Almighty God’s (YHWH) Great Gift to Mankind, The Rare Fruit Trees and Herbs

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Eugenia reinwardtiana, known as the Beach Cherry or Cedar Bay Cherry

Post  Admin on Thu Jan 17, 2013 3:40 pm

Hi Everyone:

Here is a Commentary on Bountiful Trees and Vegetables God (YHWH) has provided for mankind, specifically the Eugenia reinwardtiana, known as the Beach Cherry or Cedar Bay Cherry. It is a rounded shrub that will form a tall shrub or small tree after many years. It is comparatively slow growing, but this is an excellent feature as it responds well to formative pruning to make excellent dense shrubs for low hedging and containers.

Leaves are shiny deep green, elliptical in shape up to 90mm long. New growth is pink maturing through lime green - an excellent feature of the plant. In colder semi-tropical areas the leaves will take on a reddish tone in winter, in response to the lower temperatures. It is not particularly frost tolerant.

In Genesis 1:11-13, "And God said, Let the earth put forth grass, herbs yielding seed, and fruit-trees bearing fruit after their kind, wherein is the seed thereof, upon the earth: and it was so. 12 And the earth brought forth grass, herbs yielding seed after their kind, and trees bearing fruit, wherein is the seed thereof, after their kind: and God saw that it was good. 13 And there was evening and there was morning, a third day. (American Standard Version, ASV)[for more details, go to www.jw.org].

Flowering and Fruiting: Plants flower in spring to early summer with masses of white five petal flowers, featuring centrally clustered stamens each up to 15mm across. The flowers are followed in November and December (just in time for Christmas) by fleshy, red succulent spherical fruits from 7mm to 20mm diameter, enclosing a cherry like seed. Fruits mature from green through scarlet to cherry red and are very tasty - they rival the traditional cherry. Some specimens are sweeter than others – try to source a good one!
This special rare plant is an excellent shrub that responds well to occasional pruning to produce a dense compact form for hedges. The succulent red fruits are wonderful ‘bush tucker’ and can be eaten raw, in fruit salads, with ice cream or made into jam, compotes or sauces. [source - retrieved from http://www.abc.net.au/queensland/stories/s1738525.htm on 01/01/2013]
It is well worth growing if you can obtain this extremely rare plant which seems to like sandy soils rich in nutrients, and it can be grown in large containers – 15 gallon or larger.
How this shrub and other plants absorb water from the ground. Plants have developed an effective system to absorb, translocate, store, and utilize water. Plants contain a vast network of conduits, which consists of xylem and phloem tissues. These conducting tissues start in the roots and continue up through the trunks of trees, into the branches and then into every leaf. Phloem tissue is made of living elongated cells that are connected to one another and responsible for translocating nutrients and sugars (carbohydrates), which are produced by leaves for energy and growth. The xylem is also composed of elongated cells but once the cells are formed, they die. The walls of the xylem cells still remain intact and serve as an excellent peipline to transport water from the roots to the leaves.

The main driving force of water uptake and transport into a plant is transpiration of water from leaves through specialized openings called stomata. Heat from the sun causes the water to evaporate, setting this ‘water chain’ in motion. The evaporation creates a negative water vapor pressure. Water is pulled into the leaf to replace the water that has transpired from the leaf. This pulling of water, or tension, occurs in the xylem of the leaf. Since the xylem is a continuous water column that extends from the leaf to the roots, this negative water pressure extends into the roots and results in water uptake from the soil. [adapted from: http://www.scientificamerican.com/article.cfm?id=follow-up-how-do-trees-ca ]

Clearly this clever water transport system shows a superior intelligence of the Creator (YHWH).


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Your Friend in Christ Iris89

Francis David said it long ago, "Neither the sword of popes...nor the image of death will halt the march of truth."Francis David, 1579, written on the wall of his prison cell." Read the book, "What Does The Bible Really Teach" and the Bible today, and go to www.jw.org!



