Almighty God’s (YHWH) Great Gift to Mankind, The Rare Fruit Trees and Herbs

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Re: Almighty God’s (YHWH) Great Gift to Mankind, The Rare Fruit Trees and Herbs

Post  Admin on Thu Sep 05, 2013 10:33 am

Hi Everyone:

Here is a Commentary on Bountiful Trees and Vegetables God (YHWH) has provided for mankind, specifically the Cape Gooseberry, physalis peruviana L., Physalis edulis Sims

The genus Physalis, of the family Solanaceae, includes annual and perennial herbs bearing globular fruits, each enclosed in a bladderlike husk which becomes papery on maturity. Of the more than 70 species, only a very few are of economic value. One is the strawberry tomato, husk tomato or ground cherry, P. Pruinosa L., grown for its small yellow fruits used for sauce, pies and preserves in mild-temperate climates. Though more popular with former generations than at present, it is still offered by seedsmen. Various species of Physalis have been subject to much confusion in literature and in the trade. A species which bears a superior fruit and has become widely known is the cape gooseberry, P. Peruviana L. (P. edulis Sims). It has many colloquial names in Latin America: capuli, aguaymanto, tomate sylvestre, or uchuba, in Peru; capuli or motojobobo embolsado in Bolivia; uvilla in Ecuador; uvilla, uchuva, vejigón or guchavo in Colombia; topotopo, or chuchuva in Venezuela; capuli, amor en bolsa, or bolsa de amor, in Chile; cereza del Peru in Mexico. It is called cape gooseberry, golden berry, pompelmoes or apelliefie in South Africa; alkekengi or coqueret in Gabon; lobolobohan in the Philippines; teparee, tiparee, makowi, etc., in India; cape gooseberry or poha in Hawaii.


Fig. 114: The golden cape gooseberry (Physalis peruviana) keeps well and makes excellent preserves. The canned fruits have been exported from South Africa and the jam from England.

Description.

This herbaceous or soft-wooded, perennial plant usually reaches 2 to 3 ft (1.6-0.9 m) in height but occasionally may attain 6 ft (1.Cool m. It has ribbed, often purplish, spreading branches, and nearly opposite, velvety, heart-shaped, pointed, randomly-toothed leaves 2 3/8 to 6 in (6-15 cm) long and 1 1/2 to 4 in (4-10 cm) wide, and, in the leaf axils, bell-shaped, nodding flowers to 3/4 in (2 cm) wide, yellow with 5 dark purple-brown spots in the throat, and cupped by a purplish-green, hairy, 5-pointed calyx. After the flower falls, the calyx expands, ultimately forming a straw-colored husk much larger than the fruit it encloses. The berry is globose, 1/2 to 3/4 in (1.25-2 cm) wide, with smooth, glossy, orange-yellow skin and juicy pulp containing numerous very small yellowish seeds. When fully ripe, the fruit is sweet but with a pleasing grape-like tang. The husk is bitter and inedible.

Origin and Distribution
Reportedly native to Peru and Chile, where the fruits are casually eaten and occasionally sold in markets but the plant is still not an important crop, it has been widely introduced into cultivation in other tropical, subtropical and even temperate areas. It is said to succeed wherever tomatoes can be grown. The plant was grown by early settlers at the Cape of Good Hope before 1807. In South Africa it is commercially cultivated and common as an escape and the jam and canned whole fruits are staple commodities, often exported. It is cultivated and naturalized on a small scale in Gabon and other parts of Central Africa.


The cape gooseberry is a useful small fruit crop for the home garden; is labor-intensive in commercial plantings.
Soon after its adoption in the Cape of Good Hope it was carried to Australia and there acquired its common English name. It was one of the few fresh fruits of the early settlers in New South Wales. There it has long been grown on a large scale and is abundantly naturalized, as it is also in Queensland, Victoria, South Australia, Western Australia and Northern Tasmania. It was welcomed in New Zealand where it is said that "the housewife is sometimes embarrassed by the quantity of berries [cape gooseberries] in the garden," and government agencies actively promote increased culinary use.
In China, India and Malaya, the cape gooseberry is commonly grown but on a lesser scale. In India, it is often interplanted with vegetables. It is naturalized on the island of Luzon in the Philippines. Seeds were taken to Hawaii before 1825 and the plant is naturalized on all the islands at medium and somewhat higher elevations. It was at one time extensively cultivated in Hawaii. By 1966, commercial culture had nearly disappeared and processors had to buy the fruit from backyard growers at high prices. It is widespread as an exotic weed in the South Sea Islands but not seriously cultivated. The first seeds were planted in Israel in 1933. The plants grew and bore very well in cultivation and soon spread as escapes, but the fruit did not appeal to consumers, either fresh or preserved, and promotional efforts ceased.

In England, the cape gooseberry was first reported in 1774. Since that time, it has been grown there in a small way in home gardens, and after World War II was canned commercially to a limited extent. Despite this background, early in 1952, the Stanford Nursery, of Sussex, announced the "Cape Gooseberry, the wonderful new fruit, especially developed in Britain by Richard I. Cahn." Concurrently, jars of cape goosebery jam from England appeared in South Florida markets and the product was found to be attractive and delicious. It is surprising that this useful little fruit has received so little attention in the United States in view of its having been reported on with enthusiasm by the late Dr. David Fairchild in his well-loved book, The World Was My Garden. He there tells of its fruiting "enormously" in the garden of his home, "In The Woods", in Maryland, and of the cook's putting up over a hundred jars of what he called "Inca Conserve" which "met with universal favor." It is also remarkable that it is so little known in the Caribbean islands, though naturalized plants were growing profusely along roadsides in the Blue Mountains of Jamaica before 1913.
With a view to encouraging cape gooseberry culture in Florida, the Bahamas, and the West Indies, seeds have been repeatedly purchased from the Stanford Nursery and distributed for trial. Good crops have been obtained. Nevertheless there was no incentive to make further plantings.

Pollination
In England, growers shake the flowers gently in summer to improve distribution of the pollen, or they will give the plants a very light spraying with water.

Climate
The cape gooseberry is an annual in temperate regions and a perennial in the tropics. In Venezuela, it grows wild in the Andes and the coastal range between 2,500 and 10,000 ft (800-3,000 m). It grows wild in Hawaii at 1,000 to 8,000 ft (300-2,400 m). In northern India, it is not possible to cultivate it above 4,000 ft (1,200 m), but in South India it thrives up to 6,000 ft (1,800 m).
In England, the plants have been undamaged by 3 degrees of frost. In South Africa, plants have been killed to the ground and failed to recover after a temperature drop to 30.5º F (-0.75º C).

The plant needs full sun but protection from strong winds; plenty of rain throughout its growing season, very little when the fruits are maturing.

Soil
The cape gooseberry will grow in any well-drained soil but does best on sandy to gravelly loam. On highly fertile alluvial soil, there is much vegetative growth and the fruits fail to color properly. Very good crops are obtained on rather poor sandy ground. Where drainage is a problem, the plantings should be on gentle slopes or the rows should be mounded. The plants become dormant in drought.

Propagation
The plant is widely grown from seed. There are 5,000 to 8,000 seeds to the ounce (28 g) and, since germination rate is low, this amount is needed to raise enough plants for an acre–2 1/2 oz (70 g) for a hectare. In India, the seeds are mixed with wood ash or pulverized soil for uniform sowing.

Sometimes propagation is done by means of 1-year-old stem cuttings treated with hormones to promote rooting, and 37.7% success has been achieved. The plants thus grown flower early and yield well but are less vigorous than seedlings. Air-layering is also successful but not often practiced.

Culture
It is necessary to determine the time of planting for each area. In India, seeds are broadcast from March through May. In Hong Kong, planting in seedbeds is done in September/October and again in March/April. In the Bahamas the first seeds planted in late summer of 1952 produced healthy plants and a continuous crop of fruits for 3 months during the following winter. Additional seeds procured from England were planted in April of 1953. The plants started to blossom in mid-July and from September on continued to flower and set fruit, although no fruits remained on the plants to maturity until the cooler months of winter when a good yield was obtained. Seeds were again planted the following November. Thirteen weeks later, the first fruits were ripening, and by mid-May of the following year a heavy crop was harvested. In late June, the plants were still growing and flowering profusely but only a few fruits were being set and these failed to develop to maturity. This condition continued into September, by which time some of the more robust plants had reached 6 ft (1.8 in) in height with much lateral growth.

In Jamaica, the initial planting of cape gooseberries in late January of 1954 made slow growth until June when development accelerated. By mid-August the plants had reached 15 in (37.5 cm) in height with much lateral growth, and were flowering and setting fruit. It would appear that the heat of summer is unfavorable for fruit development and, therefore, the best time to plant the cape gooseberry is in the fall so that fruit can be set during the cooler weather and harvested in late spring or early summer. In California, the plants do not fruit heavily until the second year unless started early in greenhouses.
Some growers have kept plants in production for as long as 4 years by cutting back after each harvest, but these plants have been found more susceptible to pests and diseases.

In India, plants 6 to 8 in (15-20 cm) high are set out 18 in (45 cm) apart in rows 3 ft (0.9 m) apart. Farmers in South Africa space the plants 2 to 3 ft (0.6-0.9 m) apart in rows 4 to 6 ft (1.2-1.8 m) or even 8 ft (2.4 m) apart in very rich soil. They apply 200 to 400 lbs (90-180 kg) of complete fertilizer per acre (approx. = kg/ha) on sandy loam. Foliar spraying of 1% potassium chloride solution before and just after blooming enhances fruit quality.
In dry seasons, irrigation is necessary to keep the cape gooseberry plant in production.

Season
In parts of India, the fruits ripen in February, but, in the South, the main crop extends from January to May. In Central and southern Africa, the crop extends from the beginning of April to the end of June. In England, plants from seeds sown in spring begin to fruit in August and continue until there is a strong frost.

Harvesting and Yield
In rainy or dewy weather, the fruit is not picked until the plants are dry. Berries that are already wet need to be lightly dried in the sun. The fruits are usually picked from the plants by hand every 2 to 3 weeks, although some growers prefer to shake the plants and gather the fallen fruits from the ground in order to obtain those of more uniform maturity. At the peak of the season, a worker can pick 2 1/2 bushels (90 liters) a day, but at the beginning and end of the season, when the crop is light, only 1/2 bushel (18 liters).

A single plant may yield 300 fruits. Seedlings set 1,800 to 2,150 to the acre (228-900/ha) yield approximately 3,000 lbs of fruit per acre (approx. = kg/ha). The fruits are usually dehusked before delivery to markets or processors. Manual workers can produce only 10 to 12 lbs. (4.5-5.5 kg) of husked fruits per hour. Therefore, a mechanical husker, 4 to 5 times more efficient, has been designed at the University of Hawaii.

Keeping Quality
Cape gooseberries are long-lasting. The fresh fruits can be stored in a scaled container and kept in a dry atmosphere for several months. They will still be in good condition. If the fresh fruits are to be shipped, it is best to leave the husk on for protection.

Pests and Diseases
In South Africa, the most important of the many insect pests that attack the cape gooseberry are cutworms, in seedbeds; red spider after plants have been established in the field; the potato tuber moth if the cape gooseberry is in the vicinity of potato fields. Hares damage young plants and birds (francolins) devour the fruits if not repelled. In India, mites may cause defoliation. In Jamaica, the leaves were suddenly riddled by what were apparently flea beetles of the family Chrysomelidae. In the Bahamas, whitefly attacks on the very young plants and flea beetles on the flowering plants required control.

In South Africa, the most troublesome diseases are powdery mildew and soft brown scale. The plants are prone to root rots and viruses if on poorly-drained soil or if carried over to a second year. Therefore, farmers favor biennial plantings. Bacterial leaf spot (Xanthomonas spp.) occurs in Queensland. A strain of tobacco mosaic may affect plants in India.

Food Uses
In addition to being canned whole and preserved as jam, the cape gooseberry is made into sauce, used in pies, puddings, chutneys and ice cream, and eaten fresh in fruit salads and fruit cocktails. In Colombia, the fruits are stewed with honey and eaten as dessert. The British use the husk as a handle for dipping the fruit in icing.

Food Value Per 100 g of Edible Portion*
Moisture
78.9 g
Protein
0.054 g
Fat
0.16 g
Fiber
4.9 g
Ash
1.01 g
Calcium
8.0 mg
Phosphorus
55.3 mg
Iron
1.23 mg
Carotene
1.613 mg
Thiamine
0.101 mg
Riboflavin
0.032 mg
Niacin
1.73 mg
Ascorbic Acid
43.0 mg
*According to analyses of husked fruits made in Ecuador.
The ripe fruits are considered a good source of Vitamin P and are rich in pectin.

Toxicity
Unripe fruits are poisonous. The plant is believed to have caused illness and death in cattle in Australia.

Other Uses
Fruits: In the 18th Century, the fruits were perfumed and worn for adornment by native women in Peru.

Medicinal Uses: In Colombia, the leaf decoction is taken as a diuretic and antiasthmatic. In South Africa, the heated leaves are applied as poultices on inflammations and the Zulus administer the leaf infusion as an enema to relieve abdominal ailments in children.

Indian chemists have isolated from the leaves a minor steroidal constituent, physalolactone C. (source - retrieved from http://www.hort.purdue.edu/newcrop/morton/cape_gooseberry.html on 3/25/2013)

In Genesis 1:11-13, "And God said, Let the earth put forth grass, herbs yielding seed, and fruit-trees bearing fruit after their kind, wherein is the seed thereof, upon the earth: and it was so. 12 And the earth brought forth grass, herbs yielding seed after their kind, and trees bearing fruit, wherein is the seed thereof, after their kind: and God saw that it was good. 13 And there was evening and there was morning, a third day. (American Standard Version, ASV)[for more details, go to www.jw.org].

To view pictures of the plant and the fruit, go to, http://www.bing.com/images/search?q=Physalis+peruviana+Cape+Gooseberry&qpvt=Physalis+peruviana+Cape+Gooseberry&FORM=IGRE

Now to know the truth, go to:

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2) http://www.network54.com/Forum/403209/

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Your Friend in Christ Iris89

Francis David said it long ago, "Neither the sword of popes...nor the image of death will halt the march of truth."Francis David, 1579, written on the wall of his prison cell." Read the book, "What Does The Bible Really Teach" and the Bible today, and go to www.jw.org!

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the Cupuaçu (Theobroma grandiflorum), also spelled cupuassu, cupuazú, cupu assu, and copoasu, i

Post  Admin on Sun Sep 08, 2013 7:48 pm

Hi Everyone:

Here is a Commentary on Bountiful Trees and Vegetables God (YHWH) has provided for mankind, specifically the Cupuaçu (Theobroma grandiflorum), also spelled cupuassu, cupuazú, cupu assu, and copoasu, is a tropical rainforest tree related to cacao. Common throughout the Amazon basin, it is widely cultivated in the jungles of Colombia, Bolivia and Peru and in the north of Brazil, with the largest production in Pará, followed by Amazonas, Rondônia and Acre.
Cupuaçu trees usually range from 5 to 15 meters (16 to 50 feet) in height, though some can reach 20 meters (65 feet). They have brown bark. Their leaves are 25–35 cm (10–14 in) long and 6–10 cm (2–4 in) across, with 9 or 10 pairs of veins. As they mature, their leaves change from pink-tinted to green, and eventually they begin bearing fruit. Cupuaçu fruits are oblong, brown, and fuzzy, 20 cm (8 in) long, 1–2 kg (2–4 lb) in weight, and covered with a thick (4–7 mm), hard exocarp.

The white pulp of the cupuaçu is uniquely fragrant (described as a mix of chocolate and pineapple), and It is frequently used in desserts, juices and sweets. The juice tastes primarily like a pear, with a hint of banana. Cupuaçu is touted as a possible superfruit flavor[1] Commercial production of cupuaçu includes food supplements, pills, drinks, smoothies and sweets. The pulp is also used in cosmetics products such as body lotions, as it is highly hydrating, similarly to cocoa butter.

Phytochemicals
Its flavors derive from its phytochemicals, such as tannins, the sulphated flavone glycosides theograndins I and II, and other flavonoids, including catechins, quercetin, kaempferol and isoscutellarein.[2]
It also contains the alkaloid theacrine instead of the xanthines (caffeine, theobromine, and theophylline) found in cacao.[3]

Wood products
The wood is also commonly used for timber.

Ecology
Cupuaçu supports a phylogenetically intriguing butterfly herbivore the lagarta verde, Macrosoma tipulata (Hedylidae), which can be a serious defoliator.[4]

References
1. ^ Cupuaçu as next big superfruit flavor, foodnavigator-usa.com
2. ^ Yang, H.; Protiva, P.; Cui, B.; Ma, C.; Baggett, S.; Hequet, V.; Mori, S.; Weinstein, I. B.; Kennelly, E. J. (2003). "New bioactive polyphenols from Theobroma grandiflorum ("cupuaçu")". Journal of Natural Products 66 (11): 1501–1504. doi:10.1021/np034002j. PMID 14640528.
3. ^ Vasconcelos, M. N. L.; da Silva, M. L.; Maia, J. G. S.; Gottlieb, O. R. (1975). "Estudo químico de sementes do cupuaçu". Acta Amazônica (in Portuguese) (National Institute of Amazonian Research) 5 (3): 293–295.
4. ^ Lourido, G.; Silva, N. M.; Motta, C. (2007). "Parâmetros Biológicos e Injúrias de Macrosoma tipulata Hübner (Lepidoptera: Hedylidae), em Cupuaçuzeiro [Theobroma grandiflorum (Wild ex Spreng Schum)] no Amazonas" [Biological parameters and damage by Macrosoma tipulata Hübner (Lepidoptera: Hedylidae), in Cupuaçu tree [Theobroma grandiflorum (Wild ex Spreng Schum)] in Amazonas, Brazil] (pdf). Neotropical Entomology (in Portuguese) 36 (1): 102–106. doi:10.1590/S1519-566X2007000100012. PMID 17420867. [source - retrieved from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cupua%C3%A7u on 6/14/2013]

In Genesis 1:11-13, "And God said, Let the earth put forth grass, herbs yielding seed, and fruit-trees bearing fruit after their kind, wherein is the seed thereof, upon the earth: and it was so. 12 And the earth brought forth grass, herbs yielding seed after their kind, and trees bearing fruit, wherein is the seed thereof, after their kind: and God saw that it was good. 13 And there was evening and there was morning, a third day. (American Standard Version, ASV)[for more details, go to www.jw.org].

For picture of plant and more details, go to, http://www.tradewindsfruit.com/content/cupuassu.htm

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Your Friend in Christ Iris89

Francis David said it long ago, "Neither the sword of popes...nor the image of death will halt the march of truth."Francis David, 1579, written on the wall of his prison cell." Read the book, "What Does The Bible Really Teach" and the Bible today, and go to www.jw.org!




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the CARAMBOLA, Averrhoa Carambola:

Post  Admin on Wed Sep 11, 2013 8:55 am

Hi Everyone:

Here is a Commentary on Bountiful Trees and Vegetables God (YHWH) has provided for mankind, specifically the CARAMBOLA, Averrhoa Carambola:

In Genesis 1:11-13, "And God said, Let the earth put forth grass, herbs yielding seed, and fruit-trees bearing fruit after their kind, wherein is the seed thereof, upon the earth: and it was so. 12 And the earth brought forth grass, herbs yielding seed after their kind, and trees bearing fruit, wherein is the seed thereof, after their kind: and God saw that it was good. 13 And there was evening and there was morning, a third day. (American Standard Version, ASV)

This is an interesting fruit as its fruit is star shapped. Some Carambolas are quite sweet and almost like candy to the taste and others are quite sour. The ones you are likely to find in the store are rather tart as the real sweet type I so much enjoy do NOT ship well.

The leaves of this tree are compound and sensitive to both light and to touch; they will fold-up when they are touched or shaded. The fruit is golden yellow when ripe, translucent, ribbed and star-shaped in cross-section.

There are many named varieties, over 40, of both sweet and sour types. The only three varieties , that in my opinion are truly sweet are the Cary, the Orkin, and the Sherimberka (probably spelt wrong). I am growing the Cary and the Sherimberka, but the Cary has done the best for me. It is very prolific with respect fruit production and its fruit are just wonderful in flavor.

It can either be eaten fresh, made into pulp and frozen, made into jellies and jams, and into juices. The juice is a drink very rich in vitamin C and of excellent flavor if made from sweet carambolas or if the sour one's juice is mixed with either orange juice or pineapple juice. Also, a candy is made from this fruit. This fruit is one of my favorites.


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Your Friend in Christ Iris89

Francis David said it long ago, "Neither the sword of popes...nor the image of death will halt the march of truth."Francis David, 1579, written on the wall of his prison cell." Read the book, "What Does The Bible Really Teach" and the Bible today!

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the Carissa is a genus of about 20-30 species of shrubs or small trees native to tropical

Post  Admin on Sat Sep 14, 2013 3:42 pm


Hi Everyone:

Here is a Commentary on Bountiful Trees and Vegetables God (YHWH) has provided for mankind, specifically the Carissa is a genus of about 20-30 species of shrubs or small trees native to tropical and subtropical regions of Africa, Australia and Asia. Conkerberry (C. spinarum) flowers in Shamirpet, Rangareddy district, Andhra Pradesh, India.

The species have maximum heights between 2 and 10 m tall, with spiny branches. The leaves are waxy and oblong, 3–8 cm long, and thick and leathery. The flowers are produced throughout most of the year; they are 1–5 cm diameter, with a five-lobed white or pink corolla, solitary or borne in clusters; some have a fragrance reminiscent of Gardenia. This makes them popular garden plants. The fruit is a plum-shaped berry, red to dark purple-black in different species, 1.5–6 cm in length, and containing up to 16 flat brown seeds. The fruit are edible but tart, and taste like a giant cranberry, though some also taste overtones of strawberry or apple-like flavour, and rich in Vitamin C, calcium, magnesium and phosphorus. The fruit of C. macrocarpa is especially delicious and is used to make jelly. They are eagerly consumed by birds, which also distribute the seed. If eaten before fully ripe, a bitter, latex-like substance is released from the skin. Other than the fruit, the plant is poisonous. This can also come in forms of a lovely bush. Because of its abundance of sharp thorns, the plant is often used as a security hedge. Carissa species are grown from seed or cuttings and tolerate slight frost. [source - retrieved from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Carissa on 1/02/2013]

In Genesis 1:11-13, "And God said, Let the earth put forth grass, herbs yielding seed, and fruit-trees bearing fruit after their kind, wherein is the seed thereof, upon the earth: and it was so. 12 And the earth brought forth grass, herbs yielding seed after their kind, and trees bearing fruit, wherein is the seed thereof, after their kind: and God saw that it was good. 13 And there was evening and there was morning, a third day. (American Standard Version, ASV)[for more details, go to www.jw.org].

Two species of the notorious family Apocynaceae are noteworthy because of their edible fruits and innocuous milky latex. The more attractive of these is the carissa, Carissa macrocarpa A. DC. (syn. C. grandiflora A. DC.), also called Natal plum and amantungula.

Description
A vigorous, spreading, woody shrub with abundant white, gummy sap, the carissa may reach a height of 15 to 18 ft (4.5-5.5 m) and an equal breadth. The branches are armed with formidable stout, double-pronged thorns to 2 in (5 cm) long. The handsome, evergreen, opposite leaves are broad-ovate, 1 to 2 in (2.5-5 cm) long, dark-green, glossy, leathery. Sweetly fragrant, white, 5-lobed, tubular flowers to 2 in (5 cm) broad are borne singly or a few together at the tips of branchlets all year. Some plants bear flowers that are functionally male, larger than normal and with larger anthers, and stamens much longer than the style. Functionally female flowers have stamens the same length as the style and small anthers without pollen.

The round, oval or oblong fruit, to 2 1/2 in (6.25 cm) long and up to 1 1/2 in (4 cm) across, is green and rich in latex when unripe. As it ripens, the tender, smooth skin turns to a bright magenta-red coated with a thin, whitish bloom, and finally dark-crimson. The flesh is tender, very juicy, strawberry-colored and -flavored, with flecks of milky sap. Massed in the center are 6 to 16 small, thin, flat, brown seeds, not objectionable when eaten.

Origin and Distribution
The carissa is native to the coastal region of Natal, South Africa, and is cultivated far inland in the Transvaal. It was first introduced into the United States in 1886 by the horticulturist Theodore L. Meade. Then, in 1903, Dr. David Fairchild, heading the Office of Foreign Seed and Plant Introduction of the United States Department of Agriculture, brought in from the Botanical Garden at Durban, a large quantity of seeds. Several thousand seedlings were raised at the then Plant Introduction Garden at Miami and distributed for testing in Florida, the Gulf States and California, and much effort was devoted to following up on the fate of the plants in different climatic zones. The carissa was introduced into Hawaii in 1905 and over the next few years was extensively distributed throughout the islands. It was planted in the Bahamas in 1913. It first fruited in the Philippines in 1924; is grown to a limited extent in India and East Africa. It was widely planted in Israel, flourished and flowered freely but rarely set fruit. Elsewhere, it is valued mainly as a protective hedge and the fruit is a more-or-less-welcomed by-product.

Varieties
Horticulturists in South Africa, California and Florida have selected and named some types that tend to bear more reliably than others:
'Fancy', selected in California in the 1950's, was an erect form bearing an abundance of large fruits with few seeds.
'Torrey Pines' produces good crops of fruit and pollen.
'Gifford' is one of the best fruit bearers in Florida.
'Extra Sweet' was advertised in Florida in the early 1960's.
'Alles' ('Chesley') produces few fruits in California.
'Frank' is a light bearer though it has a good supply of pollen.
As space for massive barrier hedges has diminished and interest in the fruits declined, efforts have been directed to the development of dwarf, compact, less spiny types for landscape use. Some of the popular ornamental cultivars include: 'Bonsai', 'Boxwood Beauty', 'Dainty Princess', 'Grandiflora', 'Green Carpet', 'Horizontalis', 'Linkii', 'Low Boy', 'Minima', 'Nana', 'Nana Compacta', 'Prostrata' and 'Tuttlei'.

Pollination
In its homeland, the carissa is pollinated by small beetles and hawk-moths and other night-flying insects. Various degrees of unfruitfulness in America has been attributed to inadequate pollination. Some seedlings are light-croppers, but others never bear at all. It has been found that unproductive plants, apparently self-infertile, will bear fruits after cross-pollination by hand.

Climate
The carissa is subtropical to near-tropical, thriving throughout the state of Florida and enduring temperatures as low as 25º F (-3.89º C) when well-established. Young plants need protection when the temperature drops below 29º F (-1.67º C). Best growth is obtained in full sun.

Soil
The shrub thrives in dry, rocky terrain in Hawaii; in red clay or sandy loam in California, and in sandy or alkaline soils in Florida, though the latter may induce deficiencies in trace elements. The plant has moderate drought tolerance and high resistance to soil salinity and salt spray. It cannot stand water-logging.
Propagation
Seeds germinate in 2 weeks but the seedlings grow very slowly at first and are highly variable. Vegetative propagation is preferred and can be done easily by air-layering, ground-layering, or shield-budding. Cuttings root poorly unless the tip of a young branchlet is cut half-way through and left attached to the plant for 2 months. After removal and planting in sand, it will root in about 30 days. Grafting onto seedlings of the karanda (q.v.) has considerably increased fruit yield.

