some of the tribes of Quraysh and Kinana, and all the Mudar tribe, used to worship. When the guardian of al-Uzza heard that Khalid was approaching "he hung his sword on her, climbed the mountain on which she stood," and said:

O 'Uzza, make an annihilating attack on Khalid, Throw aside your veil and gird up your train

O 'Uzza, if you do not kill this man Khalid Then bear a swift punishment or become a Christian.

However, according to tradition, Khalid and his army destroyed the al-Uzza idol and returned to Muhammed. (Guillaume, The Life of Muhammad, 565-566.) When these idols had all been destroyed, 'Allah' reigned supreme in the Hijaz. The threefaced Mother Goddess had vanished from the visible sphere, but still lives in Muslim legends according to the 'Satanic verses'.".[Source - Islam and Goddess Worship; http://notendur.centrum.is/~snorrigb/fem4.htm]>>>.

So as can be seen, <<<" Allah, the moon god, was married to the sun goddess. Together they produced three goddesses who were called "the daughters of Allah." These three goddesses were called Al-Lat, Al-Uzza, and Manat.

The daughters of Allah, along with Allah and the sun goddess were viewed as "high" gods. That is, they were viewed as being at the top of the pantheon of Arabian deities.

"Along with Allah, however, they worshipped a host of lesser gods and "daughters of Al-lah" [source - Encyclopedia of World Mythology and Legend, I:61]. [/quote] >>>.
Now let's look at related items.

RELATED ITEMS:

<<<"The Moon was the great divinity of the Arabs. The Sarazens gave her the epithet of Cabar or the Great; her Crescent adorns to this day the religious monuments of the Turks. Her elevation under the sign of the Bull, constituted one of the principal feasts of the Saracens and the sabean Arabs. Each Arab tribe was under the invocation of a constellation Each one worshipped one of the celestial bodies as its tutelar genius.

"The Caabah of the Arabs was before the time of Mahomet, a temple dedicated to the Moon. The black stone which the Musulmans kiss with so much devotion to this day, is, as it is pretended, an ancient statue of Saturnus. The walls of the great mosque of Kufah, built on the foundation of an ancient Pyrea or temple of the fire, are filled with figures of planets artistically engraved. The ancient worship of the Arabs was the Sabismus, a religion universally spread all over the Orient. Heaven and the Stars were the first objects thereof.
"This religion was that of the ancient Chaldeans, and the Orientals pretend that their Ibrahim or Abraham was brought up in that doctrine. There is still to be seen at Hella, over the ruins of the ancient Babylon, a mosque called Mesched Eschams, or the mosque of the Sun. It was in this city, that the ancient temple of Bel, or the Sun, the great Divinity of the Babylonians, existed; it is the same God, to whom the Persians erected temples and consecrated images under the name of Mithras."[source - The Roots of Islam]>>>.

A NOTE, on the tribe into which Muhammad (pbuh) was born. <<<""The Quraysh tribe into which Mohammad was born was particularly devoted to Allah, the moon god, and especially to Allah's three daughters who were viewed as intercessors between the people and Allah.

"The worship of the three goddesses, Al-Lat, Al-Uzza, and Manat, played a significant rôle in the worship at the Kabah in Mecca. The first two daughters of Allah had names which were feminine forms of Allah.

"The literal Arabic name of Muhammad's father was Abd-Allah. His uncle's name was Obied-Allah. These names reveal the personal devotion that Muhammad's pagan family had to the worship of Allah, the moon god" [source - Annonymous]>>>.

<<"The 'Satanic Verses'
The chapter of Muhammed's life the Muslims want to forget most of all is the affair of the 'Satanic verses', made worldfamous by Salman Rushdie's novel by the same name. The setting is Mecca, some years before the hijra, most likely in 619 CE, when Muhammed's protector, Abu Talib, and his wife, Khadija, had both died. The Meccans had become increasingly hostile towards him and ridiculed his mission in every possible way. What was probably worse, they tempted Muhammed by promising him fame and fortune if he would refrain from attacking their deities. Muhammed was unwilling to compromise his mission and declined their offer. Then the next temptation came, as al-Tabari narrates:
'If you will not do so, we offer you one means which will be to your advantage and to ours.' 'What is it?' he [Muhammed] asked. They said: 'You will worship our gods, al-Lat and al-'Uzza, for a year, and we shall worship your god for a year.' 'Let me see what revelation comes to me from my Lord' he replied. Then, the following inspiration came from the Preserved Tablet [the Koran which 'Allah' preserves in heaven]. (W. M. Watt and M. V. McDonald (transl. & annotators), The History of al-Tabari (volume IV: Muhammad at Mecca. New York, 1988), 107.)