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bilimbi, Averrhoa bilimbi, L., (Oxalidaceae)

Post  Admin on Sun Jan 20, 2013 9:35 am

Hi Everyone:

Here is a Commentary on Bountiful Trees and Vegetables God (YHWH) has provided for mankind, specifically the bilimbi, Averrhoa bilimbi, L., (Oxalidaceae), is closely allied to the carambola but quite different in appearance, manner of fruiting, flavor and uses. The only strictly English names are "cucumber tree" and "tree sorrel", bestowed by the British in colonial times. "Bilimbi" is the common name in India and has become widely used. In Malaya, it is called belimbing asam, belimbing buloh, b'ling, or billing-billing. In Indonesia, it is belimbing besu, balimbing, blimbing, or blimbing wuluh; in Thailand, it is taling pling, or kaling pring.

In Haiti, it is called blimblin; in Jamaica, bimbling plum; in Cuba, it is grosella china; in El Salvador and Nicaragua, mimbro; in Costa Rica, mimbro or tiriguro; in Venezuela, vinagrillo; in Surinam and Guyana, birambi; in Argentina, pepino de Indias. To the French it is carambolier bilimbi, or cornichon des Indes. Filipinos generally call it kamias but there are about a dozen other native names.

The tree is attractive, long-lived, reaches 16 to 33 ft (5-10 m) in height; has a short trunk soon dividing into a number of upright branches. The leaves, very similar to those of the Otaheite gooseberry and mainly clustered at the branch tips, are alternate, imparipirmate; 12 to 24 in (30-60 cm) long, with 11 to 37 alternate or subopposite leaflets, ovate or oblong, with rounded base and pointed tip; downy; medium-green on the upper surface, pale on the underside; 3/4 to 4 in (2-10 cm) long, 1/2 to 1 1/8 in (1.2-1.25 cm) wide.

Small, fragrant, 5-petalled flowers, yellowish-green or purplish marked with dark-purple, are borne in small, hairy panicles emerging directly from the trunk and oldest, thickest branches and some twigs, as do the clusters of curious fruits. The bilimbi is ellipsoid, obovoid or nearly cylindrical, faintly 5-sided, 1 1/2 to 4 in (4-10 cm) long; capped by a thin, star-shaped calyx at the stem-end and tipped with 5 hair-like floral remnants at the apex. The fruit is crisp when unripe, turns from bright-green to yellowish-green, ivory or nearly white when ripe and falls to the ground. The outer skin is glossy, very thin, soft and tender, and the flesh green, jelly-like, juicy and extremely acid. There may be a few (perhaps 6 or 7) flattened, disc-like seeds about 1/4 in (6 mm) wide, smooth and brown. [source - retrieved from http://www.hort.purdue.edu/newcrop/morton/bilimbi.html on 01/01/2013]

In Genesis 1:11-13, "And God said, Let the earth put forth grass, herbs yielding seed, and fruit-trees bearing fruit after their kind, wherein is the seed thereof, upon the earth: and it was so. 12 And the earth brought forth grass, herbs yielding seed after their kind, and trees bearing fruit, wherein is the seed thereof, after their kind: and God saw that it was good. 13 And there was evening and there was morning, a third day. (American Standard Version, ASV)[for more details, go to www.jw.org].

Climate
The bilimbi is a tropical species, more sensitive to cold than the carambola, especially when very young. In Florida, it needs protection from cold and wind. Ideally, rainfall should be rather evenly distributed throughout most of the year but there should be a 2- to 3-month dry season. The bilimbi is not found in the wettest zones of Malaya. The tree makes slow growth in shady or semi-shady situations. It should be in full sun.
Soil
While the bilimbi does best in rich, moist, but well-drained soil, it grows and fruits quite well on sand or limestone.

Propagation
Most efforts at grafting and budding have not been rewarding, though Wester had success in shield-budding, utilizing non-petioled, ripe, brown budwood cut 1 1/2 to 2 in (3.8-5 cm) long. Air-layering has been practiced in Indonesia for many years. However, the tree is more widely grown from seed.
Bilimbi trees are vigorous and receive no special horticultural attention. It has been suggested that they would respond well to whatever cultural treatment gives good results with the carambola.
Season, Harvesting and Keeping Quality
In India as in Florida, the tree begins to flower about February and then blooms and fruits more or less continuously until December. The fruits are picked by hand, singly or in clusters. They need gentle handling because of the thin skin. They cannot be kept on hand for more than a few days.
Pests and Diseases
No pests or diseases have been reported specifically for the bilimbi.