Culture
Seedlings may begin to produce fruit in 2 years; cuttings earlier. A standard, well-balanced fertilizer suffices except on limestone where trace elements must be added. Dwarf cultivars must be kept under control, otherwise they are apt to revert to the ordinary type. Vigorous shoots will develop and outgrow the compact form.

Season
While the carissa flowers and fruits all year, the peak period for blooming and fruiting is May through September. The 5-pointed calyx remains attached to the plant when the fruit is picked.

Pests and Diseases
Spider mites, thrips and whiteflies, and occasionally scale insects, attack young plants, especially in nurseries and in the shade.
A number of fungus diseases have been recorded in Florida; algal leaf spot and green scurf caused by Cephaleuros virescens; leaf spot from Alternaria sp., Botryosphaeria querquum, Fusarium sp., Gloeosporium sp., Phyllosticta sp. and Colletotrichum gloeosporioides which also is responsible for anthracnose; stem gall from Macrophoma sp., Nectria sp., Phoma sp., Phomopsis sp., and both galls and cankers from Sphaeropsis tumefaciens; dieback caused by Diplodia natalensis and Rhizoctonia solani; thread blight from Rhizoctonia ramicola; root rot resulting from infection by Phytophthora parasitica and Pythium sp.

Food Uses
The carissa must be fully ripe, dark-red and slightly soft to the touch to be eaten raw. It is enjoyed whole, without peeling or seeding, out-of-hand. Halved or quartered and seeded it is suitable for fruit salads, adding to gelatins and using as topping for cakes, puddings and ice cream. Carissas can be cooked to a sauce or used in pies and tarts. Stewing or boiling causes the latex to leave the fruit and adhere to the pot (which must not be aluminum), but this can be easily removed by rubbing with cooking oil.

Carissas are preserved whole by pricking, cooking briefly in a sugar sirup and sterilizing in jars. Peeled or unpeeled, they are made into jam, other preserves, sirup or sweet pickles. Jelly is made from slightly underripe fruits, or a combination of ripe and unripe to enhance the color.

Food Value
Analyses made in the Philippines show the following values: calories, 270/lb (594/kg); moisture, 78.45%; protein, 0.56%; fat, 1.03%; sugar, 12.00%; fiber, 0.91%; ash, 0.43%. Ascorbic acid content has been calculated as 10 mg/100 g in India. [source - retrieved from http://www.hort.purdue.edu/newcrop/morton/carissa.html on 1/02/2013]
I have found this makes a great barrier hedge as few animals and/or humans will try to penetrate it owing to its long and sharp thorns.

How this tree and other plants absorb water from the ground. Plants have developed an effective system to absorb, translocate, store, and utilize water. Plants contain a vast network of conduits, which consists of xylem and phloem tissues. These conducting tissues start in the roots and continue up through the trunks of trees, into the branches and then into every leaf. Phloem tissue is made of living elongated cells that are connected to one another and responsible for translocating nutrients and sugars (carbohydrates), which are produced by leaves for energy and growth. The xylem is also composed of elongated cells but once the cells are formed, they die. The walls of the xylem cells still remain intact and serve as an excellent peipline to transport water from the roots to the leaves.

The main driving force of water uptake and transport into a plant is transpiration of water from leaves through specialized openings called stomata. Heat from the sun causes the water to evaporate, setting this ‘water chain’ in motion. The evaporation creates a negative water vapor pressure. Water is pulled into the leaf to replace the water that has transpired from the leaf. This pulling of water, or tension, occurs in the xylem of the leaf. Since the xylem is a continuous water column that extends from the leaf to the roots, this negative water pressure extends into the roots and results in water uptake from the soil. [adapted from: http://www.scientificamerican.com/article.cfm?id=follow-up-how-do-trees-ca ]

Clearly this clever water transport system shows a superior intelligence of the Creator (YHWH).


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Re: Almighty God’s (YHWH) Great Gift to Mankind, The Rare Fruit Trees and Herbs

Post  Admin on Tue Sep 17, 2013 1:13 pm

Hi Everyone:

Here is a Commentary on Bountiful Trees and Vegetables God (YHWH) has provided for mankind, specifically the Ceratonia siliqua, commonly known as the Carob tree and St John's-bread,[1] is a species of flowering evergreen shrub or tree in the pea family, Fabaceae. It is widely cultivated for its edible legumes, and as an ornamental tree in gardens. The seed pod may be crushed and used as ersatz chocolate.

It is native to the Mediterranean region including Southern Europe, Northern Africa, the larger Mediterranean islands; to the Levant and Middle-East of Western Asia into Iran; and to the Canary Islands and Macaronesia.[2][3]
The vernacular names in other cultures and languages for Ceratonia siliqua include: Arabic: ????? kharr?b; German: Johannisbrotbaum; Greek: ???????? kharoupia or ??????????? ksylokeratia; Spanish: algarrobo, caroba; French: caroubier, caroube; Hebrew: ???? ?aruv; Portuguese: alfarrobeira; Catalan: garrofa; Sicilian: carrubba; Turkish: harnup, keçiboynuzu; Croatian: roga?.[2]
The Ceratonia siliqua tree grows up to 15 metres (Template:Convert/49.21ft) tall. The crown is broad and semi-spherical, supported by a thick trunk with brown rough bark and sturdy branches. Leaves are 10 to 20 centimetres (3.9 to 7.9 in) long, alternate, pinnate, and may or may not have a terminal leaflet. It is frost-tolerant.

Most carob trees are dioecious. The trees blossom in autumn (September–October). The flowers are small and numerous, spirally arranged along the inflorescence axis in catkin-like racemes borne on spurs from old wood and even on the trunk (cauliflory); they are pollinated by both wind and insects. Male flowers produce a characteristic odour, resembling semen.

The fruit is a pod that can be elongated, compressed, straight or curved, and thickened at the sutures. The pods take a full year to develop and ripen. The ripe pods eventually fall to the ground and are eaten by various mammals, thereby dispersing the seed. Likewise, carob consumed by humans is actually the dried (and sometimes roasted) pod, and not the 'nuts' or seeds.
The seeds of Ceratonia siliqua contains leucodelphinidin, a colourless chemical compound.[5]

The carob genus, Ceratonia, belongs to the Fabaceae (legume) family, and is believed to be an archaic remnant of a part of this family now generally considered extinct. It grows well in warm temperate and subtropical areas, and tolerates hot and humid coastal areas. As a xerophytic (drought-resistant) species, carob is well adapted to the ecological conditions of the Mediterranean region. Trees prefer well drained loam and are intolerant of waterlogging, but the deep root systems can adapt to a wide variety of soil conditions and are fairly salt-tolerant.[6]

While previously not believed to form nitrogen fixation nodules typical of the legume family,[6] trees have been identified more recently with nodules containing bacteria believed to be from the Rhizobium genus.[7]

Although used extensively for agriculture, carob can still be found growing wild in eastern Mediterranean regions, and has become naturalized in the west.[6] The carob tree is typical in the southern Portuguese region of the Algarve, where it has the name alfarrobeira (for the tree), and alfarroba (for the fruit), as well as in southern Spain (Spanish: algarrobo, algarroba), Catalonia and Valencia (Catalan: garrofer, garrofa), Malta (Maltese: ?arruba), on the Italian islands of Sicily and Sardinia (Italian: carrubo, carruba), and in Southern Greece, Cyprus as well as many Greek islands such as Crete and Samos. The common Greek name is (Greek: ????????, charoupia), or (Greek: ???????????, ksilokeratia), meaning "wooden horn". In Turkey, it is known as "keçiboynuzu", meaning "goat's horn". In Israel it's called "Haroov" (????),known as "life saving tree - kav kharoovin".[6][8] The various trees known as algarrobo in Latin America (Albizia saman in Cuba and four species of Prosopis in Argentina and Paraguay) belong to a different subfamily, Mimosoideae.

Carob is typically dried or roasted, and is mildly sweet. In powdered, chip, or syrup form it is used as an ingredient in cakes and cookies, and is used as a substitute for chocolate.

Carob is also used to make chocolate-flavored treats for dogs.[12]
The seeds, also known as locust beans, are used as animal feed, and are the source of locust bean gum — a food thickening agent. Crushed pods may be used to make a beverage; compote, liqueur, and syrup are made from carob in Turkey, Malta, Portugal, Spain and Sicily. Several studies suggest that carob may aid in treating diarrhea in infants.[13] In Libya, carob syrup (there called rub) is used as a complement to Asida. The so-called carob syrup made in Peru is actually from the fruit of the Prosopis nigra tree.

Carob is rich in sugars - Sucrose = 531g ± 93 g/kg dry weight for cultivated varieties and 437 ± 77 g/kg in wild type varieties. Fructose and glucose levels do not differ between cultivated and wild type carob.[14]

Ceratonia siliqua is widely cultivated in the horticultural nursery industry as an ornamental plant for planting in Mediterranean climate and other temperate regions around the world, as its popularity in California and Hawaii shows. The plant develops a sculpted trunk and ornamental tree form when 'limbed up' as it matures, otherwise it is used as a dense and large screening hedge. When not grown for legume harvests the plant is very drought tolerant and part of 'xeriscape' landscape design for gardens, parks, and public municipal and commercial landscapes.[2]

The Jewish Talmud features a parable of altruism, commonly known as "Honi and the Carob Tree", in which a carob tree takes 70 years to bear fruit; the planter did not benefit from planting, but did so in the interest of future generations.
In reality, the fruiting age of carob trees varies: cuttings taken from fruit-bearing trees may bear fruit in as few as three to four years, and seedlings grown in ideal conditions may fruit within six to eight years. Although it is native to moderately dry climates, two or three summers irrigation will greatly aid the development, hasten fruiting, and increase the yield."[15]

In the Parable of the Prodigal Son, the Prodigal Son, having squandered his inheritance, wishes that he could also partake in eating the pigs' diet of carob pods.[[Luke 15:11-17, “11 And he said, A certain man had two sons:
12 And the younger of them said to his father, Father, give me the portion of goods that falleth to me. And he divided unto them his living.
13 And not many days after the younger son gathered all together, and took his journey into a far country, and there wasted his substance with riotous living.
14 And when he had spent all, there arose a mighty famine in that land; and he began to be in want.
15 And he went and joined himself to a citizen of that country; and he sent him into his fields to feed swine.
16 And he would fain have filled his belly with the husks that the swine did eat: and no man gave unto him.
17 And when he came to himself, he said, How many hired servants of my father’s have bread enough and to spare, and I perish with hunger!” and what he fed them was carob pods.]]

Carob was eaten in Ancient Egypt. It was also a common sweetener and was used in the hieroglyph for "sweet" (nedjem). Dried carob fruit is traditionally eaten on the Jewish holiday of Tu Bishvat. Carob juice drinks are traditionally drunk during the Islamic month of Ramadan. Also it is believed to be an aphrodisiac.
In Cyprus, carob syrup is known as Cyprus's black gold, and is widely exported.
In Malta, a syrup (?ulepp tal-?arrub) is made out of carob pods. This is a traditional medicine for coughs and sore throat. A traditional sweet, eaten during Lent and Good Friday, is also made from carob pods in Malta. However, carob pods were mainly used as animal fodder in the Maltese Islands, apart from times of famine or war when they formed part of the diet of many Maltese.
In the Iberian Peninsula, carob pods were used mainly as animal fodder, especially to feed donkeys.

Carob pods were an important source of sugar before sugarcane and sugar beets became widely available.
References:

1. ^ ITIS Report Page: Ceratonia siliqua . accessed 5.11.2011
2. ^ a b c NPGS/GRIN - Ceratonia siliqua information . accessed 5.11.2011
3. ^ http://www.tropicos.org/Name/13028551 Tropicos.org. Ceratonia siliqua accessed 5.10.2011
4. ^ Battle I, Tous J (1997) (PDF). Carob tree. Rome, Italy: International Plant Genetic Resources Institute. p. 16. ISBN 978-92-9043-328-6. http://www.bioversityinternational.org/fileadmin/bioversity/publications/pdfs/347_Carob_tree_Ceratonia_siliqua_L.pdf. Retrieved 2012-03-12.
5. ^ liberherbarum.com
6. ^ a b c d Battle I, Tous J (1997) (PDF). Carob tree. Rome, Italy: International Plant Genetic Resources Institute. ISBN 978-92-9043-328-6. http://www.bioversityinternational.org/fileadmin/bioversity/publications/pdfs/347.pdf. Retrieved 2011-02-19.[page needed]
7. ^ M. Missbah El Idrissi, N. Aujjar, A. Belabed, Y. Dessaux, A. Filali-Maltouf (1996). "Characterization of rhizobia isolated from Carob tree (Ceratonia siliqua)". Journal of Applied Microbiology 80 (2): 165–73. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2672.1996.tb03205.x.
8. ^ "Turkish Cuisine". Turkish Cuisine. http://www.turkish-cuisine.org/english/pages.php?ParentID=6&FirstLevel=95. Retrieved 2010-07-26.
9. ^ http://faostat.fao.org/site/567/DesktopDefault.aspx?PageID=567#ancor
10. ^ Harper, Douglas. "carat". Online Etymology Dictionary. http://www.etymonline.com/index.php?term=carat.
11. ^ a b "A Brief on Bokser - Forward.com"
12. ^ Burg, Barbara. Good Treats For Dogs Cookbook for Dogs: 50 Home-Cooked Treats for Special Occasions. Quarry Books, 2007, p. 28
13. ^ Fortier D, Lebel G, Frechette A (June 1953). "Carob flour in the treatment of diarrhoeal conditions in infants". Canadian Medical Association Journal 68 (6): 557–61. PMC 1822828. PMID 13059705. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1822828/.
14. ^ http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0308814605010824
15. ^ Bailey, Liberty Hyde. "The standard cyclopedia of horticulture". The Macmillan Company, 1914. http://books.google.com/books?id=fWADAAAAMAAJ&pg=PA718&lpg=PA718&dq=carob+tree+fruiting+age+years&source=bl&ots=GoXH3kkRA6&sig=aOtDf0IrC0fT2ROf0ZJR2WypZXE&hl=en&ei=XrnMTo6lBKXW0QH89-BM&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=3&ved=0CCoQ6AEwAg#v=snippet&q=fruit%20years&f=false. Retrieved 23 November 2011. [source - retrieved from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Carob on 1/02/2013]
In Genesis 1:11-13, "And God said, Let the earth put forth grass, herbs yielding seed, and fruit-trees bearing fruit after their kind, wherein is the seed thereof, upon the earth: and it was so. 12 And the earth brought forth grass, herbs yielding seed after their kind, and trees bearing fruit, wherein is the seed thereof, after their kind: and God saw that it was good. 13 And there was evening and there was morning, a third day. (American Standard Version, ASV)[for more details, go to www.jw.org].

This tree is mentioned in the Bible. One place it is mentioned is in Luke the 15 th. Chapter, as follows, (Luke 15:10-16) Thus, I tell YOU, joy arises among the angels of God over one sinner that repents.” 11 Then he said: “A certain man had two sons. 12 And the younger of them said to his father, ‘Father, give me the part of the property that falls to my share.’ Then he divided his means of living to them. 13 Later, after not many days, the younger son gathered all things together and traveled abroad into a distant country, and there squandered his property by living a debauched life. 14 When he had spent everything, a severe famine occurred throughout that country, and he started to be in need. 15 He even went and attached himself to one of the citizens of that country, and he sent him into his fields to herd swine. 16 And he used to desire to be filled with the carob pods which the swine were eating, and no one would give him [anything].

As a healthy substitute for chocolate, Many people the world over love chocolate in all its various forms: chocolate candy, chocolate cake, chocolate ice cream, etc. Often chocolate is associated with pleasure, happy times, and holidays. So how could anything be better than chocolate? Well, carob is better for you than chocolate in several ways.
Chocolate packs more than just good times. Chocolate contains chemical substances from the same family as caffeine, which is found in coffee and tea. These chemicals are caffeine and theobromine. The main chemical substance in chocolate (theobromine) is exactly the same as caffeine except for one atom; and like caffeine, it also affects the body in serious ways. This family of chemical substances (which include caffeine and theobromine) can cause or contribute to imperfect balance, racing heart, insomnia and sleep disturbances, bedwetting, fatigue, obesity, dizziness, irritability, agitation, anxiety, acne, and more. Some diseases and health problems, including heart disease, allergies, diabetes, stomach disturbances, and depression, can be exacerbated by these substances. Also, chromosome damage, birth deformities, and cancer have been associated to these chemicals, and resistance to disease is lowered. Some physicians also believe that they contribute to breast disease and prostate problems by stepping up cell growth in certain tissues.

Cocoa from which chocolate is made is naturally quite bitter. In order to cover up its bitterness, large amounts of sugar and fat (including milk and cream) are added, which gives chocolate its rich, velvety texture. But these things also lower resistance to diseases and hinders digestion. Other additives are also added before the product is finished.

For part of the process necessary to produce chocolate, the cocoa beans must be left out to ferment. During this process it is possible for cancer causing agents to form, as well as for insects, rodents, and small animals to contaminate the fermenting cocoa beans. These contaminants remain in the finished product. The FDA allows up to 10 milligrams of animal excrement per pound, or up to 25 insect fragments per tablespoon of cocoa powder.
The above points provide good reasons for an alternative. However, chocolate lovers are not left without a replacement. Carob is a wonderful substitute for chocolate. It tastes great with a chocolate-like flavor but without the health risks, additives, or contamination that comes with chocolate.

Carob is a legume that comes from the carob tree (Ceratonia siliqua), an evergreen tree native to the Mediterranean (it is actually a shrub that is trained into tree form by pruning). Today it is also grown in other warm climates including Florida and the southwestern United States. The tree is drought tolerant, does well in direct sun, and can handle temperatures down to 18 degrees F. It has a broad, spreading form that makes it an ideal shade tree and can grow to a height of 50 feet. The leaves are dark green, glossy, and leathery. The tree bears fruit (carob pods) after six to eight years of growth, and can easily bear 100 pounds of pods per year by its twelfth year, increasing to an average of 200 to 250 pounds annually as the tree grows older. It can continue to bear fruit for 100 years. The pods are reddish-brown and can be up to a foot long.

Carob has been used for food for over 5000 years and continues to play an important role in Jewish tradition. It is also called "honey locust" or St. John's Bread as this was consumed by John the Baptist while he was in the wilderness (Matt. 3:4). The husks that were eaten by the Prodigal Son in Jesus' parable (Luke 15:16) were discarded carob pods. Even today carob continues to be an important feed for livestock. The word carat, which is still used today to measure gold and diamonds, comes from the Arabic name for the carob seeds because of their uniformity in weight.

After harvesting, the long bean-like pods from the carob tree are cooked for a short time or roasted and then ground into carob powder (roasting enhances its chocolate-like flavor). Carob can be used to make such items as cakes, cookies, candy, pudding, icing, bread, beverages, shakes, ice cream, muffins, fudge, and brownies. Carob is naturally sweet and requires much less sweetener when used in recipes. When replacing chocolate with carob in a recipe, use 3 tablespoons of carob powder plus 1 tablespoon of water for every ounce of unsweetened chocolate called for. When substituting cocoa powder, use an equal amount of carob powder. Remember to reduce the amount of sugar in the recipe because of the natural sweetness of carob.

In addition to not having the negative effects of chocolate, carob is very nutritious. Carob contains as much Vitamin B1 as asparagus or strawberries; as much niacin as lima beans, lentils, or peas; and more Vitamin A than eggplant, asparagus, and beets. It also contains Vitamin B2, calcium, magnesium, potassium, and the trace minerals iron, manganese, chromium, copper, and nickel. It contains approximately 8 percent protein and is a good source of fiber. Compared to chocolate, carob is three times richer in calcium, has one third less calories and seventeen times less fat.

Carob also has therapeutic uses. It is known to halt serious cases of diarrhea in adults, infants, and animals. Use 1 tablespoon of carob power in a cup of liquid, or make a paste of carob powder and water. It is also known to help with nausea, vomiting, and upset stomach. One French physician successfully reversed kidney failure with carob. Use approximately 2 teaspoons carob powder in unsweetened cranberry juice four or five times daily. A decoction of the leaves and bark has been useful for syphilis and venereal diseases, and seems to have a soothing effect on epilepsy.

Carob is a chocolate lovers delight as it is not only delicious, but low in fat and calories, caffeine-free, and lacks the health risks of chocolate. Please give carob a try. Different carob products taste differently, as some taste more chocolate-like than others. Therefore, try out several different carob products, and congratulate yourself on treating yourself to a healthy and delicious treat. [source - retrieved from http://www.gilead.net/health/carob.html on 1/02/2013]
How this tree and other plants absorb water from the ground. Plants have developed an effective system to absorb, translocate, store, and utilize water. Plants contain a vast network of conduits, which consists of xylem and phloem tissues. These conducting tissues start in the roots and continue up through the trunks of trees, into the branches and then into every leaf. Phloem tissue is made of living elongated cells that are connected to one another and responsible for translocating nutrients and sugars (carbohydrates), which are produced by leaves for energy and growth. The xylem is also composed of elongated cells but once the cells are formed, they die. The walls of the xylem cells still remain intact and serve as an excellent peipline to transport water from the roots to the leaves.

The main driving force of water uptake and transport into a plant is transpiration of water from leaves through specialized openings called stomata. Heat from the sun causes the water to evaporate, setting this ‘water chain’ in motion. The evaporation creates a negative water vapor pressure. Water is pulled into the leaf to replace the water that has transpired from the leaf. This pulling of water, or tension, occurs in the xylem of the leaf. Since the xylem is a continuous water column that extends from the leaf to the roots, this negative water pressure extends into the roots and results in water uptake from the soil. [adapted from: http://www.scientificamerican.com/article.cfm?id=follow-up-how-do-trees-ca ]

Clearly this clever water transport system shows a superior intelligence of the Creator (YHWH).


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the Psidium. friedrichsthalianum Ndz., known variously in Latin America as cas or cas ácida (Costa Rica),

Post  Admin on Fri Sep 20, 2013 8:42 am

Hi Everyone:

Here is a Commentary on Bountiful Trees and Vegetables God (YHWH) has provided for mankind, specifically the Psidium. friedrichsthalianum Ndz., known variously in Latin America as cas or cas ácida (Costa Rica), guayaba ácida (Guatemala), guayaba agria (Colombia), guayaba de danto (Honduras), guayaba de agua (Panama), guayaba del Choco (Ecuador), guayaba montes (Mexico), guayaba (Nicaragua), and arrayan (El Salvador).

Description
An attractive, shapely tree, 20 to 35 ft (6-10 m) high, it has wiry, quadrangular, or 4-winged, branchlets which are dark reddish and minutely hairy. The trunk bark is red-brown with grayish patches. The evergreen leaves are 2 to 4 3/4 in (5-12 cm) long, 1 to 2 in (2.5-5 cm) wide, elliptic or oval, pointed, gland-dotted, thin; dark and smooth above, pale beneath. Flowers, usually borne singly, are fragrant, white, 1 in (2.5 cm) wide, with 5 waxy petals and about 300 stamens up to 1/2 in (1.25 cm) long. The fruit is round or oval, 1 1/4 to 2 1/2 in (3-6 cm) long, with yellow skin and soft, white, very acid flesh, and a few flattened seeds 3/16 in (5 mm) long. There is no musky odor.

Distribution
This tree grows naturally in Colombia (especially in the Cauca and Magdalena valleys), throughout Central America and around Oaxaca in southern Mexico, usually bordering streams and in swampy woods along the coast and inland. It is commonly cultivated in home gardens in temperate highlands of Costa Rica, occasionally in El Salvador, Guatemala and northern Ecuador. It thrives in the Philippines at medium and low elevations. Introductions into California and Florida have not been very successful, the tree bearing poorly and eventually succumbing to cold spells.

Food Uses
Because of its acidity, the fruit is mostly used for ade, jelly and jam. It makes fine filling for pies. Early Spaniards complained that eating the raw fruits "set the teeth on edge".

Food Value
Analyses in Guatemala show: moisture, 83.15%; protein, 0.78-0.88%; carbohydrates, 5.75-6.75%; fat, 0.39-0.52%; fiber, 7.90%; ash, 0.80%. The fruit is rich in pectin even when fully ripe. [source - retrieved from http://www.hort.purdue.edu/newcrop/morton/costa_rican_guava.html on 1/02/2013]

In Genesis 1:11-13, "And God said, Let the earth put forth grass, herbs yielding seed, and fruit-trees bearing fruit after their kind, wherein is the seed thereof, upon the earth: and it was so. 12 And the earth brought forth grass, herbs yielding seed after their kind, and trees bearing fruit, wherein is the seed thereof, after their kind: and God saw that it was good. 13 And there was evening and there was morning, a third day. (American Standard Version, ASV)[for more details, go to www.jw.org].

This moderate-growing, small tree from Central America grows well in protected areas but doesn't bear well. It bears large, white fragrant flowers and large round or oval, green-to-yellow fruit with a number of seeds and white, slightly acid but tasty flesh. It is eaten fresh, in ades or jellies. Propagated by seed or air layer. [source - retrieved from http://www.dianangelov.com/EFA/trees/cas_guavas.html on 1/02/2013]

How this tree and other plants absorb water from the ground. Plants have developed an effective system to absorb, translocate, store, and utilize water. Plants contain a vast network of conduits, which consists of xylem and phloem tissues. These conducting tissues start in the roots and continue up through the trunks of trees, into the branches and then into every leaf. Phloem tissue is made of living elongated cells that are connected to one another and responsible for translocating nutrients and sugars (carbohydrates), which are produced by leaves for energy and growth. The xylem is also composed of elongated cells but once the cells are formed, they die. The walls of the xylem cells still remain intact and serve as an excellent peipline to transport water from the roots to the leaves.

The main driving force of water uptake and transport into a plant is transpiration of water from leaves through specialized openings called stomata. Heat from the sun causes the water to evaporate, setting this ‘water chain’ in motion. The evaporation creates a negative water vapor pressure. Water is pulled into the leaf to replace the water that has transpired from the leaf. This pulling of water, or tension, occurs in the xylem of the leaf. Since the xylem is a continuous water column that extends from the leaf to the roots, this negative water pressure extends into the roots and results in water uptake from the soil. [adapted from: http://www.scientificamerican.com/article.cfm?id=follow-up-how-do-trees-ca ]

Clearly this clever water transport system shows a superior intelligence of the Creator (YHWH).