The continuation al-Tabari adopted from Ibn Ishaq's narrative which stated:
When the apostle saw that his people turned their backs on him and he was pained by their estrangement from what he brought them from Allah, he longed that there should come to him from Allah a message that would reconcile his people to him. Because of his love for his people and his anxiety over them, it would delight him if the obstacle that made his task so difficult could be removed; so that he meditated on the project and longed for it and it was dear for him. Then Allah sent down 'By the star when it sets your comrades errs not and is not deceived, he speaks not from his own desire.' (Guillaume, The Life of Muhammad, 165.)
Then Muhammed's revelation continued: 'Have you thought upon Al-Lat and al-Uzza and on Manat, the third other? Are yours the males, and His the females?' (The Koran 53:19.) In a patriarchal society it was a shame to have only daughters, as Muhammed had only daughters and was embarrassed for this very reason. Thus 'Allah' would be imperfect due to his inability to procreate sons. Muhammed thus concluded that it would be better for 'Allah' to have no children at all.

Ibn Ishaq stated that Muhammed added: '... these are the exalted Gharaniq whose intercession is approved.' A Gharaniq was thought to be an angelic creature, who could fly at a great height, and thus were exalted above men. Muhammed's acceptance of the three daughters of Allah as being semi-divine delighted the Quraysh who prostrated themselves in the place of prostration (masjid - mosque) along with the Muslims.

When the Quraysh heard that, they rejoiced and were happy and delighted at the way in which he spoke of their gods, and they listened to him, while the Muslims, having complete trust in their Prophet in respect of the messages which he brought from God, did not suspect him of error, illusion or mistake. When he came to the prostration, having completed the Surah, he prostrated himself, the Muslims did likewise, following their Prophet, trusting in the message which he had brought and following his example. Those polytheists of the Quraysh and others who were in the mosque likewise prostrated themselves because of the reference to their gods which they had heard, so that there was no one in the mosque, believer or unbeliever, who did not prostrate himself. (Watt & McDonald, The History of al-Tabari, 108-109.)

Alfred Guillaume stated that all "of these interpolated words meant that the divine or semi-divine beings were inter-cessors with Allah, an office which in Islam is accorded only to Muhammad himself." The words Muhammed uttered, and were later deleted from the canonised version of the Koran, were a chant the Meccans used when they walked around the Black Stone. (Guillaume, Islam, 36.) Muhammed had now made serious compromises with paganism. And just as Catholicism solved this problem, Muhammad found only one solution, incorporate those competitors and everybody would be happy: the pagans for being able to indirectly worship their deities, and Islam (as Catholicism) by merging with paganism.

According to Muslim tradition, the Quraysh agreed to embrace Islam when those concessions had been made. Also, the Muslims who had earlier fled to Abyssinia, now returned and among them was Uthman, who later became a caliph. However, Muhammed then denied his previous revelation, which he said was nothing but 'Satanic verses.' The conversion of the Quraysh was thus withdrawn and this manoeuvre only strengthened the Meccan opposition. If this legend is true, which Muslims generally admit, we cannot be certain the rest of the Koran was not similarly inspired by Satan. It seems reasonable to assume that the 'whisperer' was the same in this case as in all others. One of the best established hadiths is the following speech from 'Allah' to Muhammed:
My servant [Muhammed] approaches me steadily through voluntary works of piety, until I come to love him; and when I love him I am his eye, his ear, his tongue, his foot, his hand. He sees through me, he hears through me, he speaks through me, he moves and feels through me. (Goldziher, Introduction, 42-43.)

If 'Allah' spoke and did everything through Muhammed, and vice versa, it is no wonder these 'Satanic verses' embarrass Muslims to this day. However, Muhammed found an escape route through another 'revelation'. He stated:

Never have we sent a single prophet or apostle before you with whose wishes Satan did not tamper. But Allah abrogates the interjections of Satan and confirms His own revelations. Allah is all-knowing and wise. (The Koran 22:52. (N. J. Dawood - with a replacement of Allah for God)).

Since we know that some verses contradict, or abrogate, others, we must conclude that several koranic passages were Satanic inspirations, which other verses have abrogated. If not, this verse is incorrect. But how could Satan manipulate Muhammed at almost any time, and utter koranic revelation through him at his will? Wherever the occult powers override true worship, the force behind the occult and New Age always marks its territory through images. Even the Islamic Crescent bears the mark of its founder, Mystery Babylon paganism.

The Egyptians, Persians, Greeks, Romans, Hindus and American Indians, like the Babylonians, all believed that their gods were just representations of the one god. The ancient people, shortly after the flood, had a knowledge of the True God of Noah, Shem, and Abraham. But the worship of the True God of Noah, Shem, and Abraham soon became perverted into idolatry by the larger population when Nimrod tried to unite the whole world into a One World Government. Just as the ancients believed their various gods to be different expressions of the Only god, so did Muhammed, when he united the 360 gods at Mecca into just one god, Allah. .".[Source - Islam and Goddess Worship; http://notendur.centrum.is/~snorrigb/fem4.htm]

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