Food Uses
The bilimbi is generally regarded as too acid for eating raw, but in Costa Rica, the green, uncooked fruits are prepared as a relish which is served with rice and beans. Sometimes it is an accompaniment for fish and meat. Ripe fruits are frequently added to curries in the Far East. They yield 44.2% juice having a pH of 4.47, and the juice is popular for making cooling beverages on the order of lemonade.

Mainly, the bilimbi is used in place of mango to make chutney, and it is much preserved. To reduce acidity, it may be first pricked and soaked in water overnight, or soaked in salted water for a shorter time; then it is boiled with much sugar to make a jam or an acid jelly. The latter, in Malaya, is added to stewed fruits that are oversweet. Half-ripe fruits are salted, set out in the sun, and pickled in brine and can be thus kept for 3 months. A quicker pickle is made by putting the fruits and salt into boiling water. This product can be kept only 4 to 5 days. [source - retrieved from http://www.hort.purdue.edu/newcrop/morton/bilimbi.html on 01/01/2013]

Medicinal benefits in Bilimbi
* The leaves of bilimbi are used as a treatment for venereal disease.
* The leaf decoction is taken as a medicine to relieve from rectal inflammation.
* The fruit seems to be effective against coughs and thrush.
* It fights against cholestrol and is used as a tonic and laxative.
* The fruit is also known to control internal bleeding in the stomach.
* The leaves serve as a paste on itches, swelling, mumps or skin eruptions.
* Syrup made from Bilimbi is a cure for fever and inflammation.
* It is also used to stop rectal bleeding and alleviate internal hemorrhoids.
[source - retrieved from http://www.fruitsinfo.com/bilimbi-tropical-fruit.php on 01/01/2013]

How this tree and other plants absorb water from the ground. Plants have developed an effective system to absorb, translocate, store, and utilize water. Plants contain a vast network of conduits, which consists of xylem and phloem tissues. These conducting tissues start in the roots and continue up through the trunks of trees, into the branches and then into every leaf. Phloem tissue is made of living elongated cells that are connected to one another and responsible for translocating nutrients and sugars (carbohydrates), which are produced by leaves for energy and growth. The xylem is also composed of elongated cells but once the cells are formed, they die. The walls of the xylem cells still remain intact and serve as an excellent peipline to transport water from the roots to the leaves.

The main driving force of water uptake and transport into a plant is transpiration of water from leaves through specialized openings called stomata. Heat from the sun causes the water to evaporate, setting this ‘water chain’ in motion. The evaporation creates a negative water vapor pressure. Water is pulled into the leaf to replace the water that has transpired from the leaf. This pulling of water, or tension, occurs in the xylem of the leaf. Since the xylem is a continuous water column that extends from the leaf to the roots, this negative water pressure extends into the roots and results in water uptake from the soil. [adapted from: http://www.scientificamerican.com/article.cfm?id=follow-up-how-do-trees-ca ]

Clearly this clever water transport system shows a superior intelligence of the Creator (YHWH).


Now to know the truth, go to:

1) http://religioustruths.forumsland.com/

2) http://www.network54.com/Forum/403209/

3) http://religioustruths.lefora.com/

4) http://religioustruths.boardhost.com/

5) http://religious-truths.forums.com/

6) http://religioustruthsbyiris.createmybb3.com/

7) http://religioustruths.forumotion.com/


Your Friend in Christ Iris89

Francis David said it long ago, "Neither the sword of popes...nor the image of death will halt the march of truth."Francis David, 1579, written on the wall of his prison cell." Read the book, "What Does The Bible Really Teach" and the Bible today, and go to www.jw.org!