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the cashew (k?sh`, k?sh`), tropical American tree (Anacardium occidentale)

Post  Admin on Mon Sep 23, 2013 10:19 am

Hi Everyone:

Here is a Commentary on Bountiful Trees and Vegetables God (YHWH) has provided for mankind, specifically the cashew (k?sh`, k?sh`), tropical American tree (Anacardium occidentale) of the family Anacardiaceae (sumac sumach, common name for some members of the Anacardiaceae, a family of trees and shrubs native chiefly to the tropics but ranging into north temperate regions and characterized by resinous and often acrid, sap. family), valued chiefly for the cashew nut of commerce. The tree's acrid sap is used in making a varnish that protects woodwork and books from insects. The fruit is kidney-shaped, about an inch in length, and has a double shell. The kernel, which is sweet, oily, and nutritious, is much used for food in the tropics after being roasted to destroy the caustic juice. It yields a light-colored oil said to be the equal of olive oil and is utilized in various culinary ways. In the West Indies it is used to flavor wine, particularly Madeira, and is imported into Great Britain for this purpose. The nut grows on the end of a fleshy, pear-shaped stalk, called the cashew apple, which is white, yellow, or red, juicy and slightly acid, and is eaten or fermented to make wine. Cashews are classified in the division Magnoliophyta, class Magnoliopsida, order Sapindales, family Anacardiaceae. [adopted from http://encyclopedia2.thefreedictionary.com/cashew on 1/03/213].

cashew

Cashew apples (hypocarp) and nuts of the domesticated cashew tree (Anacardium occidentale).
(credit: W.H. Hodge)
Edible seed or nut of Anacardium occidentale, a tropical and subtropical evergreen shrub or tree in the sumac family, native to tropical Central and South America. Important chiefly for its nuts, the tree also produces wood used for shipping crates, boats, and charcoal, and a gum similar to gum arabic. Related to poison ivy and poison sumac, it must be handled with care. The two-shelled nut is shaped like a large, thick bean. A brown oil between the two shells blisters human skin and is used as a lubricant and an insecticide and in the production of plastics. The nut is rich and distinctively flavoured. [source - retrieved from http://encyclopedia2.thefreedictionary.com/cashew on 1/03/2013]

HABITANT AND GROWTH
The tree is small and evergreen, growing to 10-12m (~32 ft) tall, with a short, often irregularly shaped trunk. The leaves are spirally arranged, leathery textured, elliptic to obovate, 4 to 22 cm long and 2 to 15 cm broad, with a smooth margin. The flowers are produced in a panicle or corymb up to 26 cm long, each flower small, pale green at first then turning reddish, with five slender, acute petals 7 to 15 mm long. The largest cashew tree in the world covers an area of about 7,500 square metres (81,000 sq ft).
The fruit of the cashew tree is an accessory fruit (sometimes called a pseudocarp or false fruit). What appears to be the fruit is an oval or pear-shaped structure, a hypocarpium, that develops from the pedicel and the receptacle of the cashew flower. Called the cashew apple, better known in Central America as "marañón", it ripens into a yellow and/or red structure about 5–11 cm long. It is edible, and has a strong "sweet" smell and a sweet taste. The pulp of the cashew apple is very juicy, but the skin is fragile, making it unsuitable for transport. In Latin America, a fruit drink is made from the cashew apple pulp which has a very refreshing taste and tropical flavor that can be described as having notes of mango, raw green pepper, and just a little hint of grapefruit-like citrus.
The true fruit of the cashew tree is a kidney or boxing-glove shaped drupe that grows at the end of the cashew apple. The drupe develops first on the tree, and then the pedicel expands to become the cashew apple. Within the true fruit is a single seed, the cashew nut. Although a nut in the culinary sense, in the botanical sense the nut of the cashew is a seed. The seed is surrounded by a double shell containing an allergenic phenolic resin, anacardic acid, a potent skin irritant chemically related to the better-known allergenic oil urushiol which is also a toxin found in the related poison ivy. Properly roasting cashews destroys the toxin, but it must be done outdoors as the smoke (not unlike that from burning poison ivy) contains urushiol droplets which can cause severe, sometimes life-threatening, reactions by irritating the lungs. People who are allergic to cashew urushiols may also react to mango or pistachio which are also in the Anacardiaceae family. Some people are allergic to cashew nuts, but cashews are a less frequent allergen than nuts or peanuts.
Dispersal
While native to Northeast Brazil, the Portuguese took the cashew plant to Goa, India, between the years of 1560 and 1565. From there it spread throughout Southeast Asia and eventually Africa. It is now grown extensively in south Florida up to the Martin County line. [adapted from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cashew on 1/03/2013]
In Genesis 1:11-13, "And God said, Let the earth put forth grass, herbs yielding seed, and fruit-trees bearing fruit after their kind, wherein is the seed thereof, upon the earth: and it was so. 12 And the earth brought forth grass, herbs yielding seed after their kind, and trees bearing fruit, wherein is the seed thereof, after their kind: and God saw that it was good. 13 And there was evening and there was morning, a third day. (American Standard Version, ASV)[for more details, go to www.jw.org].

REPRODUCTION
Cashew trees reproduce sexually with seeds. The cashew flowers are pollinated by bats and many kinds of insects, but they are also capable of self-pollination because they have some monoecious flowers. After pollination, the drupe requires 6 to 8 weeks to mature, with the pseudofruit developing in the last two weeks of the ripening process. The cashew kernel, found inside the shell of the drupe, is the seed of the plant. When the drupe and pseudofruit are ripe, they fall off the tree together. If it lands in moist soil, the seed can germinate within 4 days of falling.
Commercial growers usually raise their cashew crops from seeds. They soak the seeds in water to aid germination and plant them either in a pit at their permanent location or in a planting bag to be transplanted once they have grown large enough. Two to four seeds are planted in each hole, and a month is allowed for germination and growth. The weaker seedlings are then removed, leaving only the strongest one to mature. Seedlings grown in planting bags are transplanted after two months to their permanent location, but this must be done carefully because their roots are very sensitive. Since the cashew tree does not do well when transplanted, it is usually recommended that the trees be planted in their permanent locations, spaced 10 to 12 meters apart to allow them to fully mature. For the first 3 years, the seedlings should be supported against wind, provided with adequate shade, and regularly watered to hasten growth. During this time, intercropping is often practiced with fast-growing crops such as legumes, vegetables, tobacco, chilies, cotton, or peanuts. This allows productive use of the fields until the trees begin to bear fruit in their third year. The trees reach their maximum productivity after 10 years and continue producing fruit for the next 20 years or more. A single tree can produce 200 to 300 fruits in one year.
Cashews can also reproduce asexually through vegetative propagation. If a seedling with desirable traits, such as a high percentage of monoecious flowers (allows greater self-pollination), large fruit size, resistance to pests and disease, etc., is found, vegetative propagation allows growers to produce genetic copies of the tree, ensuring that the new trees will carry on the same traits. Many methods of vegetative reproduction are successful with cashews, including side grafting, wedge grafting, softwood grafting, air and ground layering, chip-budding, top-working, and cutting. As various methods of grafting are further tested and developed, they may become more widely used by farmers and cultivators due to the benefits of being able to select plants with desirable traits as opposed to growing them from seed, which usually results in a wide variety of offspring often unlike their parent plants.
Cashew trees require little attention after their first three years. If left alone, they will grow well and continue to produce fruit. Commercial growers may prune the trees, but pruning is usually limited to clearing away the shoots and lowest branches to make harvesting easier. The fields are weeded to protect the trees, especially around the bases of young trees. Fertilizer and manure are both beneficial to cashew trees. Fertilizers should contain nitrogen and phosphate, as well as zinc if the soil is deficient. Mulching helps retain moisture in the soil and prevents weed growth near the
Cashews are native to Brazil and were spread to India by the Portuguese in the 1500s. Since then, cashews have been introduced to East Africa, South America, Central America, and the West Indies. The main cultivators of cashews are Vietnam, Nigeria, India, Brazil, and Indonesia. The primary importer of cashews is the United States [46]. Japan, Australia, Canada, Hong Kong, Singapore, and many Middle Eastern countries also purchase large quantities of cashews.
The cashew is a tropical or sub-tropical plant that grows between latitudes of 25 degrees north and south. They are most often found growing in coastal areas. They do best in warm, humid weather, and the optimum temperature is 25 degrees Celsius (77 degrees Fahrenheit). The plants are very susceptible to frost, and temperatures should not fall below 10 degrees Celsius (50 degrees Fahrenheit). However, cashews are drought tolerant because of their extensive root systems. The best range for rainfall is between 1500 to 2000 mm per year. It is also important that they go through a dry season to stimulate flower growth and fruit production .
Cashew trees grow in many kinds of soil, even those soil types that would be intolerable to other plants. They prefer deep, well-drained soil that is sandy or loamy and has a pH of 4.5 to 6.5. They cannot grow in very hard clay, rocky soil, or soil with excess undrained water because it will damage the roots and cause them to rot.
Cashews are pollinated mostly by insects. Wild birds, bats, and other animals eat the cashew apples and aid in dispersal. Since the shell of the drupe is so toxic, causing severe burns to those who try to consume it, most animals eat the apple and throw away the drupe, which allows it to germinate, often in a new location. Humans also consume cashews, either raw or as part of other dishes.
Common pests that afflict the cashew tree include the tea mosquito, the stem and root borer, the leaf and blossom webber, the leaf minor, the shoot and inflorescence tip borer, and the apple and nut borer, as well as several species of thrips (small insects that afflict fruit trees and other plants). These pests can cause severe damage to the trees, especially young ones, by destroying new growth and burrowing inside the trunk, leaves, and fruit. Most pests can be killed using chemical sprays and insecticides.
Harvesting and Uses
Once the nuts are ripe they naturally fall from the tree. Workers harvest them off the ground, usually going through the fields every day to pick up the apples before they spoil . The apples and drupes are separated and processed. Before the cashew kernels can be eaten, they must be removed from their shells without being contaminated by the caustic oil. The removal from the shell is a long process with many steps. First, the drupes are dried for 1 to 3 days, which allows them to be stored until there are enough nuts to roast. Immediately before roasting, the drupes are soaked in water to prevent the kernels from breaking while being processed. The cashews are usually roasted in pans or other devices with holes in them, allowing the oil to be collected as it drains through the holes. Once roasted, the cashews are covered in sand or sawdust to remove any oil remaining on the shells.
Next, the shelling process begins. Cashews are usually shelled manually because of the difficulty in designing machines able to crack open the irregularly-shaped shell without breaking the kernel. While machines are sometimes used, the workers usually break open the shells using wooden hammers. The cashews kernels are separated from the shells and placed on racks in an oven to dry. This causes the testa (seed coat) to become brittle so it can easily be removed by hand. Last, broken and unevenly roasted kernels are sorted out and the good-quality kernels are vacuum-packed for shipping, allowing them to be stored for up to a year.
(Important Note: When roasting, sorting, and processing cashews, gloves and long clothes should be worn to protect any exposed skin from coming in contact with the oil. Cashew nutshell oil squirts from the nuts during roasting and may remain on the shells afterwards. The oil is toxic and will cause severe burns and itching if it gets on the skin.)
Although the kernels are the main product of cashew trees, many other parts of the tree are utilized as well. The cashew apples, though not exported, are often eaten in countries where the trees are grown. Cashew apples can be eaten raw and are also made into jellies, juices, and syrups. They may be dried, candied, preserved in syrup, or fermented and used to make alcoholic beverages such as brandy, gin, and a wine called Feni that is sold in India. Both the cashew kernels and cashew apples have many health benefits. The kernels are low in fat compared to some other nuts such as walnuts or peanuts, and they have plenty of healthy fatty acids, B vitamins, protein, potassium, zinc, iron, and fiber. They are also delicious and may be eaten by themselves or used in cooking. They are frequently used in candy and in Thai, Chinese, and Indian foods. The cashew apple is high in vitamin C, with even more than is found in oranges, and is also full of vitamins and minerals. Aside from food, the apples are also used in body care products such as anti-aging cremes, lotions, and shampoos .
Other products of the cashew tree are taken from the leaves, wood, bark, and shell. The toxic oil from the shell (cashew nutshell liquid) is collected during the roasting process. It is used to manufacture brake linings, insect repellents, resins, varnishes, and paints. The wood is used to make furniture and packing crates, and the gum is made into glue. The testa is used in animal feed . The leaves, bark, and kernels may be ground up and used in medicine and insect repellent, and the bark and testa both contain tannins and are used to tan leather. An edible cashew oil is produced from the kernels. This is not the same as cashew nutshell oil; it used in cooking and is similar to olive oil.
Parts of the cashew tree are also believed to have medicinal properties. The leaves and bark are made into tea and used to treat diarrhea, dysentery, and colic and to stop bleeding. Various parts of the cashew plant are also used for diabetes, influenza, ulcers, skin disorders, bronchitis, tonsillitis, and other throat problems, and as an antibacterial agent. [source - retrieved from http://creationwiki.org/Cashew on 1/03/2013]
Bottom of Form
How this tree and other plants absorb water from the ground. Plants have developed an effective system to absorb, translocate, store, and utilize water. Plants contain a vast network of conduits, which consists of xylem and phloem tissues. These conducting tissues start in the roots and continue up through the trunks of trees, into the branches and then into every leaf. Phloem tissue is made of living elongated cells that are connected to one another and responsible for translocating nutrients and sugars (carbohydrates), which are produced by leaves for energy and growth. The xylem is also composed of elongated cells but once the cells are formed, they die. The walls of the xylem cells still remain intact and serve as an excellent peipline to transport water from the roots to the leaves.

The main driving force of water uptake and transport into a plant is transpiration of water from leaves through specialized openings called stomata. Heat from the sun causes the water to evaporate, setting this ‘water chain’ in motion. The evaporation creates a negative water vapor pressure. Water is pulled into the leaf to replace the water that has transpired from the leaf. This pulling of water, or tension, occurs in the xylem of the leaf. Since the xylem is a continuous water column that extends from the leaf to the roots, this negative water pressure extends into the roots and results in water uptake from the soil. [adapted from: http://www.scientificamerican.com/article.cfm?id=follow-up-how-do-trees-ca ]

Clearly this clever water transport system shows a superior intelligence of the Creator (YHWH).


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the cassabanana, Sicana odorifera Naud. (syn. Cucurbita odorifera Vell.)

Post  Admin on Thu Sep 26, 2013 10:05 am

Hi Everyone:

Here is a Commentary on Bountiful Trees and Vegetables God (YHWH) has provided for mankind, specifically the cassabanana, Sicana odorifera Naud. (syn. Cucurbita odorifera Vell.), is also called sikana or musk cucumber. It is known as melocotonero, calabaza de olor, calabaza melón, pérsico or alberchigo in Mexico; melocotón or melón de olor in El Salvador and Guatemala; calabaza de chila in Costa Rica; cojombro in Nicaragua; chila in Panama; pavi in Bolivia; padea, olerero, secana or upe in Peru; calabaza de Paraguay, curuba, or pepino melocoton in Colombia; cura, coróa, curua, curuba, cruatina, melão caboclo or melão macã in Brazil; cajú cajuba, cajua, cagua, calabaza de Guinea in Venezuela; pepino, pepino angolo or pepino socato in Puerto Rico; cohombro in Cuba.

The vine is perennial, herbaceous, fast-growing, heavy, requiring a strong trellis; climbing trees to 50 ft (15 m) or more by means of 4-parted tendrils equipped with adhesive discs that can adhere tightly to the smoothest surface. Young stems are hairy. The leaves are gray-hairy, rounded-cordate or rounded kidney-shaped, to 1 ft (30 cm) wide, deeply indented at the base, 3-lobed, with wavy or toothed margins, on petioles 1 1/2 to 4 3/4 in (4-12 cm) long. Flowers are white or yellow, urn-shaped, 5-lobed, solitary, the male 3/4 in (2 cm) long, the female about 2 in (5 cm) long. Renowned for its strong, sweet, agreeable, melon-like odor, the striking fruit is ellipsoid or nearly cylindrical, sometimes slightly curved; 12 to 24 in (30-60 cm) in length, 2 3/4 to 4 1/2 in (7-11.25 cm) thick, hard-shelled, orange-red, maroon, dark-purple with tinges of violet, or entirely jet-black; smooth and glossy when ripe, with firm, orange-yellow or yellow, cantaloupe-like, tough, juicy flesh, 3/4 in (2 cm) thick. In the central cavity, there is softer pulp, a soft, fleshy core, and numerous flat, oval seeds, 5/8 in (16 mm) long and 1/4 in (6 mm) wide, light-brown bordered with a dark-brown stripe, in tightly-packed rows extending the entire length of the fruit.

Origin and Distribution
The cassabanana is believed native to Brazil but it has been spread throughout tropical America. Historians have evidence that it was cultivated in Ecuador in pre-Hispanic times. It was first mentioned by European writers in 1658 as cultivated and popular in Peru. It is grown near sea-level in Central America but the fruit is carried to markets even up in the highlands. Venezuelans and Brazilians are partial to the vine as an ornamental, but in Cuba, Puerto Rico and Mexico it is grown for the usefulness of the fruit.

In 1903, O.F. Cook saw one fruit in a market in Washington, D.C. The United States Department of Agriculture received seeds from C.A. Miller, the American Consul in Tampico, Mexico, in 1913 (S.P.I. #35136). H.M. Curran collected seeds in Brazil in 1915 (S.P.I. #41665). Wilson Popenoe introduced seeds from Guatemala in 1916 (S.P.I. #43427). The author brought seeds from Rio Piedras, Puerto Rico, to the Agricultural Research and Education Center, Homestead, in 1951. A resulting vine grew to large size but produced a single 2 ft (60 cm) fruit. Dr. John Thieret, formerly Professor of Botany at Southwestern Louisiana University, says that the Cajuns in the southern part of that state grow the cassabanana for making preserves. Verrill stated in 1937, "The fruit is now on sale in New York markets."

According to Burkill, the vine was tried in the Botanic Gardens in Singapore but lived for only a short time. Wester wrote that it fruited at Lamao in the Philippines in 1916 and became heavily attacked by a destructive fly (Dacus sp.).


Fenzi says that the cassabanana is grown from seeds or cuttings. A high temperature during the fruiting season is needed to assure perfect ripening. Brazilians train the vine to grow over arbors or they may plant it close to a tree. However, if it is allowed to climb too high up the tree there is the risk that it may smother and kill it.

Keeping Quality and Marketing
The cassabanana remains in good condition for several months if kept dry and out of the sun.

The fruit has high market value in Puerto Rico. It is cut up and sold by the piece, the price being determined by weight.

Food Uses
The ripe flesh, sliced thin, is eaten raw, especially in the summer when it is appreciated as cooling and refreshing. However, it is mainly used in the kitchen for making jam or other preserves. The immature fruit is cooked as a vegetable or in soup and stews.

Food Value Per 100 g of Edible Portion

Analyses of ripe fruit made in Guatemala (without peel, seeds, or soft central pulp)
Analyses of peeled green fruit made in Nicaragua (including seeds)
Moisture
85.1 g
92.7 g
Protein
0.145 g
0.093 g
Fat
0.02 g
0.21 g
Fiber
1.1 g
0.6 g
Ash
0.70 g
0.38 g
Calcium
21.1 mg
8.2 mg
Phosphorus
24.5 mg
24.2 mg
Iron
0.33 mg
0.87 mg
Carotene
0.11 mg
0.003 mg
Thiamine
0.058 mg
0.038 mg
Riboflavin
0.035 mg

Niacin
0.767 mg
0.647 mg
Ascorbic Acid
13.9 mg
10.0 mg
Other

Uses
Fruit: People like to keep the fruit around the house, and especially in linen- and clothes-closets, because of its long-lasting fragrance, and they believe that it repels moths. It is also placed on church altars during Holy Week.
Medicinal Uses: In Puerto Rico, the flesh is cut up and steeped in water, with added sugar, overnight at room temperature so that it will ferment slightly. The resultant liquor is sipped frequently and strips of the flesh are eaten, too, to relieve sore throat. It is believed beneficial also to, at the same time, wear a necklace of the seeds around the neck.

The seed infusion is taken in Brazil as a febrifuge, vermifuge, purgative and emmenagogue. The leaves are employed in treating uterine hemorrhages and venereal diseases. In Yucatan, a decoction of leaves and flowers (2 g in 180cc water) is prescribed as a laxative, emmenagogue and vermifuge, with a warning not to make a stronger preparation inasmuch as the seeds and flowers yield a certain amount of hydrocyanic acid. (source - retrieved from http://www.hort.purdue.edu/newcrop/morton/cassabanana.html on 3/25/2013)

In Genesis 1:11-13, "And God said, Let the earth put forth grass, herbs yielding seed, and fruit-trees bearing fruit after their kind, wherein is the seed thereof, upon the earth: and it was so. 12 And the earth brought forth grass, herbs yielding seed after their kind, and trees bearing fruit, wherein is the seed thereof, after their kind: and God saw that it was good. 13 And there was evening and there was morning, a third day. (American Standard Version, ASV)[for more details, go to www.jw.org].

To view a picture of this fruit, go to, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sicana_odorifera

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Francis David said it long ago, "Neither the sword of popes...nor the image of death will halt the march of truth."Francis David, 1579, written on the wall of his prison cell." Read the book, "What Does The Bible Really Teach" and the Bible today, and go to www.jw.org!




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the cattley guava, Psidium cattleianum Sabine (syns. P. littorale Raddi; P. chinense Hort.),

Post  Admin on Mon Sep 30, 2013 12:34 pm

Hi Everyone:

Here is a Commentary on Bountiful Trees and Vegetables God (YHWH) has provided for mankind, specifically the cattley guava, Psidium cattleianum Sabine (syns. P. littorale Raddi; P. chinense Hort.), is also known as the strawberry or purple guava, Chinese guava, Calcutta guava, araca da praia (Brazil), araza (Uruguay), cas dulce (Costa Rica), guayaba japonesa (Guatemala), and guayaba peruana (Venezuela). In Hawaii, the yellow-fruited is called waiawi, and the red-fruited waiawi ulaula.

Description
A fairly slow-growing shrub or small tree, the cattley guava generally ranges from 6.5 to 14 ft (2-4 m) tall but the yellow-fruited may attain 40 ft (12 m). Both have slender, smooth, brown-barked stems and branches, and alternate, evergreen, obovate, dark, smooth, glossy, somewhat leathery leaves 1 1/3 to 4 3/4 in (3.4-12 cm) long and 5/8 to 2 1/3 in (1.6-6 cm) wide. The fragrant flowers, 5/8 to 2 1/3 in(1.5-6 cm) wide are white with prominent stamens about 3/4 in (2 cm) long, and are borne singly or in 3's in the leaf axils. The fruit is round or obovoid, 1 to 1 1/2 in (2.5-4 cm) long, tipped with the protruding 4- to 5-parted calyx; thin-skinned, dark-red or purple-red or, in variety lucidum, lemon-yellow. Red-skinned fruits have white flesh more or less reddish near the skin. Yellow-skinned fruits have faintly yellowish flesh. In both types, the flesh is aromatic, about 1/8 in (3 mm) thick, surrounding the central juicy, somewhat translucent pulp filled with hard, flattened-triangular seeds 3/32 in (2.5 mm) long. Free of the muskiness of the common guava, the flavor is somewhat strawberry-like, spicy, subacid.

Origin and Distribution
The cattley guava is believed native to the lowlands of eastern Brazil, especially near the coast. It is cultivated to a limited extent in other areas of South America and Central America and in the West Indies, Bermuda, the Bahamas, southern and central Florida and southern California. A commercial planting of about 3,000 trees was established at La Mesa, California, around 1884 and the trees were still producing heavily a half century later. Today there is much more use of the cattley guava as an ornamental hedge than as a fruit tree. It is grown occasionally in subtropical Africa, and in highlands of the Philippines at elevations up to 5,000 ft (1,500 m), India, Ceylon and Malaya. It was introduced into Singapore in 1877 and at various times thereafter but failed to survive at low altitudes. In Hawaii, it has become naturalized in moist areas, forming dense, solid stands, and is subject to eradication in range lands. It is one of the major "weed trees" of Norfolk Island; has escaped into pastures and woods at elevations between 1,500 and 3,000 ft (457-914 m) in Jamaica.

Climate
The red cattley guava is hardier than the common guava and can survive temperatures as low as 22º F (-5.56º C). It can succeed wherever the orange is grown without artificial heating. The yellow is tenderer and its climatic requirements are similar to those of the lemon. Both kinds flourish in full sun.

Soil
The cattley guava does well in limestone and poor soils that would barely support other fruit trees. It is shallow-rooted but the red type is fairly drought tolerant. The yellow is able to endure flooding for short periods.
Propagation
The tree is not easily multiplied by budding or grafting because of its thin bark. It can be propagated by layering or rooting of soft tip cuttings or root cuttings, but is usually grown from seed even though seedlings of the red type vary in habit of growth, fruit size and seediness, also bearing season. The yellow comes fairly true from seed.

Culture
Cultural information is scant except that irrigation is necessary to obtain full-size fruits on poor soil, and the tree benefits from mulching when grown in limestone. Seedlings are set out 10 ft (3 m) apart in rows 10 ft (3 m) apart.

Cropping and Yield
On good soil and under irrigation, the cattley guava has yielded 30 tons from 5 acres (2 ha). In India, it bears two crops a year, one in July and August and another in January and February. Near the coast in California, fruits ripen continuously from August to March; inland the season is shorter, October to December.

Keeping Quality
The fresh fruit is very perishable when fully ripe and can be kept only 3 to 4 days at room temperature. For shipping, the fruit must be picked slightly unripe, handled carefully and refrigerated during transit. Generally it is sent to local processors instead of to fresh fruit markets. Hawaiian-grown fruits, slightly underripe, were stored at 32º to 36º F (0º-2.22º C) for a month and were found shriveled and decomposed. Accordingly, much higher temperatures are recommended.

Pests and Diseases
The cattley guava is usually reported as disease- and pest-free. In California, there are occasional infestations of the greenhouse thrips (Heliothrips haemorrhoidalis). The Caribbean fruit fly attacks the fruits in southern Florida and wherever this pest abounds. In India, birds compete with humans for the ripe fruits.

Food Uses
Cattley guavas are eaten out-of-hand without preparation except the removal of the calyx. A delicious puree or tart-filling can be made by trimming and cooking 6 cups of red cattleys with 1 cup water and 2 cups granulated sugar and pressing through a sieve. The resulting 3 cups of puree will be subacid, spicy and a dull, old-rose in color. Commercial growers ship to, factories which convert the fruits into jelly, jam, butter, paste and sherbet. In Hawaii, either half-ripe or full-ripe cattleys are cut in half, boiled, and the juice strained to make ade or punch.

Food Value
Analyses of ripe fruits in the Philippines, Hawaii and Florida have shown the following constituents:

Red: seeds, 6%; water, 81.73-84.9%; ash, 0.74-1.50%; crude fiber, 6.14%; protein, 0.75-1-03%; fat, 0.55%; total sugar, 4.42-4.46%.