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Blackberry Jam Fruit, Randia Formosa

Post  Admin on Wed Jan 23, 2013 10:06 am

Hi Everyone:

Here is a Commentary on Bountiful Trees and Vegetables God (YHWH) has provided for mankind, specifically the Blackberry Jam Fruit, Randia Formosa, Synonyms: Mussaenda formosa, Randia mussaenda, of the Family Rubiaceae. Common name: Blackberry Jam Fruit, Raspberry Bush, Jasmin de Rosa which originated in Central and South America.

Randia formosa is a rare tropical to subtropical fruit, growing as a small evergreen bushy shrub, usually only 4-5 ft tall in the ground and 3-4 ft in container. It can be also trained into a miniature tree. The plant is closely related to gardenia and produces 1.5-2" star shaped, very fragrant, tubular white flowers that attract nocturnal moths. Olive-shaped yellow fruits are woody shelled, about 1" size and look like small loquats. They can be easily crushed between teeth. The fruit contains two cells with small flat seeds surrounded by sweet black soft pulp tasting like "blackberry jam", beloved of children and adults.

Besides tasty fruit, the plant has many other GREAT FEATURES.
* Slow and compact grower. For years, it can be grown in 3-5 gal container, reaching 3-4 ft in height.
* Branching habit and a dense pretty foliage.
* Tolerates shade and will flower and fruit in filtered light, which is appreciated by container gardeners who grow these plants indoors or in a crowded greenhouse.
* Flowers are gardenia-like and have pleasant sweet fragrance, although not as strong as gardenias. When in bloom, the bush is all covered with star-shaped flowers.
* Starts fruiting in young age - 1-1.5 year from seed. 1-3 gallon container plants start blooming and fruiting when reach about 2 ft tall.
* Heavy producer. A small 3 ft plant in 3 gal container can bear as many as 25-30 fruit at a time. Blooming/fruiting period continues for a few months, new flowers appear while the first fruit start to ripen.
* Fall/winter bloomer. Enjoy fragrance and fruit when other plants are off-season!
* Likes container culture. It requires acidic soil and will feel happy in a well-drained potting mix. [source - retrieved from http://toptropicals.com/html/toptropicals/plant_wk/randia.htm on 01/01/2013]

In Genesis 1:11-13, "And God said, Let the earth put forth grass, herbs yielding seed, and fruit-trees bearing fruit after their kind, wherein is the seed thereof, upon the earth: and it was so. 12 And the earth brought forth grass, herbs yielding seed after their kind, and trees bearing fruit, wherein is the seed thereof, after their kind: and God saw that it was good. 13 And there was evening and there was morning, a third day. (American Standard Version, ASV)[for more details, go to www.jw.org].

Blackberry Jam Fruit can take both sun and shade. However, in filtered light leaves look healthier and greener.

The plant is relatively cold hardy and is said to withstand as low as 26F. However, young plants are more sensitive and should be protected from chill winds and frost. During cold period, watering should be reduced, otherwise leaves may become chlorotic - Randia formosa is very sensitive to over-watering particularly during cool season.

This species is reported to be drought tolerant, however, it requires regular watering until the plant is well-established. Young plants easily droop leaves if underwatered, they may even loose all the leaves overnight if the soil gets too dry! However, the plant usually recovers very quickly and new growth comes in a few days to a week.

In general, Randia formosa is easy in cultivation. The two most important requirements are - acidic soil and good drainage. If these two conditions are missing, most likely the leaves may turn chlorotic (yellow with green veins, see picture on the right) once there is a chance of a slight over-watering. This is not a fatal failure though, but effects the looks of the plant.
The best mixture for this plant is - 50:50 mix of perlite and peat moss (or coconut fiber). You may add some pine bark for a better drainage, too. Use slow-release fertilizer and apply microelements on regular basis to avoid possible chlorosis.

The Blackberry Jam Fruit is definitely a conversation piece, and tasting a "blackberry jam" from a gem of your rare fruit collection will always bring fun time for your family, friends and garden visitors. [source - retrieved from http://toptropicals.com/html/toptropicals/plant_wk/randia.htm on 01/01/2013]
How this tree and other plants absorb water from the ground. Plants have developed an effective system to absorb, translocate, store, and utilize water. Plants contain a vast network of conduits, which consists of xylem and phloem tissues. These conducting tissues start in the roots and continue up through the trunks of trees, into the branches and then into every leaf. Phloem tissue is made of living elongated cells that are connected to one another and responsible for translocating nutrients and sugars (carbohydrates), which are produced by leaves for energy and growth. The xylem is also composed of elongated cells but once the cells are formed, they die. The walls of the xylem cells still remain intact and serve as an excellent peipline to transport water from the roots to the leaves.

The main driving force of water uptake and transport into a plant is transpiration of water from leaves through specialized openings called stomata. Heat from the sun causes the water to evaporate, setting this ‘water chain’ in motion. The evaporation creates a negative water vapor pressure. Water is pulled into the leaf to replace the water that has transpired from the leaf. This pulling of water, or tension, occurs in the xylem of the leaf. Since the xylem is a continuous water column that extends from the leaf to the roots, this negative water pressure extends into the roots and results in water uptake from the soil. [adapted from: http://www.scientificamerican.com/article.cfm?id=follow-up-how-do-trees-ca ]

Clearly this clever water transport system shows a superior intelligence of the Creator (YHWH).


Now to know the truth, go to:

1) http://religioustruths.forumsland.com/

2) http://www.network54.com/Forum/403209/

3) http://religioustruths.lefora.com/

4) http://religioustruths.boardhost.com/

5) http://religious-truths.forums.com/

6) http://religioustruthsbyiris.createmybb3.com/

7) http://religioustruths.forumotion.com/


Your Friend in Christ Iris89

Francis David said it long ago, "Neither the sword of popes...nor the image of death will halt the march of truth."Francis David, 1579, written on the wall of his prison cell." Read the book, "What Does The Bible Really Teach" and the Bible today, and go to www.jw.org!



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Breadfruit (Artocarpus altilis)

Post  Admin on Fri Jan 25, 2013 11:48 pm

Hi Everyone:

Here is a Commentary on Bountiful Trees and Vegetables God (YHWH) has provided for mankind, specifically the Breadfruit (Artocarpus altilis) is a species of flowering tree in the mulberry family, Moraceae, growing throughout Southeast Asia and most Pacific Ocean islands. Its name is derived from the texture of the cooked fruit, which has a potato-like flavor, similar to fresh-baked bread.
Ancestors of the Polynesians found the trees growing in the northwest New Guinea area around 3,500 years ago. They gave up the rice cultivation they had brought with them from Taiwan, and raised breadfruit wherever they went in the Pacific (except Easter Island and New Zealand, which were too cold). Their ancient eastern Indonesian cousins spread the plant west and north through insular and coastal Southeast Asia. It has, in historical times, also been widely planted in tropical regions elsewhere. [source - retrieved from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Breadfruit on 1/02/2013]

In Genesis 1:11-13, "And God said, Let the earth put forth grass, herbs yielding seed, and fruit-trees bearing fruit after their kind, wherein is the seed thereof, upon the earth: and it was so. 12 And the earth brought forth grass, herbs yielding seed after their kind, and trees bearing fruit, wherein is the seed thereof, after their kind: and God saw that it was good. 13 And there was evening and there was morning, a third day. (American Standard Version, ASV)[for more details, go to www.jw.org].
Breadfruit trees grow to a height of 85 feet (26 m). The large and thick leaves are deeply cut into pinnate lobes. All parts of the tree yield latex, a milky juice, which is useful for boat caulking.
The trees are monoecious, with male and female flowers growing on the same tree. The male flowers emerge first, followed shortly afterward by the female flowers, which grow into capitula, which are capable of pollination just three days later. The pollinators are Old World fruit bats in the family Pteropodidae. The compound, false fruit develops from the swollen perianth, and originates from 1,500-2,000 flowers. These are visible on the skin of the fruit as hexagon-like disks.
Breadfruit is one of the highest-yielding food plants, with a single tree producing up to 200 or more fruits per season. In the South Pacific, the trees yield 50 to 150 fruits per year. In southern India, normal production is 150 to 200 fruits annually. Productivity varies between wet and dry areas. In the Caribbean, a conservative estimate is 25 fruits per tree. Studies in Barbados indicate a reasonable potential of 6.7 to 13.4 tons per acre (16-32 tons/ha). The grapefruit-sized, ovoid fruit has a rough surface, and each fruit is divided into many achenes, each achene surrounded by a fleshy perianth and growing on a fleshy receptacle. Some selectively bred cultivars have seedless
Breadfruit is a staple food in many tropical regions. The trees were propagated far outside their native range by Polynesian voyagers who transported root cuttings and air-layered plants over long ocean distances. Breadfruit are very rich in starch, and before being eaten, they are roasted, baked, fried or boiled. When cooked, the taste of moderately ripe breadfruit is described as potato-like, or similar to fresh-baked bread. Very ripe breadfruit becomes sweet, as the starch converts to sugar.