Yellow: seeds, 10.3%; water, 84.2%; ash, 0.63-0.75%; crude fiber, 3.87%; protein, 0.80%; fat, 0.42%; total sugar, 4.32-10.01%.
Red or Yellow: ascorbic acid, 22-50 mg/100 g. Calories per 2.2 lbs (1 kg), 268. [source - retrieved from http://www.hort.purdue.edu/newcrop/morton/cattley_guava.html on 1/03/2013]

In Genesis 1:11-13, "And God said, Let the earth put forth grass, herbs yielding seed, and fruit-trees bearing fruit after their kind, wherein is the seed thereof, upon the earth: and it was so. 12 And the earth brought forth grass, herbs yielding seed after their kind, and trees bearing fruit, wherein is the seed thereof, after their kind: and God saw that it was good. 13 And there was evening and there was morning, a third day. (American Standard Version, ASV)[for more details, go to www.jw.org].

Preventative measures:A Risk Assessment of Psidium cattleianum for Hawai‘i and other Pacific islands was prepared.The alien plant screening system is for use in Pacific islands. The result is a score of 18 and a recommendation of: “Likely to cause significant ecological or

Close up of Cattley guava (Psidium cattleianum).
economic harm in Hawai‘i and on other Pacific Islands as determined by a high WRA score, which is based on published sources describing species biology and behaviour in Hawai‘i and/or other parts of the world.”

Physical: Because of the huge quantities of seed that are dispersed by feral pigs, and other exotic invasive species, feral species management is a practical and necessary first step in strawberry guava management. Manual and mechanical control measures work reasonably well and are recommended where practical. Seedlings and saplings originating from seed can be uprooted. Uprooted plants may resprout or re-root in areas with greater than 2000mm of rain/year or drier areas after prolonged rain, especially if the plants are set on the ground. Manual and mechanical methods are less effective on root sprouts.Biological: Biological control is the only feasible long-term management strategy for strawberry guava. However, until recently, biological control has been perceived as unfeasible because common guava, grown commercially in Hawai‘i, is a congener of strawberry guava. Biological control is being reexamined. Several insects defoliate strawberry guava in its natural range, it is possible that insect biological control agents could be found that do not attack common guava. Memoranda of agreement has been concluded between the University of Hawai‘i and two Brazilian Universities to locate species attacking strawberry guava and not common guava. It is thought that highly specific insect pests can be found because common guava and strawberry guava are sympatric in their natural range. [source - retrieved from http://informedfarmers.com/cattley-guava-psidium/ on //2013]

Psidium cattleianum,[1][2] named in honour of notable English horticulturist Sir William Cattley, commonly known as Cattley guava or Peruvian guava, is a small tree (2–6 m tall), bearing small red or yellow fruit, which are somewhat sour but sometimes eaten or made into jam. The red-fruited variety is known as strawberry guava; the yellow-fruited variety is known as lemon guava, and in Hawaii as waiaw?. Native to Brazil and adjacent tropical South America, it is closely related to common guava (P. guajava), and like that species is a widespread, highly invasive species in tropical areas, especially Hawai?i. It tends to form dense, monotypic stands which prevent regrowth of native species, and is very difficult to eradicate; it also provides refuge for fruit flies which cause extensive agricultural damage.[3] As an invasive species, it is sometimes erroneously called Chinese guava. [source - retrieved from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cattley_Guava on 1/03/2013]

How this tree and other plants absorb water from the ground. Plants have developed an effective system to absorb, translocate, store, and utilize water. Plants contain a vast network of conduits, which consists of xylem and phloem tissues. These conducting tissues start in the roots and continue up through the trunks of trees, into the branches and then into every leaf. Phloem tissue is made of living elongated cells that are connected to one another and responsible for translocating nutrients and sugars (carbohydrates), which are produced by leaves for energy and growth. The xylem is also composed of elongated cells but once the cells are formed, they die. The walls of the xylem cells still remain intact and serve as an excellent peipline to transport water from the roots to the leaves.

The main driving force of water uptake and transport into a plant is transpiration of water from leaves through specialized openings called stomata. Heat from the sun causes the water to evaporate, setting this ‘water chain’ in motion. The evaporation creates a negative water vapor pressure. Water is pulled into the leaf to replace the water that has transpired from the leaf. This pulling of water, or tension, occurs in the xylem of the leaf. Since the xylem is a continuous water column that extends from the leaf to the roots, this negative water pressure extends into the roots and results in water uptake from the soil. [adapted from: http://www.scientificamerican.com/article.cfm?id=follow-up-how-do-trees-ca ]

Clearly this clever water transport system shows a superior intelligence of the Creator (YHWH).


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Re: Almighty God’s (YHWH) Great Gift to Mankind, The Rare Fruit Trees and Herbs

Post  Admin on Thu Oct 03, 2013 8:58 am

Hi Everyone:

Here is a Commentary on Bountiful Trees and Vegetables God (YHWH) has provided for mankind, specifically the Annona scleroderma, Family: Annonaceae, common names Posh-te, Cawesh, Poshte, Origin: Honduras, Guatemala

A. scleroderma is a tall tree which reaches 15 to 20 m and has tough, lanceolate leaves measuring 10 to 25 x 5 to 8 cm. They are shiny on the upper side, slightly pubescent on the underside and have fragile, 3 cm long petioles. The flowers are greenish yellow, the outer petals have a longitudinal prominence which arises in the small branches or in groups in the old part of the thick branches. The cream-colored flesh has a creamy banana-pineapple like flavor and a soft texture. Said to be one of the most flavorful and refreshing Annona's, but the poshe-te is still elusive outside its native range. This round fruit, relatively little known has a rich aromatic and delicious flavor. The fruit is the size of an orange and has a dull green surface with perfectly textured pulp. Unlike some other Annonas, the pulp is not fibrous. The tough skin allows it to be handled easily and makes it resistant to insect attack. The trees should be pruned so that a wide crown remains to facilitate fruit harvesting. This also reduces exposure to wind and bird damage.
[source - retrieved from http://toptropicals.com/catalog/uid/Annona_scleroderma.htm on 1/03/2013]

This Annona, the Cawesh, is extremely rare and is very little known, but has one of the finest flavors of any fruit in the world.

To see a picture of the fruit which resembles a sugar apple, go to http://eol.org/pages/1054874/overview

In Genesis 1:11-13, "And God said, Let the earth put forth grass, herbs yielding seed, and fruit-trees bearing fruit after their kind, wherein is the seed thereof, upon the earth: and it was so. 12 And the earth brought forth grass, herbs yielding seed after their kind, and trees bearing fruit, wherein is the seed thereof, after their kind: and God saw that it was good. 13 And there was evening and there was morning, a third day. (American Standard Version, ASV)[for more details, go to www.jw.org].

More on the Annona liebmanniana, more widely known under the synonym Annona scleroderma, is a species in the Annonaceae family, with an edible fruit the size of an orange. Common names include cawesh and posh-té (also spelled poshte or poshe-te). Related species include cherimoya (A. cherimola) and sugar-apple (A. squamosa); paw paw (Asimina triloba) is also in the family. The species is native to the Atlantic coast of Central America, from Mexico and Guatemala to Honduras, where it grows at altitudes under 1,230 meters (4,000 feet) and is locally important, but not widely cultivated outside of Guatemala, although it is sometimes grafted onto root stock from other species and grown in Australia (FAO 1994). Seeds are available through various tropical fruit specialty catalogs in Hawaii and elsewhere. Cawesh trees grow to a larger size than other annonas, up to 20 m (65 feet), which makes fruit harder to harvest than in the other species (FAO 1994, Popenoe 1920), although the trees are more productive. The evergreen or semi-deciduous leaves are large, thick, and leathery, up to 25 cm (10 inches) long and 8 cm (3 inches) wide. The fruit, which is produced starting when the tree reaches four years of age, is oblong, roughly 7 cm (3 inches) in diameter, with a relatively thin but tough exocarp, or skin (0.6 cm, or ¼ inch), which makes the fruit relatively insect resistant and easy to handle without bruising. The fruit’s cream-colored flesh has a pleasant aroma creamy banana-pineapple flavor, and a soft texture. It is generally eaten fresh or pulp can be used to make beverages (FAO 1994, Mansfield 2011) [source - retrieved from http://eol.org/pages/1054874/overview on 1/03/2013] .

How this tree and other plants absorb water from the ground. Plants have developed an effective system to absorb, translocate, store, and utilize water. Plants contain a vast network of conduits, which consists of xylem and phloem tissues. These conducting tissues start in the roots and continue up through the trunks of trees, into the branches and then into every leaf. Phloem tissue is made of living elongated cells that are connected to one another and responsible for translocating nutrients and sugars (carbohydrates), which are produced by leaves for energy and growth. The xylem is also composed of elongated cells but once the cells are formed, they die. The walls of the xylem cells still remain intact and serve as an excellent peipline to transport water from the roots to the leaves.

The main driving force of water uptake and transport into a plant is transpiration of water from leaves through specialized openings called stomata. Heat from the sun causes the water to evaporate, setting this ‘water chain’ in motion. The evaporation creates a negative water vapor pressure. Water is pulled into the leaf to replace the water that has transpired from the leaf. This pulling of water, or tension, occurs in the xylem of the leaf. Since the xylem is a continuous water column that extends from the leaf to the roots, this negative water pressure extends into the roots and results in water uptake from the soil. [adapted from: http://www.scientificamerican.com/article.cfm?id=follow-up-how-do-trees-ca ]

Clearly this clever water transport system shows a superior intelligence of the Creator (YHWH).


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Francis David said it long ago, "Neither the sword of popes...nor the image of death will halt the march of truth."Francis David, 1579, written on the wall of his prison cell." Read the book, "What Does The Bible Really Teach" and the Bible today, and go to www.jw.org!

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the Cecropia peltata and its closely related species. Cecropia is a genus of about 25 species of trees in the nettle family (Urticaceae).

Post  Admin on Sun Oct 06, 2013 6:35 pm

Hi Everyone:

Here is a Commentary on Bountiful Trees and Vegetables God (YHWH) has provided for mankind, specifically the Cecropia peltata and its closely related species. Cecropia is a genus of about 25 species of trees in the nettle family (Urticaceae). They are native to the tropical Americas, where they form one of the most recognisable components of the rainforest. The genus is named after Cecrops I, the mythical first king of Athens. A common local name is yarumo or yagrumo, or more specifically yagrumo hembra ("female yagrumo") to distinguish them from the similar-looking but unrelated Schefflera (which are called yagrumo macho, "male yagrumo"). In English, these trees are occasionally called pumpwoods (though this may also refer to C. schreberiana specifically) or simply cecropias.

In the past, they were commonly placed in a distinct family Cecropiaceae or in the mulberry family (Moraceae), but the modern Angiosperm Phylogeny Group system places the "cecropiacean" group in the Urticaceae.

The genus is easily identified by the large, circular, palmately lobed leaves, about 30–40 cm in diameter and deeply divided into 7-11 lobes.
Ecology and uses

These tree are a characteristic feature of many American tropical rainforest ecosystems and may be among the dominant tree species in some places. Being aggressive, rapid growth trees, whose succulent fruits are readily sought by various animals, they tend to be among the first pioneer species to occupy former forest areas cleared for pasture or altered by human activity[1].Cecropia hololeuca, known in Brazil as "silver cecropia", has broad, silver-hue leaves that make it to be used as an ornamental plant for landscaping projects, as is the case also with the similar species C. pachystachya.

Cecropia species are used as food plants by the larvae of some Lepidoptera species, including the arctiid moth Hypercompe icasia; the Cecropia Moth (Hyalophora cecropia) is a North American species however, and thus allopatric with the plant genus. The leaves and buds are also eaten by sloths. as their main source of food. But many herbivores avoid these plants: most Cecropia are myrmecophytes, housing dolichoderine ants of the genus Azteca, which will vigorously defend their hostplant against getting eaten. This symbiosis has been studied extensively by biologists such as Daniel Janzen.

Cecropia fruit, known as snake fingers, are a popular food of diverse animals however, including bats like the Common Fruit Bat (Artibeus jamaicensis) or Carollia species, the Central American Squirrel Monkey (Saimiri oerstedii), and birds like the Green Aracari (Pteroglossus viridis), the Keel-billed Toucan (Ramphastos sulfuratus), the Peach-fronted Conure (Aratinga Aurea), the Bare-throated Bellbird (Procnias nudicollis)[4] and particularly nine-primaried oscines[5]. The seeds are not normally digested and thus these animals are important in distributing the trees. Some birds – e.g. the Lesser Potoo (Nyctibius griseus) – nest in Cecropia trees. The Elfin-woods Warbler (Dendroica angelae) is notable for using Cecropia leaves as nesting material, which no other New World warbler (family Parulidae) seems to do.

Red Cecropia (C. glaziovii) shows antidepressant-like activity in rats[6]. Native peoples use Cecropia for food, firewood, and in herbalism; some species also have cultural significance. On Trinidad and Tobago, Shield-leaved Pumpwood (C. peltata) root is chewed and given to dogs that have been bitten by poisonous snakes as an emergency remedy. Cecropia leaves can be used as a substitute for sandpaper. In western South America, Cecropia leaf ash is used in the traditional preparation of ypadu, a mild coca-based stimulant. Cecropia bark can be used in rope making as well as in tannery. Cecropia wood is used in the manufacture of boxes, toys, aeromodelling models and rafts. [source - retrieved from http://www.thefullwiki.org/Cecropia on 1/03/2013]

In Genesis 1:11-13, "And God said, Let the earth put forth grass, herbs yielding seed, and fruit-trees bearing fruit after their kind, wherein is the seed thereof, upon the earth: and it was so. 12 And the earth brought forth grass, herbs yielding seed after their kind, and trees bearing fruit, wherein is the seed thereof, after their kind: and God saw that it was good. 13 And there was evening and there was morning, a third day. (American Standard Version, ASV)[for more details, go to www.jw.org].

Description
Trumpet tree is an awkwardly branched, open-crowned tree with alternate leaves about a foot (30 cm) wide clustered at tips of inwardly curving stems. It can grow to 70 ft (21 m) tall, but most trees are much smaller. The leaves have 7-11 palmate lobes and are borne on long petioles which attach near the center of the leaf. Leaves are rough-textured and dark green above and felty white underneath. The smooth gray bark on young trees is ringed with leaf scars. The flowers are small inconspicuous yellow catkins. They are followed by numerous small seeds embedded in 3 in (7.5 cm) long soft-fleshed fruiting stems. Prop roots sometimes develop at the base of the tree. Cecropia peltata is often confused with C. palmata, which has leaves divided almost to the base (as opposed to a third of the way in) and longer fruits. C. peltata may also be mistaken for Didymopanax morototoni, an unrelated lookalike tree.

Culture
These are fast growing, short-lived trees. Young specimens can put on 2-3 in (5-8 cm) diameter per year. They need fertile soil to grow well and dislike competition from lawn grasses.

Light: Trumpet tree does best in full sun.

Moisture: These trees grow best on well drained soils with ample moisture.
Hardiness: USDA Zones 10 - 11. This is a very frost sensitive tree that throws a dramatic tantrum and flings big brown leaves all around when it gets chilled.

Propagation: Trumpet tree can be propagated from seed, but the seeds germinate slowly. In the wild, the seeds are dispersed by bats and birds.

Usage
Cecropias are widely planted for tropical landscape effects. The young buds may be eaten as a cooked vegetable. The corrosive and astringent latex is used against warts, calluses, herpes, ulcers, dysentery, and venereal diseases. The leaves of both Cecropia peltata and C. palmata are used in herbal medicine under the name "embauba leaf." A tea made from the leaves is widely employed as a cure for asthma and thought to be useful in treating a wide variety of other ailments including liver disease, cardiovascular problems, Parkinson's disease, and snakebite. It also is used to ease childbirth and menstrual complaints. The trumpet tree's main trunk is solid and composed of a soft, weak, brittle, lightweight wood. It is combined with cement to make insulation board and made into excelsior, matchsticks, crates, toys, partitions, and paper pulp. The wood ignites readily from friction and makes good tinder. A latex rubber is made from the milky sap and the inner bark yields a coarse fiber. The leaves are sometimes used as sandpaper. The hollow stems have been fashioned into musical instruments, fishing floats, life preservers, water troughs, gutters, and bottle "corks." The dead leaves dry dark mahogany brown above and white beneath, and curl into interesting sculptural forms which can be used in dried arrangements.

Features
In addition to providing quick (though patchy) shade and tropical atmosphere, the trumpet tree makes a fine ecological conversation piece. In the tree's native habitat biting ants live in the hollow stems. In a mutually beneficial relationship, the small but fierce ants clean the tree of debris and protect it from leaf-cutter ants and other herbivores, while the tree provides the ants with shelter and food in the form of special food-bodies produced along the undersides of the leaf stems. [source - retrieved from http://www.floridata.com/ref/c/cecr_pel.cfm on 1/03/2013]

Seed Production and Dissemination
Although as many as 15,000 flowers may be produced per inflorescence, the number of seeds that mature fully may be as low as 18 percent, or 2,725 viable seeds per inflorescence. Seed production by a mature tree during one reproductive year has been estimated to be as high as I million (13,26). Seed production is size or age specific, however, and increases throughout the lifetime of the tree. In an estimated life span of 30 years, as many as 6 to 7 million seeds may be produced by a single tree. Reproductive maturity is reached at an earlier age, 3 or 4 years by pistillate than by staminate trees, which mature at 4 to 5 years. Reproductive age may depend upon need for allocation of resources to rapid initial height growth and therefore the height and proximity to surrounding vegetation. Roadside trees, in a more open environment, reached reproductive maturity sooner (3 to 4 years) than forest gap trees (5 to 6 years) (26). Seed production probably decreases as a tree approaches the senescent state. In this stage there appears to be an increase in branch loss.

Seeds are dispersed primarily by bats and birds (3,7,11,18,24); seeds pass through the digestive tracts unharmed (24). In Puerto Rico, 15 species of birds and bats have been reported to feed on mature yagrumo hembra fruit. Some of the more common species include the Jamaican fruit eating bat, the banana quit, the pearly-eyed thrasher, the red-legged thrush, and the reina mora (18,26).
These species frequent both open and forested areas, so that seeds are dispersed widely and are available in forest soil in the event of a disturbance (12). As many as 398 seeds per square meter (37/ft²) have been reported to be present in undisturbed lower montane rain forest soil (2,26). Blum (3) reported that yagrumo hembra seedlings grew in 4 to 10 soil samples taken from mature forests in Panama. Other secondary species such as yagrumo macho, cachimbo comun (Psychotria berteriana), and guano were also present in these soils.
Seeds may also be dispersed when the entire fruit cluster falls to the ground upon ripening, but these seeds show a reduced viability as the embryos are damaged by fungi and insects of the family Nitidulidae. Laboratory- stored seeds retained viability for a minimum of 6 months, whereas seeds stored on the forest floor retained viability for only 2 to 3 months. This reduced viability under natural conditions indicates that a constant addition of seeds to the seed bank of the forest floor is necessary for rapid and successful colonization of a forest gap.

Seedling Development-
Seeds require full sunlight for successful germination. Thus, seeds present on the floor of closed forests germinate only when some type of canopy gap occurs. Given full light conditions, germination may be as high as 80 to 90 percent (3,16,26). Germination is epigeal and in an open field was shown to be reduced by the presence of a layer of leaf litter. Other factors that may interact with increased light intensity in promoting germination include higher surface soil temperatures, fluctuations in air temperature, and changes in soil moisture. With the decreased light intensity beneath the closed forest canopy, spectral composition (an increased proportion of infrared light) may also become critical to germination (26). A decreased ratio of infrared to red light has been shown to inhibit germination of successional species. In open fields there was less yagrumo hembra seed germination than was observed in light gaps. This may result from the extremely high and fluctuating surface soil temperatures or to fluctuating but frequently low soil moisture, or both [source - retrieved from http://www.na.fs.fed.us/spfo/pubs/silvics_manual/volume_2/cecropia/peltata.htm on 1/03/2013]

How this tree and other plants absorb water from the ground. Plants have developed an effective system to absorb, translocate, store, and utilize water. Plants contain a vast network of conduits, which consists of xylem and phloem tissues. These conducting tissues start in the roots and continue up through the trunks of trees, into the branches and then into every leaf. Phloem tissue is made of living elongated cells that are connected to one another and responsible for translocating nutrients and sugars (carbohydrates), which are produced by leaves for energy and growth. The xylem is also composed of elongated cells but once the cells are formed, they die. The walls of the xylem cells still remain intact and serve as an excellent peipline to transport water from the roots to the leaves.

The main driving force of water uptake and transport into a plant is transpiration of water from leaves through specialized openings called stomata. Heat from the sun causes the water to evaporate, setting this ‘water chain’ in motion. The evaporation creates a negative water vapor pressure. Water is pulled into the leaf to replace the water that has transpired from the leaf. This pulling of water, or tension, occurs in the xylem of the leaf. Since the xylem is a continuous water column that extends from the leaf to the roots, this negative water pressure extends into the roots and results in water uptake from the soil. [adapted from: http://www.scientificamerican.com/article.cfm?id=follow-up-how-do-trees-ca ]

Clearly this clever water transport system shows a superior intelligence of the Creator (YHWH).


Now to know the truth, go to:

1) http://religioustruths.forumsland.com/

2) http://www.network54.com/Forum/403209/

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Your Friend in Christ Iris89

Francis David said it long ago, "Neither the sword of popes...nor the image of death will halt the march of truth."Francis David, 1579, written on the wall of his prison cell." Read the book, "What Does The Bible Really Teach" and the Bible today, and go to www.jw.org!

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the cempedak, Artocarpus integer, is a species of tree in the family Moraceae,

Post  Admin on Wed Oct 09, 2013 9:33 am


Hi Everyone:

Here is a Commentary on Bountiful Trees and Vegetables God (YHWH) has provided for mankind, specifically the cempedak, Artocarpus integer, is a species of tree in the family Moraceae, and in the same genus as breadfruit and jackfruit. It is native to southeast Asia, from Indonesia and the Malay Peninsula to the island of New Guinea. It is also grown and eaten in Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu and Kerala states of India. Furthermore, the tree has also been introduced to Queensland. The fruits are also commonly found and sold in Singapore.

Description
Cempedak trees are large, evergreen trees. They can grow to a height of 20 m, although most only reach a dozen meters. The trees are monoecious, with male and female flowers growing on the same tree. There are many varieties, although few are named. The vigorously growing tree can bear heavy crops of fruit once or twice a year.

Fruit
The syncarp may be cylindrical to spherical in shape, and ranges from 10 to 15 cm across and 20 to 35 cm in length.[1] The thin and leathery skin is greenish, yellowish to brownish in color, and patterned with hexagons that are either raised protuberances or flat eye facets.

The fleshy, edible arils surround the large, inedible seeds in a thick layer. It is yellowish-white to orange in color, sweet and fragrant, soft, slippery and slimy on the tongue and a bit fibrous. The taste of the fruit is similar to the related jackfruit and breadfruit with a hint of durian. The seeds are flattened spheres or elongated, about 2–3 cm in length.

Uses
The fruit is very popular in its native area, and is becoming so in Queensland. The flesh can be eaten fresh or after being processed. Fritters made by dipping arils in batter and frying in oil are sold in the streets of Malaysia. The seeds can be fried, boiled or grilled and then peeled and eaten with a little salt mixture. They taste similar to water chestnuts. The young fruit, like young jackfruit, can be used as a vegetable.[1]

The wood is of good quality, strong and durable, so it is often used as building material for home furnishings or boats. The fibrous bark can be used to make ropes. Yellow dye can also be produced from the wood.[1]

In Borneo, the skin of the cempedak (or in bahasa Banjarnya tiwadak) can be processed into food called mandai or some call dami. Mandai is made by peeling the fruit until it looks white, then soaking in brine to preserve and soften the texture. The fruit may be soaked for a few hours or even up to a month. Mandai is usually consumed by frying until brown.[1]

In Culture
Teluk Cempedak is a famous beach in Kuantan, Pahang, Malaysia. Its name roughly translates to Cempedak Bay, in reference to the fruit itself.[citation needed]
For more information, see "Fruits of the Future: Chempedak" by David K. Chandlee [1]
* Fruits Technology of cempedak
References
1. ^ a b c d JANSEN, P.C.M. 1997. Artocarpus integer (Thunb.) Merr. dalam Verheij, E.W.M. dan R.E. Coronel (eds.). Sumber Daya Nabati Asia Tenggara 2: Buah-buahan yang dapat dimakan. PROSEA – Gramedia. Jakarta. ISBN 979-511-672-2. [source - retrieved from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cempedak on 5/23/2013]

In Genesis 1:11-13, "And God said, Let the earth put forth grass, herbs yielding seed, and fruit-trees bearing fruit after their kind, wherein is the seed thereof, upon the earth: and it was so. 12 And the earth brought forth grass, herbs yielding seed after their kind, and trees bearing fruit, wherein is the seed thereof, after their kind: and God saw that it was good. 13 And there was evening and there was morning, a third day. (American Standard Version, ASV)[for more details, go to www.jw.org].

See fruit pictures ½ way down at, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cempedak

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Francis David said it long ago, "Neither the sword of popes...nor the image of death will halt the march of truth."Francis David, 1579, written on the wall of his prison cell." Read the book, "What Does The Bible Really Teach" and the Bible today, and go to www.jw.org!

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the Dovyalis hebecarpa, commonly known as Ceylon gooseberry, Kitembilla or Ketembilla

Post  Admin on Sat Oct 12, 2013 2:22 pm

Hi Everyone:

Here is a Commentary on Bountiful Trees and Vegetables God (YHWH) has provided for mankind, specifically the Dovyalis hebecarpa, commonly known as Ceylon gooseberry, Kitembilla or Ketembilla, is a plant in the genus Dovyalis, native to Sri Lanka and southern India.

It is a shrub or small tree growing to 6 m tall, with sharp, 3–6 cm long stem spines in the leaf axils. The leaves are alternately arranged, simple broad lanceolate, 5–10 cm long and 1–3 cm broad, with an entire or finely toothed margin.

The flowers are inconspicuous, solitary or clustered, with no petals. It is dioecious, with male and female flowers on separate plants, though some female plants are parthenogenetic.

The fruit is an edible dark purple globose berry 2–3 cm diameter, very juicy with an acidic flavour, and containing several small seeds. Kitembilla fruit, which taste similar to a gooseberry (they are sometimes called "Ceylon Gooseberry"), are often eaten fresh, or made into jam. Some cultivars have been selected for being thornless (making harvesting easier) and larger fruit. [source - retrieved from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ceylon_gooseberry on 1/04/2013]

Ceylon Gooseberry
Dovyalis. Flacourtiaceae. Fifteen species of dioecious shrubs or small trees, sometimes with axillary spines. Leaves alternate, simple, pinnately veined, usually 3-nerved at the base, with a short petiole and small deciduous stipules. Male flowers many, clustered in the axils, with 4-7 hairy sepals, no petals, and numerous stamens and glands bourne on a fleshy disc; female flowers solitary or a few together, with 5-9 peristent hairy sepals and no petals; ovary 2-8-celled. Fruit an indehiscent berry. Africa, India, Sri Lanka.

Cultivation
Dovyalis caffra, from warm coastal habitats, is a vigorous, drought-resistant species once established. It is grown for its aromatic fruits, which have a flavour similar to apricots, eaten bletted or in jam. The dense, spiny shoots make an impenetrable barrier, and it is well suited for hedging in zones that are frost-free or almost so. In climates with hot summers, where wood becomes well-ripened, Dovyalis caffra, with tolerate temperatures to between -5ºC and -7ºC. Dovyalis hebecarpa and Dovyalis abyssinica (the latter possibly the most ornamental of the genus) occur naturally in warm, humid and subtropical climates and in temperate zones are grown in the warm glasshouse, with a winter minimum of 7-10ºC. Plant in fertile, humus-rich, well-drained soils in full sun. Space Dovyalis caffra at 1-1.5m for hedging, 4-5m for fruit trees; a ratio of 1:30 male to female plants is adequate to ensure pollination. Propagate from seed; plants will fruit at 4-5 years of age. Also by layering. Graft or shield-bud desirbale varieties on to seedling rootstocks. [source - retrieved from http://growfruit.tripod.com/ceylon.htm on 1/04/2013]

In Genesis 1:11-13, "And God said, Let the earth put forth grass, herbs yielding seed, and fruit-trees bearing fruit after their kind, wherein is the seed thereof, upon the earth: and it was so. 12 And the earth brought forth grass, herbs yielding seed after their kind, and trees bearing fruit, wherein is the seed thereof, after their kind: and God saw that it was good. 13 And there was evening and there was morning, a third day. (American Standard Version, ASV)[for more details, go to www.jw.org].

More on the Ceylon Gooseberry:
* Ceylon gooseberry: meaning and definitions - Ceylon gooseberry: Definition and Pronunciation
* umkokola - umkokola umkokola, small, thorny S and E African tree (Dovyalis caffra, also called kei-apple), ...
* Suggestions for spelling of encyclopedia/ceylon gooseberry - The Infoplease spelling checker combines spelling help with our dictionary and thesaurus
* kitembilla: meaning and definitions - kitembilla: Definition and Pronunciation
* Dictionary Index - Dictionary Index Césaire Cesarean cesarevitch Cesca chair Cesena cesium cesium 137 ... [source - retrieved from http://www.infoplease.com/encyclopedia/science/ceylon-gooseberry.html on 1 04//2013]

Utilization: The fruits are consumed fresh, either as a flavoring for beverages, or in preserves. Fruits can also be eaten out of hand but are usually not as the pulp is too acidic. In Florida, Ceylon gooseberry fruits are used primarily for jelly. In Hawaii, these are being used for juice, spiced jelly, ketimbilla-papaya jam, ketimbilla-guava jelly, and ketimbilla-apple butter. In Israel, the fruit is valued mainly as a source of jelly for export [source - retrieved from http://www.fruitipedia.com/ceylon_gooseberry.htm on 1/04/2013]

To see a picture of this tree and its fruit, go to http://www.fruitipedia.com/ceylon_gooseberry.htm

How this tree and other plants absorb water from the ground. Plants have developed an effective system to absorb, translocate, store, and utilize water. Plants contain a vast network of conduits, which consists of xylem and phloem tissues. These conducting tissues start in the roots and continue up through the trunks of trees, into the branches and then into every leaf. Phloem tissue is made of living elongated cells that are connected to one another and responsible for translocating nutrients and sugars (carbohydrates), which are produced by leaves for energy and growth. The xylem is also composed of elongated cells but once the cells are formed, they die. The walls of the xylem cells still remain intact and serve as an excellent peipline to transport water from the roots to the leaves.

The main driving force of water uptake and transport into a plant is transpiration of water from leaves through specialized openings called stomata. Heat from the sun causes the water to evaporate, setting this ‘water chain’ in motion. The evaporation creates a negative water vapor pressure. Water is pulled into the leaf to replace the water that has transpired from the leaf. This pulling of water, or tension, occurs in the xylem of the leaf. Since the xylem is a continuous water column that extends from the leaf to the roots, this negative water pressure extends into the roots and results in water uptake from the soil. [adapted from: http://www.scientificamerican.com/article.cfm?id=follow-up-how-do-trees-ca ]

Clearly this clever water transport system shows a superior intelligence of the Creator (YHWH).


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Francis David said it long ago, "Neither the sword of popes...nor the image of death will halt the march of truth."Francis David, 1579, written on the wall of his prison cell." Read the book, "What Does The Bible Really Teach" and the Bible today, and go to www.jw.org!



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Re: Almighty God’s (YHWH) Great Gift to Mankind, The Rare Fruit Trees and Herbs

Post  Admin on Tue Oct 15, 2013 3:55 pm


Hi Everyone:

Here is a Commentary on Bountiful Trees and Vegetables God (YHWH) has provided for mankind, specifically the Charichuela, Rheedia Macrophylla, a small tree never growing over 25 feet, and having a 2 to 3” wide fruit with creamy white flesh of good flavor. It likes full sun, and propagation from seed takes 7 to 10 years for fruit in plants started from seed. It is an understory tree native to the Amazon river lowlands.

Little is known about this tree other than the work done by Bill Whitman was a founder of the Rare Fruit Council International. Bill was the first president of the Rare Fruit Council, from 1955 to 1960. Truly one of the real "rare fruit" pioneers who started the rare fruit movement. He was the only person who grew and successfully fruited Mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana) in the continental United States as well as many other rare fruits including Rambutan (Nephelium lappaceum), Charichuela (Garcinia madruno) and many other truly rare fruits. I, Eric Bronson, visited his estate in 2005 with members of our group, he was super friendly. He gave us a tour of his rare fruit orchard, allowing us to sample several fruits. The Charichuela was my favorite and Bill encouraged us to keep the seeds so we could propagate this rare species ourselves! I also recieved cuttings of two species of Dragon Fruit (Hylocereus spp.) and slips from his "Eleuthera" Pineapple (Ananas comosus). William Francis Whitman Jr. was born in 1914 in Chicago, a son of William Sr. and Leona Whitman. His father owned a printing company in Chicago and added to his fortune by developing real estate in Miami. Bill and his brothers helped pioneer surfing in Florida, and he was inducted into the East Coast Surfing Hall of Fame in 1998. A book collecting his articles, “Five Decades with Tropical Fruit,” was published in 2001. I was sad to hear of his passing but his legacy lives on in all of the plants that are in our gardens thanks to him. [source - retrieved from on //2013]
Growth Rate: Slow to moderate. Grows "exponentially;" the bigger it is, the faster it grows.

Mature Height/Spread: Small understory tree, to 20'
Flowering/Pollination: Self-fertile flowers are born in clusters on wood that is at least 2 years old.

Tolerance: No salt tolerance. Moderate drought tolerance.
Soil/Nutrition: Tree is adaptable to many soil types, but on neutral, deficient, or alkaline soils, like many American garcinia species it may suffer from iron defiency. Micronutrient supplements both in the soil and as a foliar spray are highly recommended to keep all garcinias growing happily and constantly, under cultivation.

Light: Part shade to full sun. Can grow in full shade, but fruiting will be limited.

Wind: Small, sturdy tree.
Temperature: Tropical, to warm subtropics. Will survve brief frosts; mature trees survive short 27-28 F degree drops without much harm. Young trees will be killed by temperatures below freezing, requiring juvenile protection from cold.

Dangers: None.
Diseases Prone:
Bearing Age: 5-7 years from seed. Trees are not as prolific as other closely related garcinia species, with mature trees bearing perhaps 200 fruit in a good year.
Fruit: The fruit wall is firm, about 1/4" inch thick, and inedible, containing a stick yellow latex. Inside are seeded segments surrounded, edible whitish flesh of an agreeable sub-acid to sour flavor. Fruits occur twice a year, in the spring and fall.

History/Origin: Native throughout the Amazon basin in South America.
Species Observations:

Propogation: Exclusively by seeds, which must be planted soon after harvest and not allowed to dry out. Seeds can be slow to germinate, sometimes taking 3 weeks.

Container Culture: Like many garcinia species of small stature, it is possible to grow this species in 15 to 25 gallon containers.
Medicinal Uses:

Nutritional Information:
Preparation / Food: Fruits are eaten fresh. Rind is scored around the equator, with care to to get the bitter sap on the edible portion, and the segmented flesh is eaten. [source - retrieved from http://www.tropicalplantbook.com/garden_plants/treesfruit/pages_new_3/garcinia_magnifolia.htm on 1/04/2013]

In Genesis 1:11-13, "And God said, Let the earth put forth grass, herbs yielding seed, and fruit-trees bearing fruit after their kind, wherein is the seed thereof, upon the earth: and it was so. 12 And the earth brought forth grass, herbs yielding seed after their kind, and trees bearing fruit, wherein is the seed thereof, after their kind: and God saw that it was good. 13 And there was evening and there was morning, a third day. (American Standard Version, ASV)[for more details, go to www.jw.org].

More on Bill Whitman’s work, “Bill Whitman in North Miami Beach successfully fruited garcinia madruno and the tree fruits prolifically.
The female tree is self fertile but the addition of a male tree as Bill Whitman had planted right beside it increased fruit production immensely.
Fruit is like lemony cotton candy and widely liked.

Erica Lynne has a fruiting potted specimen beside her pool in Naples, Florida.
chlorosis & fungal prevention = handled by 1 tablespoon sequestrian 138 chelated iron + 1 teaspoon ridomil + 1 teaspoon superthrive in a 5 gallon bucket of water, stirred up well and poured at the base of each tree. 3 servings per bucket. [source - retrieved from http://rarefruit.pbworks.com/w/page/6859077/Charichuela on 1/04/2013]

How this tree and other plants absorb water from the ground. Plants have developed an effective system to absorb, translocate, store, and utilize water. Plants contain a vast network of conduits, which consists of xylem and phloem tissues. These conducting tissues start in the roots and continue up through the trunks of trees, into the branches and then into every leaf. Phloem tissue is made of living elongated cells that are connected to one another and responsible for translocating nutrients and sugars (carbohydrates), which are produced by leaves for energy and growth. The xylem is also composed of elongated cells but once the cells are formed, they die. The walls of the xylem cells still remain intact and serve as an excellent peipline to transport water from the roots to the leaves.

The main driving force of water uptake and transport into a plant is transpiration of water from leaves through specialized openings called stomata. Heat from the sun causes the water to evaporate, setting this ‘water chain’ in motion. The evaporation creates a negative water vapor pressure. Water is pulled into the leaf to replace the water that has transpired from the leaf. This pulling of water, or tension, occurs in the xylem of the leaf. Since the xylem is a continuous water column that extends from the leaf to the roots, this negative water pressure extends into the roots and results in water uptake from the soil. [adapted from: http://www.scientificamerican.com/article.cfm?id=follow-up-how-do-trees-ca ]

Clearly this clever water transport system shows a superior intelligence of the Creator (YHWH).


Now to know the truth, go to:

1) http://religioustruths.forumsland.com/

2) http://www.network54.com/Forum/403209/

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4) http://religioustruths.boardhost.com/

5) http://religious-truths.forums.com/

6) http://religioustruthsbyiris.createmybb3.com/

7) http://religioustruths.forumotion.com/


Your Friend in Christ Iris89

Francis David said it long ago, "Neither the sword of popes...nor the image of death will halt the march of truth."Francis David, 1579, written on the wall of his prison cell." Read the book, "What Does The Bible Really Teach" and the Bible today, and go to www.jw.org!

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The Chayote (Sechium edule), known as Chocho in Belize but also known as christophene, vegetable pear, starprecianté, citrayota or citrayote and pear squash

Post  Admin on Fri Oct 18, 2013 10:15 am

Hi Everyone:

Here is a Commentary on Bountiful Trees and Vegetables God (YHWH) has provided for mankind, specifically the The Chayote (Sechium edule), known as Chocho in Belize but also known as christophene, vegetable pear, starprecianté, citrayota or citrayote and pear squash is an edible plant that belongs to the gourd family Cucurbitaceae along with melons, cucumbers and squash. The chayote fruit is used in both raw and cooked forms. When cooked, chayote is usually handled like summer squash, it is generally lightly cooked to retain the crisp flavor. Raw chayote may be added to salads or salsas, and it is often marinated with lemon or lime juice. It can also be eaten straight, although the bland flavor makes this a dubious endeavor. Whether raw or cooked, chayote is a good source of amino acids and vitamin C. [source - retrieved from http://www.belizedestinations.com/fruits/chayote.html on 1/04/2013]

The chayote[1] (Sechium edule), also known as christophene or christophine,[1] cho-cho,[1] mirliton[2] or merleton (Creole/Cajun), chuchu (Brazil), pear squash, vegetable pear,[1] chouchoute, choko, pipinola, güisquil (El Salvador)[3] is an edible plant belonging to the gourd family Cucurbitaceae, along with melons, cucumbers and squash.
Chayote is originally native to Mexico or Central America where it grows abundantly and has little commercial value, and it has been introduced as a crop all over Latin America, and worldwide. The main growing regions are Brazil, Costa Rica and Veracruz, Mexico. Costa Rican chayotes are predominantly exported to the European Union, whereas Veracruz is the main exporter of chayotes to the United States.

The word chayote is a Spanish derivative of the Nahuatl word chayohtli (pronounced [t??a?jo?t??i]). Chayote was one of the many foods introduced to Europe by early explorers, who brought back a wide assortment of botanical samples. The Age of Conquest also spread the plant south from Mexico, ultimately causing it to be integrated into the cuisine of many other Latin American nations.

The chayote fruit is used in mostly cooked forms. When cooked, chayote is usually handled like summer squash, it is generally lightly cooked to retain the crisp flavor. Though rare and often regarded as especially unpalatable and tough in texture, raw chayote may be added to salads or salsas, most often marinated with lemon or lime juice. Whether raw or cooked, chayote is a good source of amino acids and vitamin C.

Although most people are familiar only with the fruit as being edible, the root, stem, seeds and leaves are as well. The tubers of the plant are eaten like potatoes and other root vegetables, while the shoots and leaves are often consumed in salads and stir fries, especially in Asia. Like other members of the gourd family, such as cucumbers, melons, and squash, chayote has a sprawling habit, and it should only be planted if there is plenty of room in the garden. The roots are also highly susceptible to rot, especially in containers, and the plant in general is finicky to grow. However, in Australia and New Zealand, it is an easily grown yard or garden plant, set on a chicken wire support or strung against a fence.

In the most common variety, the fruit is roughly pear-shaped, somewhat flattened and with coarse wrinkles, ranging from 10 to 20 cm in length. It looks like a green pear, and it has a thin, green skin fused with the green to white flesh, and a single, large, flattened pit. The flesh has a fairly bland taste, and a texture is described as a cross between a potato and a cucumber. Although generally discarded, the seed has a nutty flavor and may be eaten as part of the fruit.

The chayote vine can be grown on the ground, but as a climbing plant, it will grow onto anything, and can easily rise as high as 12 meters when support is provided. It has heart-shaped leaves, 10–25 cm wide and tendrils on the stem. The plant bears male flowers in clusters and solitary female flowers. The plant’s fruit is light green and elongated with deep ridges lengthwise.
The fruit does not need to be peeled to be cooked or fried in slices. Most people regard it as having a very mild flavor by itself (though some find it unpalatable). It is commonly served with seasonings (e.g. salt, butter and pepper in Australia) or in a dish with other vegetables and/or flavorings. It can also be boiled, stuffed, mashed, baked, fried, or pickled in escabeche sauce. Both fruit and seed are rich in amino acids and vitamin C.[6] Fresh green fruit are firm and without brown spots or signs of sprouting. Smaller ones are more tender.

The tuberous part of the root is starchy and eaten like a yam (can be fried). It can be used as pig or cattle fodder, as well.

The leaves and fruit have diuretic, cardiovascular and anti-inflammatory properties, and a tea made from the leaves has been used in the treatment of arteriosclerosis and hypertension, and to dissolve kidney stones.[6]
In Louisiana Creole and Cajun cuisine, the fruit, known as mirliton (pronounced IPA: [?m??l?t?n])[7] also spelled mirletons or merletons (plural -- the r is often silent, e.g. Cajun me-lay-taw or urban Creole mi?l-uh-t??ns)[2] is a popular seasonal dish for the holidays, especially around Thanksgiving, in a variety of recipes.

Chayote is an important part of traditional diets across Mesoamerica, and can be found in a variety of dishes.

In the Philippines, the plant is known as "Sayote" and is grown mostly on Mountainous part of the country such as Baguio City and parts of Cordillera Administrative Region. Chayote is used in many kinds of dishes such as soup, stir-fried vegetables and chop suey.

In Indonesia, chayotes are called labu siam and widely planted for their shoots and fruit. It's generally used in Sundanese food as "lalap" and one of ingredients for Sundanese cuisine called "sayur asem".

In Taiwan, chayotes are widely planted for their shoots, known as lóng xü cài (???, literally "dragon-whisker vegetable"). Along with the young leaves, the shoot is a commonly consumed vegetable in the region.

In Thai cuisine, the plant is known as sayongte (Thai: ????????) or fak maeo (Thai: ???????, literally meaning "Miao melon"). It grows mainly in the mountains of northern Thailand. The young shoots and greens are often eaten stir-fried or in certain soups.

In Brazil and other Latin American countries, it is breaded and fried, or used cooked in salads, soups and soufflés.

In Nepal, the plant and fruit is called iskus (?????? in Nepali), probably derived from the word squash. Its shoots, fruit and roots are widely used for different varieties of curries.
Chayote is also popular in South Indian cuisine. It is popularly referred to as 'Bangalore brinjal' and is used in vegetable stews. [source - retrieved from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Christophine on 1/04/2013]

In Genesis 1:11-13, "And God said, Let the earth put forth grass, herbs yielding seed, and fruit-trees bearing fruit after their kind, wherein is the seed thereof, upon the earth: and it was so. 12 And the earth brought forth grass, herbs yielding seed after their kind, and trees bearing fruit, wherein is the seed thereof, after their kind: and God saw that it was good. 13 And there was evening and there was morning, a third day. (American Standard Version, ASV)[for more details, go to www.jw.org].

Did you know that chayote is good for the heart and may also help prevent cancer? Discover the surprising health giving goodness of this cucumber relative.

Although chayote (Sechium edule) is typically prepared as a vegetable, it is in fact a fruit. It’s quite crunchy flesh can be eaten both raw and cooked. Around the world it is known by various names including merliton, christophene and chowchow. It is a member of the squash family and is referred to as a “vegetable pear” or chocho.

1. Good for the heart (Folate)
Chayote is an excellent source of folate, a B vitamin which helps prevent homocystein build-up. Studies have shown that too much of this amino acid in the blood is linked to a higher risk of coronary heart disease and stroke.
2. Helps prevent cancer (Vitamin C)
Vitamin C is known as one of the powerful antioxidants, substances that may protect cells from damage caused by free radicals. Studies suggest that antioxidants may slow or possibly prevent cancer development. Chayote is a very good source of vitamin C, providing 17% of the RDI.
3. Helps the body produce energy (Manganese)
Start your day with a breakfast of chayote omelet. Its manganese content helps the body convert protein and fat to energy.
4. Helps prevent constipation (Fiber)
To promote bowel regularity, add fiber to your diet with the help of this vegetable.
5. Keeps thyroid healthy (Copper)
It helps iodine in keeping the thyroid healthy by providing copper, a mineral linked in thyroid metabolism, especially in hormone production and absorption.
6. Helps prevent acne (Zinc)
It is a good source of zinc, a mineral which has shown to influence hormones which controls the production of oil in the skin.
7. Helps prevent bone loss (Vitamin K)
Tell grandma to eat chayote for a natural supply of vitamin K. Studies revealed a connection between vitamin K and osteoporosis.
8. Helps reduce blood pressure (Potassium)
Chayote can add to your DV of potassium, the mineral which helps lower blood pressure levels.
9. Good for the brain (Vitamin B6)
It can provide vitamin B6. Study participants have shown that vitamin B6 helps improve memory performance in some age groups.
10. Helps prevent leg cramps (Magnesium)
Chayote also contains magnesium, an electrolyte and a mineral which helps prevent muscle cramps.
Nutrient data source: USDA [source - retrieved from http://healthmad.com/nutrition/10-surprising-health-benefits-of-chayote/ on 1/04/2013]

How this vine and other plants absorb water from the ground. Plants have developed an effective system to absorb, translocate, store, and utilize water. Plants contain a vast network of conduits, which consists of xylem and phloem tissues. These conducting tissues start in the roots and continue up through the trunks of trees, into the branches and then into every leaf. Phloem tissue is made of living elongated cells that are connected to one another and responsible for translocating nutrients and sugars (carbohydrates), which are produced by leaves for energy and growth. The xylem is also composed of elongated cells but once the cells are formed, they die. The walls of the xylem cells still remain intact and serve as an excellent peipline to transport water from the roots to the leaves.

The main driving force of water uptake and transport into a plant is transpiration of water from leaves through specialized openings called stomata. Heat from the sun causes the water to evaporate, setting this ‘water chain’ in motion. The evaporation creates a negative water vapor pressure. Water is pulled into the leaf to replace the water that has transpired from the leaf. This pulling of water, or tension, occurs in the xylem of the leaf. Since the xylem is a continuous water column that extends from the leaf to the roots, this negative water pressure extends into the roots and results in water uptake from the soil. [adapted from: http://www.scientificamerican.com/article.cfm?id=follow-up-how-do-trees-ca ]

Clearly this clever water transport system shows a superior intelligence of the Creator (YHWH).


Now to know the truth, go to:

1) http://religioustruths.forumsland.com/

2) http://www.network54.com/Forum/403209/

3) http://religioustruths.lefora.com/

4) http://religioustruths.boardhost.com/

5) http://religious-truths.forums.com/

6) http://religioustruthsbyiris.createmybb3.com/

7) http://religioustruths.forumotion.com/


Your Friend in Christ Iris89

Francis David said it long ago, "Neither the sword of popes...nor the image of death will halt the march of truth."Francis David, 1579, written on the wall of his prison cell." Read the book, "What Does The Bible Really Teach" and the Bible today, and go to www.jw.org!

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Re: Almighty God’s (YHWH) Great Gift to Mankind, The Rare Fruit Trees and Herbs

Post  Admin on Sun Oct 20, 2013 2:39 pm

Hi Everyone:

Here is a Commentary on Bountiful Trees and Vegetables God (YHWH) has provided for mankind, specifically the the cherimoya, A. cherimola Mill., because of its limited distribution, has acquired few colloquial names, and most are merely local variations in spelling, such as chirimoya, cherimolia, chirimolla, cherimolier, cherimoyer. In Venezuela, it is called chirimorrinon; in Brazil, graveola, graviola, or grabiola; and in Mexico, pox or poox; in Belize, tukib; in El Salvador it is sometimes known as anona poshte; and elsewhere merely as anona, or anona blanca. In France, it is anone; in Haiti, cachiman la Chine. Indian names in Guatemala include pac, pap, tsummy and tzumux. The name, cherimoya, is sometimes misapplied to the less-esteemed custard apple, A. reticulata L. In Australia it is often applied to the atemoya (a cherimoya-sugar apple hybrid).
Description
The tree is erect but low branched and somewhat shrubby or spreading; ranging from 16 to 30 ft (5 to 9 m) in height; and its young branchlets are rusty-hairy. The leaves are briefly deciduous (just before spring flowering), alternate, 2-ranked, with minutely hairy petioles 1/4 to 1/2 in (6 to 12.5 mm) long; ovate to elliptic or ovate-lanceolate, short blunt-pointed at the apex; slightly hairy on the upper surface, velvety on the underside; 3 to 6 in (7.5-15 cm) long, 1 1/2 to 3 1/2 in (3.8-8.9 cm) wide.
Fragrant flowers, solitary or in groups of 2 or 3, on short, hairy stalks along the branches, have 3 outer, greenish, fleshy, oblong, downy petals to 1 1/4 in (3 cm) long and 3 smaller, pinkish inner petals. A compound fruit, the cherimoya is conical or somewhat heart-shaped, 4 to 8 in (10 to 20 cm) long and up to 4 in (10 cm) in width, weighing on the average 5 1/2 to 18 oz (150-500 g) but extra large specimens may weigh 6 lbs (2.7 kg) or more. The skin, thin or thick, may be smooth with fingerprint like markings or covered with conical or rounded protuberances. The fruit is easily broken or cut open, exposing the snow-white, juicy flesh, of pleasing aroma and delicious, subacid flavor; and containing numerous hard, brown or black, beanlike, glossy seeds, 1/2 to 3/4 in (1.25 to 2 cm) long.
Origin and Distribution
The cherimoya is believed indigenous to the interandean valleys of Ecuador, Colombia and Bolivia. In Bolivia, it flourishes best around Mizque and Ayopaya, in the Department of Cochabamba, and around Luribay, Sapahaqui and Rio Abajo in the Department of La Paz. Its cultivation must have spread in ancient times to Chile and Brazil for it has become naturalized in highlands throughout these countries. Many authors include Peru as a center of origin but others assert that the fruit was unknown in Peru until after seeds were sent by P. Bernabe Cobo from Guatemala in 1629 and that thirteen years after this introduction the cherimoya was observed in cultivation and sold in the markets of Lima. The often-cited representations of the cherimoya on ancient Peruvian pottery are actually images of the soursop, A. muricata L. Cobo sent seeds to Mexico also in 1629. There it thrives between 4,000 and 5,000 ft (1312-1640 m) elevations.
It is commonly grown and naturalized in temperate areas of Costa Rica and other countries of Central America. In Argentina, the cherimoya is mostly grown in the Province of Tucuman. In 1757, it was carried to Spain where it remained a dooryard tree until the 1940's and 1950's when it gained importance in the Province of Granada, in the Sierra Nevada mountains, as a replacement for the many orange trees that succumbed to disease and had to be taken out. By 1953, there were 262 acres (106 ha) of cherimoyas in this region.
In 1790 the cherimoya was introduced into Hawaii by Don Francisco de Paulo Marin. It is still casually grown in the islands and naturalized in dry upland forests. In 1785, it reached Jamaica, where it is cultivated and occurs as an escape on hillsides between 3,500 and 5,000 ft (1,066-1,524 m). It found its way to Haiti sometime later. The first planting in Italy was in 1797 and it became a favored crop in the Province of Reggio Calabria. The tree has been tried several times in the Botanic Gardens, Singapore first around 1878—but has always failed to survive because of the tropical climate. In the Philippines, it does well in the Mountain Province at an altitude above 2,460 ft (750 m). It was introduced into India and Ceylon in 1880 and there is small-scale culture in both countries at elevations between 1,500 and 7,000 ft (457-2,134 m). The tree was planted in Madeira in 1897, then in the Canary Islands, Algiers, Egypt and, probably via Italy, in Libya, Eritrea and Somalia.
The United States Department of Agriculture imported a number of lots of cherimoya seeds from Madeira in 1907 (S.P.I. Nos. 19853, 19854, 19855, 19898, 19901, 19904, 19905).
Seeds from Mexico were planted in California in 1871. There were 9,000 trees in that state in 1936 but many of them were killed by a freeze in 1937. Several small commercial orchards were established in the 1940's. At present there may be less than 100 acres (42 ha) in the milder parts of San Diego County. Seeds, seedlings and grafted trees from California and elsewhere have been planted in Florida many times but none has done well. Any fruits produced have been of poor quality.
Varieties
In Peru, cherimoyas are classed according to degree of surface irregularity, as: 'Lisa', almost smooth; 'Impresa', with "fingerprint" depressions; 'Umbonada', with rounded protrusions; 'Papilonado', or 'Tetilado', with fleshy, nipple-like protrusions; 'Tuberculada', with conical protrusions having wartlike tips. At the Agricultural Experiment Station "La Molina", several named and unnamed selections collected in northern Peru are maintained and evaluated. Among the more important are: #1, 'Chavez', fruits up to 3.3 lbs (1 1/2 kg); February to May; #2, 'Names', fruits January to April; #3, 'Sander', fruits with moderate number of seeds; July and early August; #4, fruit nearly smooth, not many seeds, 1.1 to 2.2 lbs (1/2-1 kg), June to August; #5, nearly smooth, very sweet, 2.2 Ibs (1 kg), March to June; #6, fruit with small protuberances, 1.1 to 2.2 Ibs (1/2-1 kg), not many seeds; #7 fruit small, very sweet, many seeds, March to May; #8, fruit very sweet, 1.1 to 2.2 Ibs (1/2 1 kg), with very few seeds, February to April.
In the Department of Antioquia, Colombia, a cultivar called 'Rio Negro' has heart shaped fruits weighing 1 3/4 to 2.2 Ibs (0.8-1 kg). The cherimoyas of Mizque, Cochabamba, Bolivia, are locally famed for their size and quality. 'Concha Lisa' and 'Bronceada' are grown commercially in Chile. Other cultivars mentioned in Chilean literature are 'Concha Picuda' and 'Terciopelo'.
Dr. Ernesto Saavedra, University of Chile, after ex perimenting with growth regulators for 4 years, developed a super cherimoya, 4 to 6 in (10-15 cm) wide and weighing up to 4 Ibs (1.8 kg); symmetrical, easy to peel and seedless, hence having 25% more flesh than an ordinary cherimoya. However, the larger fruits are subject to cracking.
The leading commercial cultivars in Spain are 'Pinchua' (thin-skinned) and 'Baste' (thick-skinned.)
Named cultivars in California include:
'Bays'—rounded, fingerprinted, light green, medium to large, of excellent flavor; good bearer; early.
'Whaley'—long-conical, sometimes shouldered at the base, slightly and irregularly tuberculate, with fairly thick, downy skin. Of good flavor, but membranous sac around each seed may adhere to flesh. Bears well; grown commercially; early.
'Deliciosa'—long-conical, prominently papillate; skin tbin, slightly downy; variable in flavor; only fair in quality; generally bears well but doesn't ship well; cold-resistant. Midseason.
'Booth'—short-conical, fingerprinted, medium to large; of good flavor; next to 'Deliciosa in hardiness. Late.
'McPherson'—short conical, fingerprinted but umbonate at the base; medium to large; of high quality; bears well. Midseason.
'Carter'—long-conical, but not shouldered; smooth or faintly fingerprinted; skin green to bronze; bears well. Late. Leaves wavy or twisted.
'Ryerson'—long-conical, smooth or fingerprinted, with tbick, tough, green or yellow green skin; of fair quality; ships well. Leaves wavy or twisted.
'White'—short-conical with rounded apex; slightly papil late to umbonate; medium to large; skin medium thick; of good flavor; doesn t bear well near the coast.
'Chaffey'—introduced in 1940s; rounded, short, finger printed; of medium size; excellent quality; bears well, even without hand-pollination.
'Ott'—(Patent #656)—introduced in 1940's; long conical to heart shaped, slightly tuberculate; of excellent flavor; ships well.
Among others that have been planted in California but considered inferior are: 'Horton', 'Golden Russet', 'Loma', 'Mire Vista', 'Sallmon'.
Pollination
A problem with the cherimoya is inadequate natural pollination because the male and female structures of each flower do not mature simultaneously. Few insects visit the flowers. Therefore, hand-pollination is highly desirable and must be done in a 6- to 8-hour period when the stigmas are white and sticky. It has been found in Chile that in the first flowers to open the pollen grains are loaded with starch, whereas flowers that open later have more abundant pollen, no starch grains, and the pollen germinates readily. Partly-opened flowers are collected in the afternoon and kept in a paper bag overnight. The next morning the shed pollen is put, together with moist paper, in a vial and transferred by brush to the receptive stigmas. Usually only a few of the flowers on a tree are pollinated each time, the operation being repeated every 4 or 5 days in order to extend the season of ripening. The closely related A. senegalensis Pers., if available, is a good source of abundant pollen for pollinating the cherimoya. The pollen of the sugar apple is not satisfactory. Fruits from hand-pollinated flowers will be superior in form and size.
Climate
The cherimoya is subtropical or mild-temperate and does not succeed in the lowland tropics. It requires long days. In Colombia and Ecuador, it grows naturally at elevations between 4,600 and 6,600 ft (1,400-2,000 m) where the temperature ranges between 62.6° and 68°F (17°-20°C). In Peru, the ideal climate for the cherimoya is said to lie between 64.5° and 77°F (18°-25°C) in the summer and 64.5° and 41°F (18°-5°C) in winter. In Guatemala, naturalized trees are common between 4,000 and 8,200 ft (1,200-2,500 m) though the tree produces best between 4,000 and 5,900 ft (1,200-1,800 m) and can be grown at elevations as low as 2,950 ft (900 m). The tree cannot survive the cold in the Valle de Mexico at 7,200 ft (2,195 m). In Argentina, young trees are wrapped with dry grass or burlap during the winter. The cherimoya can tolerate light frosts. Young trees can withstand a temperature of 26°F (-3.33°C), but a few degrees lower will severely injure or kill mature trees. In February 1949, a small scale commercial grower (B. E. Needham) in Glendora, California, reported that most of his crop was lost because of frost and snow, the cherimoya suffering more cold damage than his avocados, oranges or lemons.
The tree prefers a rather dry environment as in southern Guatemala where the rainfall is 50 in (127 cm) and there is a long dry season. It is not adaptable to northern Guatemala where the 100 inch (254 cm) rainfall is spread throughout the year.
Finally, the tree should be protected from strong winds which interfere with pollination and fruit set.
Soil
The cherimoya tree performs well on a wide range of soil types from light to heavy, but seems to do best on a medium soil of moderate fertility. In Argentina, it makes excellent growth on rockstrewn, loose, sandy loam 2 to 3 ft (0.6-0.9 m) above a gravel subsoil. The optimum pH ranges from 6.5 to 7.6. A greenhouse trial in sand has demonstrated that the first nutritional deficiency evoked in such soil is lack of calcium.
Propagation
Cherimoya seeds, if kept dry, will remain viable for several years. While the tree is traditionally grown from seed in Latin America, the tendency of seedlings to produce inferior fruits has given impetus to vegetative propagation.
Seeds for rootstocks are first soaked in water for 1 to 4 days and those that float are discarded. Then planting is done directly in the nursery row unless the soil is too cool, in which case the seeds must be placed in sand peat seedbeds, covered with 1 in (2.5 cm) of soil and kept in a greenhouse. They will germinate in 3 to 5 weeks and when the plants are 3 to 4 in (7.5-10 cm) high, they are transplanted to pots or the nursery plot with 20 in (50 cm) between rows. When 12 to 24 months old and dormant, they are budded or grafted and then allowed to grow to 3 or 4 ft (0.9-1.2 m) high before setting out in the field. Large seedlings and old trees can be topworked by cleft-grafting. It is necessary to protect the trunk of topped trees to avoid sunburn.
The cherimoya can also be grafted onto the custard apple (A. reticulata). In India this rootstock has given 90% success. Cuttings of mature wood of healthy cherimoya trees have rooted in coral sand with bottom heat in 28 days.
Culture
The young trees should be spaced 25 to 30 ft (7.5-9 m) apart each way in pits 20 to 24 in (50-60 cm) wide, enriched with organic material. In Colombia, corn (maize), vegetables, ornamental foliage plants, roses or annual flowers for market are interplanted during the first few years. In Spain, the trees are originally spaced 16.5 ft (5 m) apart with the intention of later thinning them out. Thinning is not always done and around the village of Jete, where the finest cherimoyas are produced, the trees have grown so close together as to form a forest. In the early years they are interplanted with corn, beans and potatoes.
Pruning to eliminate low branches, providing a clean trunk up to 32 in (80 cm), to improve form, and open up to sunlight and pesticide control, is done preferably during dormancy. After 6 months, fertilizer (10-8-6 N, P, K) is applied at the rate of 1/2 lb (227 g) per tree and again 6 months later at 1 lb (454 g) per tree. In the 3rd year, the fertilizer formula is changed to 6-10-8 N,P,K and each year thereafter the amount per tree is increased by 1 lb (454 g) until the level of 5 lbs (2.27 kg) is reached. Thenceforth this amount is continued each year per tree. The fertilizer is applied in trenches 6 in (15 cm) deep and 8 in (20 cm) wide dug around each tree at a distance of 5 ft (1.5 m) from the base, at first; later, at an appropriately greater distance.
Young trees are irrigated every 15 to 20 days for the first few years except during the winter when they must be allowed to go dormant—ideally for 4 months. When the first leafbuds appear, irrigation is resumed. With bearing trees, watering is discontinued as soon as the fruits are full-grown.
In Chile, attempts to increase fruit set with chemical growth regulators have been disappointing. Spraying flowers with gibberellic acid has increased fruit set and improved form and size but induces deep cracking prior to full maturity, far beyond the normal rate of cracking in fruits from natural or hand-pollinated flowers.
Cropping and Yield
The cherimoya begins to bear when 3 1/2 to 5 years old and production steadily increases from the 5th to the 10th year, when there should be a yield of 25 fruits per tree—2,024 per acre (5,000 per ha). Yields of individual trees have been reported by eyewitnesses as a dozen, 85, or even 300 fruits annually. In Colombia, the average yield is 25 fruits; as many as 80 is exceptional. In Italy, trees 30 to 35 years old produce 230 to 280 fruits annually.
The fruits must be picked when full grown but still firm and just beginning to show a slight hint of yellowish-green and perhaps a bronze cast. Bolivians judge that a fruit is at full maturity by shaking it and listening for the sound of loose seeds. Italians usually wait for the yellowish hue and the sweet aroma noticeable at a distance, picking the fruits only 24 to 28 hours prior to consumption. However, if the fruits must travel to markets in central Italy, they are harvested when the skin turns from dark-green to lighter green.
In harvesting, the fruits must be clipped from the branch so as to leave only a very short stem attached to the fruit to avoid stem caused damage to the fruits in handling, packing and shipping. [source - retrieved from http://www.hort.purdue.edu/newcrop/morton/cherimoya.html on 1/04/2013]
In Genesis 1:11-13, "And God said, Let the earth put forth grass, herbs yielding seed, and fruit-trees bearing fruit after their kind, wherein is the seed thereof, upon the earth: and it was so. 12 And the earth brought forth grass, herbs yielding seed after their kind, and trees bearing fruit, wherein is the seed thereof, after their kind: and God saw that it was good. 13 And there was evening and there was morning, a third day. (American Standard Version, ASV)[for more details, go to www.jw.org].

Sources of reading for those desiring to know even more about this fruit are:

• Morton, Julia F. Fruits of Warm Climates. Creative Resources Systems, Inc. 1987. pp. 65-69.
• Ortho Books. All About Citrus and Subtropical Fruits. Chevron Chemical Co. 1985. pp. 23-25. [[I highly recommend this book]]
• Popenoe, Wilson. Manual of Tropical and Subtropical Fruits. Hafner Press. 1974. Facsimile of the 1920 edition. pp. 161-177.
• Sanewski, G. M. Growing Custard Apples, Brisbane, Queensland Department of Primary Industries, Horticulture Branch, 1987.
• Smithsonian Institution, U.S. National Herbarium Contributions, Vol. 18 (1927).
A picture of this fruit is available at http://www.tradewindsfruit.com/cherimoya.htm

How this tree and other plants absorb water from the ground. Plants have developed an effective system to absorb, translocate, store, and utilize water. Plants contain a vast network of conduits, which consists of xylem and phloem tissues. These conducting tissues start in the roots and continue up through the trunks of trees, into the branches and then into every leaf. Phloem tissue is made of living elongated cells that are connected to one another and responsible for translocating nutrients and sugars (carbohydrates), which are produced by leaves for energy and growth. The xylem is also composed of elongated cells but once the cells are formed, they die. The walls of the xylem cells still remain intact and serve as an excellent peipline to transport water from the roots to the leaves.

The main driving force of water uptake and transport into a plant is transpiration of water from leaves through specialized openings called stomata. Heat from the sun causes the water to evaporate, setting this ‘water chain’ in motion. The evaporation creates a negative water vapor pressure. Water is pulled into the leaf to replace the water that has transpired from the leaf. This pulling of water, or tension, occurs in the xylem of the leaf. Since the xylem is a continuous water column that extends from the leaf to the roots, this negative water pressure extends into the roots and results in water uptake from the soil. [adapted from: http://www.scientificamerican.com/article.cfm?id=follow-up-how-do-trees-ca ]

Clearly this clever water transport system shows a superior intelligence of the Creator (YHWH).


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Your Friend in Christ Iris89

Francis David said it long ago, "Neither the sword of popes...nor the image of death will halt the march of truth."Francis David, 1579, written on the wall of his prison cell." Read the book, "What Does The Bible Really Teach" and the Bible today, and go to www.jw.org!






How this tree and other plants absorb water from the ground. Plants have developed an effective system to absorb, translocate, store, and utilize water. Plants contain a vast network of conduits, which consists of xylem and phloem tissues. These conducting tissues start in the roots and continue up through the trunks of trees, into the branches and then into every leaf. Phloem tissue is made of living elongated cells that are connected to one another and responsible for translocating nutrients and sugars (carbohydrates), which are produced by leaves for energy and growth. The xylem is also composed of elongated cells but once the cells are formed, they die. The walls of the xylem cells still remain intact and serve as an excellent peipline to transport water from the roots to the leaves.

The main driving force of water uptake and transport into a plant is transpiration of water from leaves through specialized openings called stomata. Heat from the sun causes the water to evaporate, setting this ‘water chain’ in motion. The evaporation creates a negative water vapor pressure. Water is pulled into the leaf to replace the water that has transpired from the leaf. This pulling of water, or tension, occurs in the xylem of the leaf. Since the xylem is a continuous water column that extends from the leaf to the roots, this negative water pressure extends into the roots and results in water uptake from the soil. [adapted from: http://www.scientificamerican.com/article.cfm?id=follow-up-how-do-trees-ca ]

Clearly this clever water transport system shows a superior intelligence of the Creator (YHWH).


Now to know the truth, go to:

1) http://religioustruths.forumsland.com/

2) http://www.network54.com/Forum/403209/

3) http://religioustruths.lefora.com/

4) http://religioustruths.boardhost.com/

5) http://religious-truths.forums.com/

6) http://religioustruthsbyiris.createmybb3.com/

7) http://religioustruths.forumotion.com/


Your Friend in Christ Iris89

Francis David said it long ago, "Neither the sword of popes...nor the image of death will halt the march of truth."Francis David, 1579, written on the wall of his prison cell." Read the book, "What Does The Bible Really Teach" and the Bible today, and go to www.jw.org!

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The Cherry of the Rio Grande, Eugenia aggregata,

Post  Admin on Thu Oct 24, 2013 9:18 am


Hi Everyone:

Here is a Commentary on Bountiful Trees and Vegetables God (YHWH) has provided for mankind, specifically the The Cherry of the Rio Grande, Eugenia aggregata, is native to Brazil and grows quite well in south Florida. It is a very beautiful small evergreen tree, 20 - 25 feet in height, with dark green, glossy, waxy leaves. As the tree gets older the bark peels off, resulting in a smooth and very attractive trunk.

In the spring the cherry of the Rio Grande is one of our early flowering tropical fruits and often blossoms in the first part of March. The flowering season extends over several months, and in some years flowers are still being produced in the early part of May. The flowers are white and quite showy. The one inch oblong fruit is a beautiful dark red to purple, and is produced soon after flowering. The fruiting season usually is April through June, and the fruit are highly prized fresh and as jellies, jams or juices. The fruits also freeze quite well, so they can be picked at maturity and frozen for later use. For persons with limited room in the landscape, cherry of the Rio Grande is ideal because it can be grown as a large bush or even as a large container specimen and still produce adequate quantities of fruit.

Cherry of the Rio Grande is usually propagated by seed, although seedlings may take up to 4 to 5 years to begin producing fruit. Although there is a lot of variation with the cherry of the Rio Grande as to the size of the fruit, there is not a lot of variation in quality, at least in my experience. Superior varieties, especially large-fruited forms, can be veneer-grafted onto seedling rootstocks. Considered a slow grower, cherry of the Rio Grande still will grow at the rate of 2 to 3 feet per year and makes a very attractive large shrub or small tree, depending on how it's trained.

Most cherry of the Rio Grande grow on a wide variety of soil types; however, they prefer a slightly acid soil, and on alkaline soils may develop some micronutrient deficiencies.

Most of the time there is little problem in our area from cold, since cherry of the Rio Grande can tolerate temperatures down to 20°F without being killed. It does not like large amounts of salt spray, and if grown right on the ocean may suffer some burned foliage. Trees should be fertilized with a fruit-tree-type fertilizer at least three times a year for good growth and fruiting. During periods of dry weather they will benefit from weekly irrigation. Avoid over-irrigation, since this often will create problems with the root system.
The only major problem associated with cherry of the Rio Grande in Florida is a die-back which can occur any time but often shows up when plants are approaching maturity.. There is no known reason for this die-back at the present; however, usually only smaller branches are affected and these can be pruned out and the plant will continue growing normally. Although suspected to be a disease, applications of fungicide have so far proved ineffective in stopping this die-back.

As with most fruits in south Florida, the fruit is attractive to the Caribbean fruit fly and in some years, fruit may be lost. Birds also find the fruit tempting and the upper parts of trees are often picked clean before the fruit is even fully mature. [source - retrieved from http://www.quisqualis.com/13chrriogjoy.html on 1/05/2013, written by Gene Joyner, when he was Extension Agent I
IFAS Palm Beach County, he is now retired.]

In Genesis 1:11-13, "And God said, Let the earth put forth grass, herbs yielding seed, and fruit-trees bearing fruit after their kind, wherein is the seed thereof, upon the earth: and it was so. 12 And the earth brought forth grass, herbs yielding seed after their kind, and trees bearing fruit, wherein is the seed thereof, after their kind: and God saw that it was good. 13 And there was evening and there was morning, a third day. (American Standard Version, ASV)[for more details, go to www.jw.org].

Cherries of the Rio Grande are easy to grow, requiring relatively little maintenance for the growth of healthy, productive plants. Fruit size and quality depends to a large extent on proper nourishment and an adequate water supply at the time of fruit development. When first planted, they need a complete fertilizer in a 1-1-1 ratio, such as 6-6-6, that also contains magnesium. Start with no more than 1/4 pound at monthly or bi-monthly intervals, increasing the rates commensurate with growth. If iron deficiency in calcareous soils is a problem, this element should be applied as Sequestrene 138, injected or drenched into the soil when needed. Nutritional sprays to supply other minor elements should also be applied as needed. After the tree has matured, a fertilizer such as 8-3-9 with 5% MgO is more appropriate. The plants should be supplied with adequate water at all times but especially during bloom and fruit development. The cherry of the Rio Grande has fairly good drought tolerance. The cherry of the Rio Grande requires very little pruning to make an attractive tree and it is seldom pruned to make a hedge. [source - retrieved from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eugenia_aggregata on 1/05/2013]

To see pictures of this fruit, go to http://www.tradewindsfruit.com/cherry_of_the_rio_grande.htm

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Francis David said it long ago, "Neither the sword of popes...nor the image of death will halt the march of truth."Francis David, 1579, written on the wall of his prison cell." Read the book, "What Does The Bible Really Teach" and the Bible today, and go to www.jw.org!




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Re: Almighty God’s (YHWH) Great Gift to Mankind, The Rare Fruit Trees and Herbs

Post  Admin on Sun Oct 27, 2013 9:15 am

Hi Everyone:

Here is a Commentary on Bountiful Trees and Vegetables God (YHWH) has provided for mankind, specifically the Chinese Hackberry Celtis sinensis

Tree grows to 10m in cultivation. Fruits are rich orange: stone pitted. A medium growing deciduous tree. Succeeds in any reasonably good soil, preferring a good fertile well-drained loamy soil. Succeeds on dry gravels and on sandy soils. Trees prefer hotter summers and more sunlight than are normal. Trees can be very long-lived, perhaps to 1000 years. (source - retrieved from http://www.seedman.com/fruit.htm on 4/2/2013)

Celtis, commonly known as hackberries, is a genus of about 60-70 species of deciduous trees widespread in warm temperate regions of the Northern Hemisphere, in southern Europe, southern and eastern Asia, and southern and central North America, south to central Africa, and northern and central South America. The genus is present in the fossil record at least since the Miocene of Europe.[1]
Previously included either in the elm family (Ulmaceae) or a separate family, Celtidaceae, the APG III system places Celtis in an expanded hemp family (Cannabaceae).[2][3]

The generic name originated in Latin and was applied by Pliny the Elder (23-79) to the unrelated Ziziphus lotus.[4]

Celtis occidentalis leaf
Celtis species are generally medium-sized trees, reaching 10–25 m (33–82 ft) tall, rarely up to 40 m (130 ft) tall. The leaves are alternate, simple, 3–15 cm (1.2–5.9 in) long, ovate-acuminate, and evenly serrated margins.
Small monoecious flowers appear in early spring while the leaves are still developing. Male flowers are longer and fuzzy. Female flowers are greenish and more rounded.

The fruit is a small drupe 6–10 mm (0.24–0.39 in) in diameter, edible in many species, with a dryish but sweet, sugary consistency, reminiscent of a date.

Selected species
* Celtis africana Burm.f. – White Stinkwood
* Celtis australis L. – European Hackberry, European Nettle Tree or Lote tree
* Celtis balansae Planch. (NEW CALEDONIA (AUSTRALIA))
* Celtis biondii
* Celtis brasiliensis Planch.
* Celtis bungeana L. – Bunge's Hackberry
* Celtis caucasica L. – Caucasian Hackberry
* Celtis cinnamonea
* Celtis conferta
* Celtis durandii Engl.
[ syn. C. gomphophylla Bak. ]
* Celtis ehrenbergiana (Klotzsch) Liebm. – Spiny Hackberry, granjeno (Spanish) (SOUTHERN US, MEXICO, GREATER ANTILLES, NORTHERN SOUTH AMERICA)
* Celtis glabrata
* Celtis hypoleuca Planch. (NEW CALEDONIA (AUSTRALIA))
* Celtis iguanaea (Jacq.) Sarg. – Iguana Hackberry (FLORIDA (USA), MEXICO, CARIBBEAN, C and SOUTH AMERICA)
* Celtis integrifolia L. – African Hackberry
* Celtis jessoensis Koidz. – Japanese Hackberry (JAPAN, KOREA)
* Celtis koraiensis L. – Korean Hackberry
* Celtis labilis L. – Hubei Hackberry
* Celtis laevigata Willd. – Southern Hackberry or Sugar Hackberry, (SOUTHERN US / TEXAS) Sugarberry (E USA, NE MEXICO)
* Celtis lindheimeri Engelm. ex K.Koch – Lindheimer's Hackberry (TEXAS (USA), COAHUILA (MEXICO))
* Celtis loxensis
* Celtis luzonica Warb. (PHILIPPINES)
* Celtis mildbraedii Engl.
* Celtis occidentalis L. – Common Hackberry, Northern Hackberry, False Elm (E NORTH AMERICA)
* Celtis pallida – Desert Hackberry, Shiny Hackberry (SOUTHWESTERN US / TEXAS, N MEXICO)
* Celtis paniculata (Endl.) Planch. (E MALESIA, E AUSTRALIA, MICRONESIA, W POLYNESIA)
* Celtis reticulata Torr. – Netleaf Hackberry (W North America)
* Celtis schippii
* Celtis sinensis Pers. – Chinese hackberry, Chinese nettle-tree or Japanese hackberry (CHINA, JAPAN)
[ syn. C. japonica Planch.; C. sinensis var. japonica (Planch.) Nakai; C. tetrandra ssp. sinensis (Roxb.) Y.C.Tang ]
* Celtis tala Gillet ex Planch. – Tala (SOUTH AMERICA)
* Celtis tenuifolia Nutt. – Dwarf Hackberry (E NORTH AMERICA)
* Celtis tetranda Roxb.
* Celtis timorensis Span.
* Celtis tournefortii L. – Oriental Hackberry
* Celtis triflora
* Celtis trinervia
additional list source
[5] [6]

Formerly placed here
* Trema cannabina Lour. (as C. amboinensis Willd.)
* Trema lamarckiana (Schult.) Blume (as C. lamarckiana Schult.)
* Trema orientalis (L.) Blume (as C. guineensis Schumach. or C. orientalis L.)
* Trema tomentosa (Roxb.) H.Hara (as C. aspera Brongn. or C. tomentosa Roxb.)[7]

Uses and ecology
Several species are grown as ornamental trees, valued for their drought tolerance. They are a regular feature of arboreta and botanical gardens, particularly in North America. Chinese Hackberry (C. sinensis) is suited for bonsai culture, while a magnificent specimen in Daegu-myeon is one of the natural monuments of South Korea. Some, including Common Hackberry (C. occidentalis) and C. brasiliensis, are honey plants and pollen source for honeybees of lesser importance. Hackberry wood is sometimes used in cabinetry and woodworking.

The berries are often eaten locally. The Korean tea gamro cha (???, ???) contains C. sinensis leaves.

Lepidoptera
Celtis species are used as foodplants by the caterpillars of certain Lepidoptera. These include mainly brush-footed butterflies, most importantly the distinct genus Libythea (beak butterflies) and some Apaturinae (emperor butterflies):


Common Beak (Libythea lepita) caterpillars feed on Celtis
* Acytolepis puspa (Common Hedge Blue) – recorded on Chinese Hackberry (C. sinensis)
* Automeris io (Io Moth) – recorded on Southern Hackberry (C. laevigata)
* Asterocampa celtis (Hackberry Butterfly, Hackberry Emperor)
* A putative new taxon of the Two-barred Flasher (Astraptes fulgerator) cryptic species complex, provisionally called "CELT", has hitherto only been found on Celtis iguanaea.[8]
* Libythea celtis (European Beak)
* Libythea labdaca (African Beak)
* Libythea lepita (Common Beak)
* Libythea myrrha (Club Beak) – recorded on C. tetranda[verification needed]
* Nymphalis xanthomelas (Scarce Tortoiseshell) – recorded on European Hackberry (C. australis)
* Sasakia charonda (Great Purple Emperor) – recorded on Japanese Hackberry (C. jessoensis) and Pseudo-hackberry (C. japonica)

Pathogens
The plant pathogenic basidiomycete fungus Perenniporia celtis was first described from a Celtis hostplant. Some species of Celtis are threatened by habitat destruction.
Gallery
*
Celtis aetnensis with mature fruit
*
Caucasian Hackberry (Celtis caucasica) with immature fruit
*
African Hackberry (Celtis integrifolia)
*
Chinese Hackberry (Celtis sinensis)
See also
* Lotophagi
* William N. Barron

Footnotes
1. ^ Keeler (1900): pp.249-252[verification needed]
2. ^ Stevens, P.F. (2001 onwards), Angiosperm Phylogeny Website : Cannabaceae
3. ^ "Celtis L.". GRIN Taxonomy for Plants. Retrieved February 12, 2012.
4. ^ Quattrocchi, Umberto (2000). CRC World Dictionary of Plant Names. I A-C. CRC Press. p. 468. ISBN 978-0-8493-2675-2.
5. ^ "Celtis ehrenbergiana (Klotzsch) Liebm.". GRIN. USDA. 2002-01-10. Retrieved April 16, 2009.
6. ^ "Celtis sinensis Pers.". GRIN. USDA. Retrieved July 2, 2009.
7. ^ "GRIN Species Records of Celtis". Germplasm Resources Information Network. United States Department of Agriculture. Retrieved 2010-12-04.
8. ^ Hébert et al. (2004), Brower et al. (2006)
References
* BROWER, ANDREW V.Z. (2006): Problems with DNA barcodes for species delimitation: ‘ten species’ of Astraptes fulgerator reassessed (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae). Systematics and Biodiversity 4(2): 127–132. doi:10.1017/S147720000500191X PDF fulltext
* KEELER, HARRIET L. (1900): Our Native Trees and How to Identify Them. Charles Scriber's Sons, New York.
* HÉBERT, PAUL D.N.; PENTON, ERIN H.; BURNS, JOHN M.; JANZEN, DANIEL H. & HALLWACHS, WINNIE (2004): Ten species in one: DNA barcoding reveals cryptic species in the semitropical skipper butterfly Astraptes fulgerator. PNAS 101(41): 14812-14817. doi:10.1073/pnas.0406166101 PDF fulltext Supporting Appendices (source - retrieved from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Celtis on 4/2/2013)

In Genesis 1:11-13, "And God said, Let the earth put forth grass, herbs yielding seed, and fruit-trees bearing fruit after their kind, wherein is the seed thereof, upon the earth: and it was so. 12 And the earth brought forth grass, herbs yielding seed after their kind, and trees bearing fruit, wherein is the seed thereof, after their kind: and God saw that it was good. 13 And there was evening and there was morning, a third day. (American Standard Version, ASV)[for more details, go to www.jw.org].

View plant and products at, http://www.ebay.com/sch/i.html?_nkw=chinese%20hackberry&clk_rvr_id=464582370437&adpos={adposition}&MT_ID=7&crlp={creative}_2416792&geo_id=10232&keyword=chinese+hackberry&crdt=0


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the Chinese lantern,[1] Japanese lantern,[1] or Winter cherry, Physalis alkekengi, (Bladder cherry,;[1] Japanese: h?zuki),

Post  Admin on Wed Oct 30, 2013 10:03 am


Hi Everyone:

Here is a Commentary on Bountiful Trees and Vegetables God (YHWH) has provided for mankind, specifically the Chinese lantern,[1] Japanese lantern,[1] or Winter cherry, Physalis alkekengi, (Bladder cherry,;[1] Japanese: h?zuki), is a relative of P. peruviana (Cape Gooseberry), easily identifiable by the larger, bright orange to red papery covering over its fruit, which resemble paper lanterns. It is native from southern Europe east across southern Asia to Japan. It is an herbaceous perennial plant growing to 40–60 cm tall, with spirally arranged leaves 6–12 cm long and 4–9 cm broad. The flowers are white, with a five-lobed corolla 10–15 mm across, with an inflated basal calyx which matures into the papery orange fruit covering, 4–5 cm long and broad.

Cultivation
Physalis alkekengi, or the Chinese Lantern, blooms during Winter and dries during Spring. Once it is dried, the bright red fruit is seen. The outer cover is a thin mesh that held the flower petals, seen in golden colour
It is a popular ornamental plant, though it can be invasive with its wide-spreading root system sending up new shoots some distance from where it was originally planted. In various places around the world, it has escaped cultivation.[2] It has food and medicinal uses.[2][3]

Traditional uses
The dried fruit of Physalis alkekengi is called Kaknaj in the Unani system of medicine, and used as a diuretic, antiseptic, liver corrective, and sedative.[4]
Chemical constituents
Like a number of other species in the genus Physalis, it contains a wide variety of physalins.[5][6][7] When isolated from the plant, these have antibacterial[8] and leishmanicidal[9][10] activities in vitro.
It also contains caffeic acid ethyl ester, 25,27-dehydro-physalin L, physalin D, and cuneataside E.[11]

Cultural significance
In Japan, its seeds are used as part of the Bon Festival as offerings to guide the souls of the deceased. There is also an annual market dedicated to the flower called h?zuki-ichi which occurs every year in Asakusa around Sens?-ji every year on July 9 and 10.

References
1. ^ a b c "USDA GRIN Taxonomy, entry for Physalis alkekengi".
2. ^ a b "1. Physalis alkekengi Linnaeus". Flora of China.
3. ^ Azadeh Montaserti, Maryam Pourheydar, Mozafar Khazaei, and Rostam Ghorbani (Winter 2007), "Anti-fertility effects of physalis alkekengi alcoholic extract in female rat", Iranian Journal of Reproductive Medicine 5 (1): 13–16, ISSN 1680-6433
4. ^ Rasheed N.M.A., Shareef M.A., Ahmad M., Gupta V.C., Arfin S., Shamshad A.K "HPTLC finger print profile of dried fruit of Physalis alkekengi Linn." . Pharmacognosy Journal 2010 2:12 (464-469)
5. ^ Matsuura, T; Kawai, M; Makashima, R; Butsugan, Y (1970), "Structures of physalin A and physalin B, 13,14-seco-16,24-cyclo-steroids from Physalis alkekengi var. Francheti.", Journal of the Chemical Society. Perkin transactions 1 5: 664–70, ISSN 0300-922X, PMID 5461642
6. ^ Qiu, L; Zhao, F; Jiang, Zh; Chen, Lx; Zhao, Q; Liu, Hx; Yao, Xs; Qiu, F (Apr 2008), "Steroids and flavonoids from Physalis alkekengi var. franchetii and their inhibitory effects on nitric oxide production.", Journal of Natural Products 71 (4): 642–6, doi:10.1021/np700713r, PMID 18348534
7. ^ Kawai, M; Yamamoto, T; Makino, B; Yamamura, H; Araki, S; Butsugan, Y; Saito, K (2001), "The structure of physalin T from Physalis alkekengi var. franchetti.", Journal of Asian natural products research 3 (3): 199–205, doi:10.1080/10286020108041391, ISSN 1028-6020, PMID 11491395
8. ^ Silva, M.T.G.; Simas, S.M.; Batista, T.G.; Cardarelli, P.; Tomassini, T.C.B. (2005). "Studies on antimicrobial activity, in vitro, of Physalis angulata L. (Solanaceae) fraction and physalin B bringing out the importance of assay determination". Memorias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz 100: 7.
9. ^ leishmanicidal[dead link]
10. ^ Choudhary M.I., Yousaf S., Ahmed S., Samreen , Yasmeen K., Atta-ur-Rahmang "Antileishmanial physalins from Physalis minima" Chemistry and Biodiversity 2005 2:9 (1164-1173)
11. ^ YUAN Ye,XU Nan,BU Xian-kun,ZHAN Hong-li,ZHANG Meng-meng Chemical constituents of Physalis alkekengivar. franchetii(?) "Chinese Traditional and Herbal Drugs" http://en.cnki.com.cn/Article_en/CJFDTOTAL-ZCYO201012005.htm (Liaoning University of Traditional Chinese Medicine,Dalian 116600,China) [source - retrieved from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Physalis_alkekengi on 6/6/2013]
Height:
18-24 in. (45-60 cm)
Spacing:
24-36 in. (60-90 cm)
Hardiness:
USDA Zone 2a: to -45.5 °C (-50 °F)
USDA Zone 2b: to -42.7 °C (-45 °F)
USDA Zone 3a: to -39.9 °C (-40 °F)
USDA Zone 3b: to -37.2 °C (-35 °F)
USDA Zone 4a: to -34.4 °C (-30 °F)
USDA Zone 4b: to -31.6 °C (-25 °F)
USDA Zone 5a: to -28.8 °C (-20 °F)
USDA Zone 5b: to -26.1 °C (-15 °F)
USDA Zone 6a: to -23.3 °C (-10 °F)
USDA Zone 6b: to -20.5 °C (-5 °F)
USDA Zone 7a: to -17.7 °C (0 °F)
USDA Zone 7b: to -14.9 °C (5 °F)
USDA Zone 8a: to -12.2 °C (10 °F)
USDA Zone 8b: to -9.4 °C (15 °F)
USDA Zone 9a: to -6.6 °C (20 °F)
USDA Zone 9b: to -3.8 °C (25 °F)
USDA Zone 10a: to -1.1 °C (30 °F)
USDA Zone 10b: to 1.7 °C (35 °F)
Sun Exposure:
Sun to Partial Shade
Danger:
Parts of plant are poisonous if ingested
Bloom Color:
White/Near White
Bloom Time:
Mid Summer
Foliage:
Grown for foliage
Other details:
Average Water Needs; Water regularly; do not overwater
May be a noxious weed or invasive
Soil pH requirements:
6.1 to 6.5 (mildly acidic)
6.6 to 7.5 (neutral)
7.6 to 7.8 (mildly alkaline)
Patent Information:
Non-patented
Propagation Methods:
By dividing the rootball
From seed; direct sow outdoors in fall
From seed; sow indoors before last frost
From seed; direct sow after last frost
Seed Collecting:
Remove fleshy coating on seeds before storing
Allow unblemished fruit to ripen; clean and dry seeds
Unblemished fruit must be significantly overripe before harvesting seed; clean and dry seeds
Ferment seeds before storing
Properly cleaned, seed can be successfully stored [source - retrieved from http://davesgarden.com/guides/pf/go/1894/ on 6/6/2013]

Read more: http://davesgarden.com/guides/pf/go/1894/#ixzz2VRRZvJwK

CAUTION
Most – but not all – physalis species produce edible fruits, with a basic flavor recalling ... For example, the hardy Physalis alkekengi is popular for its large, bright ...

These plants grow in most soil types and do very well in poor soils and in pots. They need lots of water throughout the growing year, except towards fruit-ripening time. Plants are susceptible to many of the common tomato diseases and pests; other pests such as aphids, white flies, spider mites, and the false potato beetle (Leptinotarsa juncta) also attack them. Propagation is by seed. Some species are self-incompatible and require multiple plants for fruit set.
The typical Physalis fruit is similar to a firm tomato (in texture), and like strawberries or other fruit in flavor; they have a mild, refreshing acidity. Most – but not all – physalis species produce edible fruits, with a basic flavor recalling a tomato/pineapple-like blend. Some species like cape gooseberries and tomatillos have numerous named cultivars, which offer a range of flavors from tart to sweet to savory. Physalis fruit have around 53 kcal for 100 grams,[4] and are rich in cryptoxanthin.

Its uses are similar to the common tomato or to fruits with a refreshing taste. Once extracted from its husk, it may be eaten raw or used in salads, desserts, as a flavoring, and in jams and jellies. They can also be dried and eaten much like raisins or other small dried fruit. Cape gooseberries contain large amounts of pectin, and are therefore suitable for jams and pies.
The cape gooseberry is native to the Americas, but is commonly grown and feral in many subtropical areas, including South Africa (the "Cape" in the common name). Another important commercial type is the tomatillo (P. philadelphica). Physalis fruit are significant as an export product e.g. for Colombia.
Some species are grown as ornamental plants. For example, the hardy Physalis alkekengi is popular for its large, bright orange to red husks.

In Chinese medicine, the Physalis is used as a remedy for abscesses, coughs, fevers and sore throats, among others.[5] Smooth groundcherry (P. subglabrata) is considered a hallucinogenic plant by some, and its cultivation for other than ornamental purposes is outlawed in Louisiana by State Act 159. However, its use as a hallucinogen does not appear widespread.

The extinct Dacian language has left few traces, but in De Materia Medica by Pedanius Dioscorides, a plant called Strychnos alikakabos (???????? ??????????) is discussed, which was called kykolis (or cycolis) by the Dacians. Some have considered this plant to be Physalis alkekengi, but Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera) has been proposed as an alternative candidate and indeed this widely-traded medical plant seems to be a better match.[6] [source - retrieved from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Physalis on / /2013]

General poisoning notes:
Chinese-lantern (Physalis alkekengi) is an outdoor ornamental grown for its lantern-shaped fruit cover (pericarp). The enclosed immature fruits contain sufficient quantities of solanine to cause gastroenteritis and diarrhea in children. The mature fruits are apparently edible (Lampe and McCann 1985). [source - retrieved from http://www.cbif.gc.ca/pls/pp/ppack.info?p_psn=239&p_type=all&p_sci=sci on 6/6/2013]

In Genesis 1:11-13, "And God said, Let the earth put forth grass, herbs yielding seed, and fruit-trees bearing fruit after their kind, wherein is the seed thereof, upon the earth: and it was so. 12 And the earth brought forth grass, herbs yielding seed after their kind, and trees bearing fruit, wherein is the seed thereof, after their kind: and God saw that it was good. 13 And there was evening and there was morning, a third day. (American Standard Version, ASV)[for more details, go to www.jw.org].

To view a movie on this plant, go to, http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=AhyF4LdkE28

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Francis David said it long ago, "Neither the sword of popes...nor the image of death will halt the march of truth."Francis David, 1579, written on the wall of his prison cell." Read the book, "What Does The Bible Really Teach" and the Bible today, and go to www.jw.org!

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the Chinese Quince, Pseudocydonia sinensis,

Post  Admin on Sat Nov 02, 2013 10:32 am


Hi Everyone:

Here is a Commentary on Bountiful Trees and Vegetables God (YHWH) has provided for mankind, specifically the Chinese Quince, Pseudocydonia sinensis, the only species in the genus Pseudocydonia, is a deciduous or semi-evergreen tree in the family Rosaceae, native to eastern Asia in China. It is closely related to the east Asian genus Chaenomeles, and is sometimes placed in Chaenomeles as C. sinensis,[3] but notable differences are the lack of thorns, and that the flowers are produced singly, not in clusters. It is closely related to the European Quince genus Cydonia,[4] but one notable difference is the serrated leaves.

In China, the species is called "mugua", while in Korea, it is called "mogwa" (hangul: ??; Chinese/hanja: ?? - not to be confused with "papaya", whose Chinese transliteration is also called ??) which is used for medicine or for making beverages.[5] In Japan, it is known as "karin - ??" (? - a flower, ? - a pear of an Asian round variety that is called "nashi").

It grows to 10–18 m tall, with a dense, twiggy crown. The leaves are alternately arranged, simple, 6–12 cm long and 3–6 cm broad, and have a serrated margin. The flowers are 2.5–4 cm diameter, with five pale pink petals; flowering is in mid spring. The fruit is a large ovoid pome 12–17 cm long with five carpels; it gives off an intense, sweet smell and it ripens in late autumn.

Uses
The fruit is hard and astringent, though it does soften and becomes less astringent (bletted) after a period of frost. It can be used in the same way as quince is used for making jam. It is also grown as an ornamental tree in southern Europe.

It is frequently used in Japan for making low-end Shamisen. Other commonly used woods are rosewood and redsander wood.

References
1. ^ Potter, D. et al.; Eriksson, T.; Evans, R. C.; Oh, S.; Smedmark, J. E. E.; Morgan, D. R.; Kerr, M.; Robertson, K. R. et al. (2007). "Phylogeny and classification of Rosaceae". Plant Systematics and Evolution 266 (1–2): 5–43. doi:10.1007/s00606-007-0539-9. [Referring to the subfamily by the name "Spiraeoideae"]
2. ^ "USDA GRIN Taxonomy".
3. ^ Gu Cuizhi and Stephen A. Spongberg, 2003. Flora of China (entry under Chaenomeles sinensis)
4. ^ Campbell, C.S.; Evans, R.C.; Morgan, D.R.; Dickinson, T.A.; Arsenault, M.P. (2007). "Phylogeny of subtribe Pyrinae (formerly the Maloideae, Rosaceae): Limited resolution of a complex evolutionary history". Plant Systematics and Evolution 266 (1–2): 119–145.
5. ^ http://herb.daegu.go.kr/kor/exhibit/herb.info.form.asp?h_code=75 (Korean) [source - retrieved from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pseudocydonia on 6/27/2013]

In Genesis 1:11-13, "And God said, Let the earth put forth grass, herbs yielding seed, and fruit-trees bearing fruit after their kind, wherein is the seed thereof, upon the earth: and it was so. 12 And the earth brought forth grass, herbs yielding seed after their kind, and trees bearing fruit, wherein is the seed thereof, after their kind: and God saw that it was good. 13 And there was evening and there was morning, a third day. (American Standard Version, ASV)[for more details, go to www.jw.org].

View at, http://images.search.yahoo.com/yhs/search?_adv_prop=image&fr=yhs-Babylon-002&va=pseudocydonia+sinensis&hspart=Babylon&hsimp=yhs-002

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Francis David said it long ago, "Neither the sword of popes...nor the image of death will halt the march of truth."Francis David, 1579, written on the wall of his prison cell." Read the book, "What Does The Bible Really Teach" and the Bible today, and go to www.jw.org!



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Re: Almighty God’s (YHWH) Great Gift to Mankind, The Rare Fruit Trees and Herbs

Post  Admin on Wed Nov 06, 2013 8:08 am

Hi Everyone:

Here is a Commentary on Bountiful Trees and Vegetables God (YHWH) has provided for mankind, specifically the Dioscorea opposita (nagaimo, Chinese yam, Korean yam) is a type of yam (Dioscorea) that may be eaten raw.

Dioscorea opposita is an exception to the rule that yams must be cooked before consumption (due to harmful substances in the raw state). In Japanese cuisine, it is eaten raw and grated, after only a relatively minimal preparation: the whole tubers are briefly soaked in a vinegar-water solution, to neutralize irritant oxalate crystals found in their skin. The raw vegetable is starchy and bland, mucilaginous when grated, and may be eaten plain as a side dish, or added to noodles.

Dioscorea opposita is used in the Japanese noodle dish tororo udon/soba and as a binding agent in the batter of okonomiyaki. The grated nagaimo is known as tororo (in Japanese). In tororo udon/soba, the tororo is mixed with other ingredients that typically include tsuyu broth (dashi), wasabi, and green onions.

In Vietnam, the yam is called c? mài or khoai mài. When this yam is processed to become a medicine, the yam is called hoài s?n or t? gi?i.

In the Ilokano language of the northern Philippines it is called tuge.

Non-food uses
The jelly-like substance made from grating the yam, tororojiru is often served in, or alongside, a number of other dishes. However, during the Edo period, tororojiru was also widely used as a personal lubricant for sexual activities,[1] and it was thus considered improper for it to be eaten by a woman. This aversion also derives from the loud slurping sound one makes when eating it, which was considered to be un-ladylike.[1]

Traditional uses

This section needs more medical references for verification or relies too heavily on primary sources. Please review the contents of the section and add the appropriate references if you can. Unsourced or poorly sourced material may be removed. (July 2012)

The tuber is also used (often in dried form) in traditional Chinese medicine and Chinese herbology.

Shanyao root, ??, Radix Dioscoreae oppositae, falls within the Chinese herbal medicine category of Tonify Qi materia medica.[2][3] Within this category it has specialized and important properties which make it one of the most important and commonly used materia medica in the Chinese medicine repertoire. As a tonifying herb which enters the kidney organ (Zang) and/or channel (Jing), its role is fundamental, in accordance with the dictum that "the kidney is the root of Yin and Yang of all the organs (Zang-fu). Shanyao is classified as being of neutral temperature, an important property which means that, while it significantly tonifies the Qi, it does not at the same time cause Heat; in this way it is able to tonify Qi without injuring the Yin, an important advantage in the treatment of patients with deficient Yin. In this role of tonifying Qi without injuring the Yin it appears in such classical formulas as Liu Wei Di Huang Wan, the Six Flavours Rehmannia Pill, and its many derivative and related formulas.[4]

Shan Yao is also used in situations where it is necessary to tonify Qi, but where the Yin is not deficient. In this usage it is usually used prepared by dry-frying (chao, ?), which alters its temperature property to slightly Warm. The slightly Warm property enables it to Warm the spleen, another organ/channel which it enters, enabling the spleen to Dry Dampness, but without injuring Blood, a dimension of the Yin. A typical formula where dry-fried Shan Yao is used to tonify Spleen Qi is Shen Ling Bai Zhu San, ?????, Ginseng Poria Atractylodes Powder.[5] It is also frequently found dry-fried in Chinese herbal dermatology[6] in formulas for treating Blood Dryness where it is necessary to warmly tonify Spleen Qi, to enable it to Transform residual Dampness, but without drying Blood or Yin.

Weight Loss
In combination with bitter melon, Chinese yam has been shown to contribute to weight loss. Over a period of 23 weeks, those eating the diet containing Chinese yam lost 7 kilos. [7]

References
1. ^ a b Dunn, C. and B. Torigoe (1969). The Actors Analects. New York: Columbia University Press. p51.
2. ^ Bensky, Clavey, Stöger and Gamble, Chinese Herbal Medicine: Materia Medica, Seattle, 2004, p. 723 ff
3. ^ Xu and Wang, Chinese Materia Medica: Combinations and Applications, 2002, p. 526 ff
4. ^ Scheid, Bensky, Ellis & Barolet, Chinese Herbal Medicine: Formulas and Strategies, Seattle, 2009, p. 365 ff.
5. ^ Scheid, Bensky, Ellis & Barolet,Chinese Herbal Medicine: Formulas and Strategies, Seattle, 2009, p. 314 ff.
6. ^ Xu, Dermatology in Traditional Chinese Medicine, 2004
7. ^ "My Microbiome and Me", Mara Hvistendahl, Science, vol. 336, page 1248-1250, 8 June 2012. [source - retrieved from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dioscorea_opposita on 6/21/2013]

In Genesis 1:11-13, "And God said, Let the earth put forth grass, herbs yielding seed, and fruit-trees bearing fruit after their kind, wherein is the seed thereof, upon the earth: and it was so. 12 And the earth brought forth grass, herbs yielding seed after their kind, and trees bearing fruit, wherein is the seed thereof, after their kind: and God saw that it was good. 13 And there was evening and there was morning, a third day. (American Standard Version, ASV)[for more details, go to www.jw.org].

To view, go to, https://www.google.com/search?q=dioscorea+batatas&client=firefox-a&hs=CVY&rls=org.mozilla:en-US:official&tbm=isch&tbo=u&source=univ&sa=X&ei=tvnEUZW1C4H49gTX2oD4CA&ved=0CC8QsAQ&biw=1280&bih=833

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Your Friend in Christ Iris89

Francis David said it long ago, "Neither the sword of popes...nor the image of death will halt the march of truth."Francis David, 1579, written on the wall of his prison cell." Read the book, "What Does The Bible Really Teach" and the Bible today, and go to www.jw.org!





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Re: Almighty God’s (YHWH) Great Gift to Mankind, The Rare Fruit Trees and Herbs

Post  Admin on Sun Nov 10, 2013 3:49 pm


Hi Everyone:

Here is a Commentary on Bountiful Trees and Vegetables God (YHWH) has provided for mankind, specifically the Cinnamon (disambiguation), Cinnamon (pron.: /?s?n?m?n/ SIN-?-m?n) is a spice obtained from the inner bark of several trees from the genus Cinnamomum that is used in both sweet and savoury foods. While Cinnamomum verum is sometimes considered to be "true cinnamon", most cinnamon in international commerce is derived from related species, which are also referred to as "cassia" to distinguish them from "true cinnamon".

Cinnamon has been known from remote antiquity. It was imported to Egypt as early as 2000 BC, but those who report that it had come from China confuse it with cassia.

The Hebrew Bible makes specific mention of the spice many times: first when Moses is commanded to use both sweet cinnamon (Hebrew: ?????????, qinn?môn) and cassia in the holy anointing oil in Proverbs where the lover's bed is perfumed with myrrh, aloes, and cinnamon; and in Song of Solomon, a song describing the beauty of his beloved, cinnamon scents her garments like the smell of Lebanon. Cinnamon was a component of the Ketoret that is used when referring to the consecrated incense described in the Hebrew Bible and Talmud. It was offered on the specialized incense altar in the time when the Tabernacle was located in the First and Second Jerusalem Temples. The ketoret was an important component of the Temple service in Jerusalem.

It was so highly prized among ancient nations that it was regarded as a gift fit for monarchs and even for a god: a fine inscription records the gift of cinnamon and cassia to the temple of Apollo at Miletus. Though its source was kept mysterious in the Mediterranean world for centuries by the middlemen who handled the spice trade, to protect their monopoly as suppliers, cinnamon is native to Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Malabar Coast of India and Burma. It is also alluded to by Herodotus and other classical writers. It was too expensive to be commonly used on funeral pyres in Rome, but the Emperor Nero is said to have burned a year's worth of the city's supply at the funeral for his wife Poppaea Sabina in AD 65.

Before the foundation of Cairo, Alexandria was the Mediterranean shipping port of cinnamon. Europeans who knew the Latin writers who were quoting Herodotus knew that cinnamon came up the Red Sea to the trading ports of Egypt, but whether from Ethiopia or not was less than clear. When the Sieur de Joinville accompanied his king to Egypt on crusade in 1248, he reported what he had been told—and believed—that cinnamon was fished up in nets at the source of the Nile out at the edge of the world. Through the Middle Ages, the source of cinnamon was a mystery to the Western world. Marco Polo avoided precision on this score. In Herodotus and other authors, Arabia was the source of cinnamon: giant Cinnamon birds collected the cinnamon sticks from an unknown land where the cinnamon trees grew and used them to construct their nests; the Arabs employed a trick to obtain the sticks. This story was current as late as 1310 in Byzantium, although in the first century, Pliny the Elder had written that the traders had made this up in order to charge more. The first mention of the spice growing in Sri Lanka was in Zakariya al-Qazwini's Athar al-bilad wa-akhbar al-‘ibad ("Monument of Places and History of God's Bondsmen") in about 1270. This was followed shortly thereafter by John of Montecorvino, in a letter of about 1292.
Indonesian rafts transported cinnamon (known in Indonesia as kayu manis- literally "sweet wood") on a "cinnamon route" directly from the Moluccas to East Africa, where local traders then carried it north to the Roman market.[16][17][18] See also Rhapta.

Arab traders brought the spice via overland trade routes to Alexandria in Egypt, where it was bought by Venetian traders from Italy who held a monopoly on the spice trade in Europe. The disruption of this trade by the rise of other Mediterranean powers, such as the Mamluk Sultans and the Ottoman Empire, was one of many factors that led Europeans to search more widely for other routes to Asia.

Portuguese traders finally landed in Ceylon (Sri Lanka) at the beginning of the sixteenth century and restructured the traditional production and management of cinnamon by the Sinhalese, who later held the monopoly for cinnamon in Ceylon. The Portuguese established a fort on the island in 1518 and protected their own monopoly for over a hundred years.

Dutch traders finally dislodged the Portuguese by allying with the inland Kingdom of Kandy. They established a trading post in 1638, took control of the factories by 1640, and expelled all remaining Portuguese by 1658. "The shores of the island are full of it", a Dutch captain reported, "and it is the best in all the Orient: when one is downwind of the island, one can still smell cinnamon eight leagues out to sea." (Braudel 1984, p. 215)

The Dutch East India Company continued to overhaul the methods of harvesting in the wild and eventually began to cultivate its own trees.
In 1767, Lord Brown of East India Company established Anjarakkandy Cinnamon Estate near Anjarakkandy in Cannanore (now Kannur) district of Kerala, and this estate became Asia's largest cinnamon estate.

The British took control of the island from the Dutch in 1796. However, the importance of the monopoly of Ceylon was already declining, as cultivation of the cinnamon tree spread to other areas, the more common cassia bark became more acceptable to consumers, and coffee, tea, sugar, and chocolate began to outstrip the popularity of traditional spices.

Cultivation
Global annual production of cinnamon and cassia comes to 27,500-35,000 tons. Cinnamom verum accounts for 7,500-10,000 tons of production with the remainder produced by other species In Sri Lanka, only Cinnamomum verum is cultivated. Sri Lanka still produces 80-90% of the world's supply of Cinnamomum verum, and this species is also cultivated on a commercial scale in Seychelles and Madagascar. Global production of the other species comes to 20,000-25,000 tons, of which Indonesia produces around two-thirds of the total, with significant production in China. India and Vietnam are also minor producers.
Cinnamon is harvested by growing the tree for two years then coppicing it. The next year, about a dozen shoots will form from the roots.

The branches harvested this way are processed by scraping off the outer bark, then beating the branch evenly with a hammer to loosen the inner bark. The inner bark is then prised out in long rolls. Only the thin (0.5 mm (0.020 in)) inner bark is used; the outer, woody portion is discarded, leaving metre-long cinnamon strips that curl into rolls ("quills") on drying. Once dry, the bark is cut into 5–10 cm (2.0–3.9 in) lengths for sale.

The bark must be processed immediately after harvesting while still wet. Once processed, the bark will dry completely in four to six hours, provided that it is in a well-ventilated and relatively warm environment. A less than ideal drying environment encourages the proliferation of pests in the bark, which may then require treatment by fumigation. Bark treated this way is not considered to be of the same premium quality as untreated bark.

Sri Lanka cinnamon has a very thin, smooth bark with a light-yellowish brown colour and a highly fragrant aroma. In recent years in Sri Lanka, mechanical devices have been developed to ensure premium quality and worker safety and health, following considerable research by the Universities in that country led by the University of Ruhuna.

The Sri Lankan grading system divides the cinnamon quills into four groups:
* Alba, less than 6 mm (0.24 in) in diameter
* Continental, less than 16 mm (0.63 in) in diameter
* Mexican, less than 19 mm (0.75 in) in diameter
* Hamburg, less than 32 mm (1.3 in) in diameter
These groups are further divided into specific grades. For example, Mexican is divided into M00 000 special, M000000, and M0000, depending on quill diameter and number of quills per kg.
Any pieces of bark less than 106 mm (4.2 in) long are categorized as quillings. Featherings are the inner bark of twigs and twisted shoots. Chips are trimmings of quills, outer and inner bark that cannot be separated, or the bark of small twigs.

Species
A number of species are often sold as cinnamon:
* Cinnamomum verum ("True cinnamon", Sri Lanka cinnamon or Ceylon cinnamon)
* C. burmannii (Korintje, Padang Cassia, or Indonesian cinnamon)
* C. loureiroi (Saigon cinnamon, Vietnamese cassia. or Vietnamese cinnamon)
* C. cassia (Cassia or Chinese cinnamon) [source - retrieved from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cinamon on 1/05/2013]
In Genesis 1:11-13, "And God said, Let the earth put forth grass, herbs yielding seed, and fruit-trees bearing fruit after their kind, wherein is the seed thereof, upon the earth: and it was so. 12 And the earth brought forth grass, herbs yielding seed after their kind, and trees bearing fruit, wherein is the seed thereof, after their kind: and God saw that it was good. 13 And there was evening and there was morning, a third day. (American Standard Version, ASV)[for more details, go to www.jw.org].

Research on Cinnamon for Health
Recent studies have found that cinnamon may have a beneficial effect on blood sugar.

One of the first human studies was published in 2003 in a medical journal called Diabetes Care. Sixty people with type 2 diabetes took 1, 3, or 6 grams of cinnamon in pill form daily, an amount roughly equivalent to one quarter of a teaspoon to 1 teaspoon of cinnamon.

After 40 days, all 3 amounts of cinnamon reduced fasting blood glucose by 18 to 29%, triglycerides by 23 to 30%, LDL cholesterol by 7 to 27%, and total cholesterol by 12 to 26%.

For more information about cinnamon and diabetes, read Is Cinnamon a Proven Diabetes Remedy?

Preliminary lab and animal studies have found that cinnamon may have antibacterial and antifungal properties. It's active against Candida albicans, the fungus that causes yeast infections and thrush, and Helicobacter pylori, the bacteria responsible for stomach ulcers.
Safety of Cinnamon

People taking diabetes medication or any medication that affects blood glucose or insulin levels shouldn't take therapeutic doses of cinnamon unless they're under a doctor's supervision. Taking them together may have an additive effect and cause blood glucose levels to dip too low.
Also, people who have been prescribed medication to manage their blood sugar should not reduce or discontinue their dose and take cinnamon instead, especially without speaking with a doctor. Improperly treated diabetes can lead to serious complications, such as heart disease, stroke, kidney disease, and nerve damage.

Cassia cinnamon, the kind of cinnamon normally found in grocery stores and in supplement form, naturally contains a compound called coumarin. Coumarin is also found in other plants such as celery, chamomile, sweet clover, and parsley.
At high levels, coumarin can damage the liver. Coumarin can also have a "blood-thinning" effect, so cassia cinnamon supplements shouldn't be taken with prescription anti-clotting medication, such as Coumadin (warfarin), or by people with bleeding disorders.

Cinnamon can also be found in a concentrated oil form that comes from cinnamon bark. Some of these products are not intended for consumption, but instead are used for aromatherapy essential oils. Also, the oil is highly potent and an overdose can depress the central nervous system. People should not take the oil to treat a condition unless under the close supervision of a qualified health professional.

Pregnant women should avoid excessive amounts of cinnamon and shouldn't take it as a supplement. [source - retrieved from http://altmedicine.about.com/od/cinnamon/a/cinnamon.htm on //2013]
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Francis David said it long ago, "Neither the sword of popes...nor the image of death will halt the march of truth."Francis David, 1579, written on the wall of his prison cell." Read the book, "What Does The Bible Really Teach" and the Bible today, and go to www.jw.org!




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Re: Almighty God’s (YHWH) Great Gift to Mankind, The Rare Fruit Trees and Herbs

Post  Admin on Sat Nov 16, 2013 1:07 pm

Hi Everyone:

Here is a Commentary on Bountiful Trees and Vegetables God (YHWH) has provided for mankind, specifically the Climbing Blueberry Billardiera longiflora

A choice Tasmanian climber that sports thin twining stems that produce creamy-yellow purple-tipped waxy flowers in spring. In autumn, outstandingly lovely clusters of deepest violet grape-sized berries appear when this unusual color for autumn is appreciated. Hardy in zones 7-9, this variety grows 6-10 feet in full to part sun.

No shade of purple is lovelier than the fruit, it's a tasty treat, too. This evergreen climber twines up any available support. (source - retrieved from http://www.seedman.com/fruit.htm on 4/2/2013)

Origin:
New South Wales and Tasmania.
Plant Group:
Vines.
Hardiness:
Sunset zones: Not listed.
USDA zones: 8-9. Heat zones: 9-8.
Mature size:
Height: 6-10 feet (2-3 m).
Flowering period:
June.
Flowering attributes:
Pendent, narrow bell-shaped flowers open a pale chartreuse, turning a creamy white in its prime and then aging to lavender-purple.
Leaf attributes:
Evergreen, linear lance-shaped, dark green leaves.
Growth habit:
Climber.
Light:
Sun to partial shade.
Soil:
Humus rich, neutral to acidic, moist, well-drained soil.
Feeding:
Mulch well with composted manure or compost. Feed once a month with a complete organic fertilizer during the growing season.
Propagation Methods:
Sow fresh seed as soon as ripe in autumn. Old seed may take up to a year to germinate.
Softwood cuttings in early summer.
Pruning Methods:
Prune after fruiting and is only neccessary for rejuvenation or to keep confined to its space. (source - retrieved from http://rainyside.com/plant_gallery/vines/BillardieraLongiflora.html on 4/2/2013)


In Genesis 1:11-13, "And God said, Let the earth put forth grass, herbs yielding seed, and fruit-trees bearing fruit after their kind, wherein is the seed thereof, upon the earth: and it was so. 12 And the earth brought forth grass, herbs yielding seed after their kind, and trees bearing fruit, wherein is the seed thereof, after their kind: and God saw that it was good. 13 And there was evening and there was morning, a third day. (American Standard Version, ASV)[for more details, go to www.jw.org].

View plant and fruit at, https://www.google.com/search?q=Climbing+Blueberry+Billardiera+longiflora&hl=en&client=firefox&hs=IOE&rls=com.yahoo:en-US:official&tbm=isch&tbo=u&source=univ&sa=X&ei=24xbUfGjPOPT0gHVloCoDA&ved=0CDsQsAQ&biw=1280&bih=854


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Francis David said it long ago, "Neither the sword of popes...nor the image of death will halt the march of truth."Francis David, 1579, written on the wall of his prison cell." Read the book, "What Does The Bible Really Teach" and the Bible today, and go to www.jw.org!

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the Cluster Fig Tree Ficus racemosa

Post  Admin on Wed Nov 20, 2013 9:56 am

Hi Everyone:

Here is a Commentary on Bountiful Trees and Vegetables God (YHWH) has provided for mankind, specifically the Cluster Fig Tree Ficus racemosa

An evergreen tropical fig that can be grown in large tubs.

Impressive large Ficus species which can easy be recognized by the myriad of fruits that are hanging from its branches almost the whole year round.

Popularly known as the Cluster Fig Tree or Goolar (Gular) Fig, this is native to Australasia, South-East Asia and the Indian Subcontinent. it is unusual in that its figs grow on or close to the tree trunk.In India the tree and its fruit are called gular in the north and atti in the south.The fruits are a favorite staple of the common Indian macaque. In Vietnam, it is called sung. (source - retrieved from http://www.seedman.com/fruit.htm on 4/3/2013)

Ficus racemosa (syn. Ficus glomerata Roxb.) is a species of plant in the Moraceae family. Popularly known as the Cluster Fig Tree or Goolar (Gular) Fig, this is native to Australia, Malesia, South-East Asia and the Indian Subcontinent. It is unusual in that its figs grow on or close to the tree trunk, termed cauliflory. In India the tree and its fruit are called gular in the north and atti in the south. The fruits are a favourite staple of the common Indian macaque. In Vietnam, it is called sung.

It serves as a food plant for the caterpillars of the butterfly the Two-brand Crow (Euploea sylvester) of northern Australia.[1]

In the Atharva Veda, this fig tree (Sanskrit: u?umbara or udumbara)[2] is given prominence as a means for acquiring prosperity and vanquishing foes.[3] For instance, regarding an amulet of the udumbara tree, a hymn (AV xix,31) extols:
The Lord of amulets art thou, most mighty: in thee wealth's
ruler hath engendered riches,

These gains are lodged in thee, and all great treasures. Amulet,
conquer thou: far from us banish malignity and indigence,
and hunger.

Vigour art thou, in me do thou plant vigour: riches art thou, so
do thou grant me riches.

Plenty art thou, so prosper me with plenty: House-holder, hear
a householder's petition.[4]

It has been described in the story of Raja Harischandra of the Ikshvaku dynasty, that the crown was a branch of this Udumbura tree, set in a circlet of gold. Additionally, the Throne (simhasana) was constructed out of this wood and the royal personage would ascend it on his knee, chanting to the gods to ascend it with him, which they did so, albeit unseen.
In Buddhism


Clusters of gular figs on a tree trunk in India
Main article: Udumbara (Buddhism)
Both the tree and the flower are referred to as the udumbara (Sanskrit, Pali; Devanagari: in Buddhism.[5] Udumbara can also refer to the blue lotus (Nila udumbara) flower. The udumbara flower appears in chapters 2 and 27 of the Lotus Sutra, an important Mahayana Buddhist text. The Japanese word udonge (???) was used by D?gen Zenji to refer to the flower of the udumbara tree in chapter 68 of the Sh?b?genz? ("Treasury of the Eye of the True Dharma"). D?gen places the context of the udonge flower in the Flower Sermon given by Gautama Buddha on Vulture Peak. Udonge is also used to refer to the eggs of the lacewing insect. The eggs are laid in a pattern similar to a flower, and its shape is used for divination in Asian fortune telling.[6]

Uses

In ancient times both Hindu and Buddhist ascetics on their way to Taxila, (Original name is Taksha Sila) travelling through vast areas of Indian forests used to consume the fruit during their travels. One challenge to vegetarians were the many fig wasps that one finds when opening a gular fig. One way to get rid of them was to break the figs into halves or quarters, discard most of the seeds and then place the figs into the midday sun for an hour. Gular fruit are almost never sold commercially because of this problem.

The Ovambo people call the fruit of the Cluster Fig eenghwiyu and use it to distill Ombike, their traditional liquor.[7]

Health Uses
The bark of Audumbar/Oudumbar tree is said to have healing power. In countries like India, the bark is rubbed on a stone with water to make a paste and the paste is applied over the skin which is having boils or mosquito bytes. Allow the paste to dry on the skin and reapply after a few hours. For people whose skin is especially sensitive to insect bites; this is a very simple home remedy.

References
1. ^ Braby, Michael F. (2005). The Complete Field Guide to Butterflies of Australia. Collingwood, Victoria: CSIRO Publishing. p. 194. ISBN 0-643-09027-4.
2. ^ Monier-Williams, Monier (1899, 1964). A Sanskrit-English Dictionary (London: Oxford University Press), pp. 175, 186. Retrieved 19 Nov 2008 from "Cologne University" at http://www.sanskrit-lexicon.uni-koeln.de/scans/MWScan/MWScanpdf/mw0175-ujjha.pdf and http://www.sanskrit-lexicon.uni-koeln.de/scans/MWScan/MWScanpdf/mw0186-udaya.pdf.
3. ^ See, e.g., Shyam Singh Shashi (1999), Encyclopaedia Indica (Anmol Publications), Ch. 9 "The Tree Cult," esp. pp. 241, 244-46. Retrieved 19 Nov 2008 from "Google Books" at http://books.google.com/books?id=jMmYDrm_7NAC&pg=PA245&lpg=PA245&dq=%22Atharva+Veda%22+%2Budumbara&source=bl&ots=fFDRDDKwjG&sig=Cz2M4dHwRFAE7Kq5EvltRO2sbV0&hl=en&sa=X&oi=book_result&resnum=3&ct=result#PPA247,M1.
4. ^ Ralph T.H. Griffith (trans.) (1895-6). Hymns of the Atharva Veda, pp. 236-7. Retrieved 19 Nov 2008 from "Sacred Texts" at http://www.sacred-texts.com/hin/av/av19031.htm.
5. ^ McCullough, Helen Craig; Murasaki Shikibu (1994). Genji and Heike: Selections from The Tale of Genji and The Tale of the Heike. Stanford University Press. p. 94. ISBN 0-8047-2258-7.
6. ^ Hadamitzky, Wolfgang; Mark Spahn (1996). The Kanji Dictionary. Tuttle Publishing. p. 783. ISBN 0-8048-2058-9.
7. ^ Shaanika, Helvy (26 October 2012). "Ombike – a potent traditional brew". New Era. (source - retrieved from http://www.seedman.com/fruit.htm on 4/3/2013)

In Genesis 1:11-13, "And God said, Let the earth put forth grass, herbs yielding seed, and fruit-trees bearing fruit after their kind, wherein is the seed thereof, upon the earth: and it was so. 12 And the earth brought forth grass, herbs yielding seed after their kind, and trees bearing fruit, wherein is the seed thereof, after their kind: and God saw that it was good. 13 And there was evening and there was morning, a third day. (American Standard Version, ASV)[for more details, go to www.jw.org].

View plant and fruit at, https://www.google.com/search?q=Cluster+Fig+Tree+Ficus+racemosa&hl=en&client=firefox&hs=Wd5&rls=com.yahoo:en-US:official&tbm=isch&tbo=u&source=univ&sa=X&ei=vT9cUZ-HO9Sn4APR8oCABw&ved=0CEAQsAQ&biw=1280&bih=854

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Francis David said it long ago, "Neither the sword of popes...nor the image of death will halt the march of truth."Francis David, 1579, written on the wall of his prison cell." Read the book, "What Does The Bible Really Teach" and the Bible today, and go to www.jw.org!


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the Theobroma cacao also cacao tree

Post  Admin on Sun Nov 24, 2013 11:26 am


Hi Everyone:

Here is a Commentary on Bountiful Trees and Vegetables God (YHWH) has provided for mankind, specifically the Theobroma cacao also cacao tree and cocoa tree, is a small (4–8 m (13–26 ft) tall) evergreen tree in the family Malvaceae,[1] native to the deep tropical region of America. Its seeds are used to make cocoa powder and chocolate.

Leaves are alternate, entire, unlobed, 10–40 cm (3.9–16 in) long and 5–20 cm (2.0–7.9 in) broad.

The flowers are produced in clusters directly on the trunk and older branches; this is known as cauliflory. The flowers are small, 1–2 cm (0.39–0.79 in) diameter, with pink calyx. While many of the world's flowers are pollinated by bees (Hymenoptera) or butterflies/moths (Lepidoptera), cacao flowers are pollinated by tiny flies, Forcipomyia midges in the order Diptera. The fruit, called a cacao pod, is ovoid, 15–30 cm (5.9–12 in) long and 8–10 cm (3.1–3.9 in) wide, ripening yellow to orange, and weighs about 500 g (1.1 lb) when ripe. The pod contains 20 to 60 seeds, usually called "beans", embedded in a white pulp. The seeds are the main ingredient of chocolate, while the pulp is used in some countries to prepare a refreshing juice. Each seed contains a significant amount of fat (40–50%) as cocoa butter. Their most noted active constituent is theobromine, a compound similar to caffeine.

Cacao (Theobroma cacao) belongs to the genus Theobroma classified under the subfamily Sterculioidea of the mallow family Malvaceae. Cacao is one of 22 species of Theobroma.

T. cacao is widely distributed from southeastern Mexico to the Amazon basin. There were originally two hypotheses about its domestication; one said that there were two foci for domestication, one in the Lacandon area of Mexico and another in lowland South America. More recent studies of patterns of DNA diversity, however, suggest that this is not the case. Motomayor et al. sampled 1241 trees and classified them into 10 distinct genetic clusters. This study also identified areas, for example around Iquitos in modern Peru, where representatives of several genetic clusters originated. This result suggests that this is where T. cacao was originally domesticated, probably for the pulp that surrounds the beans, which is eaten as a snack and fermented into a mildly alcoholic beverage. Using the DNA sequences obtained by Motomayor et al. and comparing them with data derived from climate models and the known conditions suitable for cacao, Thomas et al. have further refined the view of domestication, linking the area of greatest cacao genetic diversity to a bean-shaped area that encompasses the border between Brazil and Peru and the southern part of the Colombian-Brazilian border. Climate models indicate that at the peak of the last ice age 21,000 years ago, when habitat suitable for cacao was at its most reduced, this area was still suitable, and so provided a refugium for the species. Thomas et al. speculate that from there people took cacao to Mexico, where selection for the beans took place.

Cacao trees grow well as understory plants in humid forest ecosystems. This is equally true of abandoned cultivated trees, making it difficult to distinguish truly wild trees from those whose parents may originally have been cultivated.
Cacao production has increased from 1.5 million tons in 1983-1984 to 3.5 million tons in 2003-2004, almost entirely due to the expansion of the production area rather than to yield increases. Cacao is grown both by large agroindustrial plantations and small producers, the bulk of production coming from millions of farmers who have a few trees each.

A tree begins to bear when it is four or five years old. A mature tree may have 6,000 flowers in a year, yet only about 20 pods. About 300-600 seeds (10 pods) are required to produce 1 kg (2.2 lb) of cocoa paste.
Historically, chocolate makers have recognized three main cultivar groups of cacao beans used to make cocoa and chocolate. The most prized, rare, and expensive is the Criollo group, the cocoa bean used by the Maya. Only 10% of chocolate is made from Criollo, which is less bitter and more aromatic than any other bean. The cacao bean in 80% of chocolate is made using beans of the Forastero group. Forastero trees are significantly hardier than Criollo trees, resulting in cheaper cacao beans. Trinitario, a hybrid of Criollo and Forastero, is used in about 10% of chocolate. The new, genetically-based classification into 10 groups may well help breeders to create new varieties that are both pest- and disease-resistant and contain valued flavours.

Major cocoa bean processors include Hershey's, Nestlé and Mars, all of which purchase cocoa beans via various sources.

In June 2009, Mars Botanicals, a division of Mars, launched Cirku, a cocoa extract product that provides cocoa ?avanols made with a patented process that contains a high level of phytonutrients.

The pests and diseases to which cacao is subject, along with climate change, mean that new varieties will be needed to respond to these challenges. Breeders rely on the genetic diversity conserved in field genebanks to create new varieties, because cacao has recalcitrant seeds that cannot be stored in a conventional genebank. In an effort to improve the diversity available to breeders, and ensure the future of the field genebanks, experts have drawn up a A Global Strategy for the Conservation and Use of Cacao Genetic Resources, as the Foundation for a Sustainable Cocoa Economy. The strategy has been adopted by the cacao producers and their clients, and seeks to improve the characterization of cacao diversity, the sustainability and diversity of the cacao collections, the usefulness of the collections, and to ease access to better information about the conserved material. Some natural areas of cacao diversity are protected by various forms of conservation, for example national parks. However, a recent study of genetic diversity and predicted climates suggests that many of those protected areas will no longer be suitable for cacao by 2050. It also identifies an area around Iquitos in Peru that will remain suitable for cacao and that is home to considerable genetic diversity, and recommends that this area be considered for protection.

The genome of T. cacao is diploid, its size is 430 Mbp, and it comprises 10 chromosome pairs (2n=2x=20). In September 2010, a team of scientists announced a draft sequence of the cacao genome (Matina1-6 genotype). In a second, unrelated project, the International Cocoa Genome Sequencing Consortium-ICGS, co-ordinated by CIRAD, first published in December 2010 (online, paper publication in January 2011), the sequence of the cacao genome, of the Criollo cacao (of a landrace from Belize, B97-61/B2). In their publication, they reported a detailed analysis of the genomic and genetic data.

The sequence of the cacao genome identified 28,798 protein-coding genes, compared to the roughly 23,000 protein-coding genes of the human genome. About 20% of the cacao genome consists of transposable elements, a low proportion compared to other plant species. Many genes were identified as coding for flavonoids, aromatic terpenes, theobromine and many other metabolites involved in cocoa flavor and quality traits, among which a relatively high proportion code for polyphenols, which constitute up to 8% of cacao pods dry weight. The cacao genome appears close to the hypothetical hexaploid ancestor of all dicotyledonous plants, and it is proposed as an evolutionary mechanism by which the 21 chromosomes of the dicots' hypothetical hexaploid ancestor underwent major fusions leading to cacao's 10 chromosome pairs. [source - retrieved from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cacao_pod on 1/05/2013]

In Genesis 1:11-13, "And God said, Let the earth put forth grass, herbs yielding seed, and fruit-trees bearing fruit after their kind, wherein is the seed thereof, upon the earth: and it was so. 12 And the earth brought forth grass, herbs yielding seed after their kind, and trees bearing fruit, wherein is the seed thereof, after their kind: and God saw that it was good. 13 And there was evening and there was morning, a third day. (American Standard Version, ASV)[for more details, go to www.jw.org].

Cocoa
Scientific Name(s): Theobroma cacao L. subsp. cacao . Family: Sterculiaceae
Common Name(s): Cacao , cocoa . Materials derived from the cacao seeds (beans) include cocoa solid (the nonfat component of cocoa beans that is finely ground into a powder), cocoa butter (the fat component extracted by grinding and pressing the beans), and chocolate (a combination of cocoa solids, cocoa butter, and sugar). 1

Uses of Cocoa
Cocoa solid, cocoa butter, and chocolate are all rich sources of antioxidants. Epidemiological studies show an inverse association between the consumption of cocoa and the risk of cardiovascular disease. The likely mechanisms are antioxidant activity; improvement in endothelial function, vascular function, and insulin sensitivity; as well as attenuation of platelet reactivity and reduction in blood pressure.

Cocoa Dosing
No specific dosing recommendations can be made. Further studies characterizing the polyphenol content of cocoa products and method of measurement are needed. 1 , 7 In one study, an inverse relationship was demonstrated between cocoa intake and blood pressure, as well as a 15-year cardiovascular and all-cause mortality; the median cocoa intake among users was 2.11 g/day. 3
Pregnancy/Lactation
Generally recognized as safe (GRAS) when used in moderate amounts or in amounts used in foods. Avoid dosages greater than those found in food because safety and efficacy are unproven. Caffeine content should be restricted during pregnancy. 8 , 9

Cocoa Interactions
None well documented.
Cocoa Adverse Reactions
Children consuming large amounts of chocolate and caffeinated beverages may exhibit tics or restlessness. Ingredients in chocolate may precipitate migraine headaches, and cocoa products may be allergenic.

Cocoa Uses and Pharmacology
Cocoa has been reported to be a source of natural antioxidants, 10 the free radical scavengers that preserve cell membranes, protect DNA, prevent the oxidation of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol that leads to atherosclerosis, and prevent plaque formation in arterial walls. The antioxidant activity of cocoa has been attributed to the procyanidins and their monomeric precursors, epicatechin and catechin, which inhibit oxidation of LDL., Dark chocolate and cocoa inhibit LDL oxidation and increase high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol concentrations.

Although, the relatively high stearic acid content in cocoa products was once purported to reduce the risk of coronary heart disease (CHD), it is no longer considered to play a role in the reduction of CHD risk.

Cardiovascular disease and its risk factors

Research suggests that the flavonoid constituents, in particular flavanols, in cocoa may be beneficial in cardiovascular disease. Consumption of foods rich in flavanols are also associated with improved cardiovascular outcomes, suggesting that this specific group of flavonoids may have potent cardioprotective qualities. One study concluded that epicatechin content was likely to be the main factor in cocoa's association with beneficial health effects. [source - retrieved from http://www.drugs.com/npp/cocoa.html on 1/05/2013]

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