The fruit of the breadfruit tree - whole, sliced lengthwise and in cross-section
Because breadfruit trees usually produce large crops at certain times of the year, preservation of the harvested fruit is an issue. One traditional preservation technique is to bury peeled and washed fruits in a leaf-lined pit where they ferment over several weeks and produce a sour, sticky paste. So stored, the product may last a year or more, and some pits are reported to have produced edible contents more than 20 years later. Fermented breadfruit mash goes by many names such as mahr, ma, masi, furo, and bwiru, among others.
Most breadfruit varieties also produce a small number of fruits throughout the year, so fresh breadfruit is always available, but somewhat rare when not in season.
Breadfruit can be eaten once cooked, or can be further processed into a variety of other foods. A common product is a mixture of cooked or fermented breadfruit mash mixed with coconut milk and baked in banana leaves. Whole fruits can be cooked in an open fire, then cored and filled with other foods, such as coconut milk, sugar and butter, cooked meats, or other fruits. The filled fruit can be further cooked so the flavor of the filling permeates the flesh of the breadfruit.
The Hawaiian staple food called poi, made of mashed taro root, is easily substituted or augmented with mashed breadfruit. The resulting "breadfruit poi" is called poi ?ulu. In Puerto Rico, it is called panapen or pana, for short. Pana is often served boiled with a mixture of sauteed bacalao (salted cod fish), olive oil and onions. It is also served as tostones or mofongo. In the Dominican Republic, it is known by the name buen pan or "good bread". Breadfruit is also found in Indonesia and Malaysia, where it is called sukun. In the South Indian state of Kerala and coastal Karnataka, especially on the sides of Mangalore, where it is widely grown and cooked, it is known as kada chakka or seema chakka and deegujje, respectively. In Belize, the Mayan people call it masapan.
Breadfruit is roughly 25% carbohydrates and 70% water. It has an average amount of vitamin C (20 mg/100 g), small amounts of minerals (potassium and zinc) and thiamin (100 ?g/100 g).
Breadfruit was widely and diversely used among Pacific Islanders. Its lightweight wood (specific gravity of 0.27) is resistant to termites and shipworms, so is used as timber for structures and outrigger canoes. Its wood pulp can also be used to make paper, called breadfruit tapa. It is also used in traditional medicine to treat illnesses that range from sore eyes to sciatica. Native Hawaiians used its sticky latex to trap birds, whose feathers were made into cloaks. [source - retrieved from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Breadfruit on 1/02/2013]
Benefits of breadfruit:
1) Bread fruit provides high energy to those who eat it through its carbohydrate, mainly needed by the body for warmth and maintenance during daily activities.
2) The fiber present in breadfruit helps to make the intestines and bowels work properly by clearing out the junk from the intestines.
3) The dried fruit has been made into flour which is much richer than wheat flour and other essential amino acids.
Medical:
Breadfruit protects the body from heart diseases and heart attacks, Other than this the fiber present in breadfruit help those with diabetes to control the disease to some extent by reducing the absorption of glucose from the in taken food . Consuming breadfruit on a regular basis can reduce the risk of developing colon cancer. Breadfruit leaf is believed to lower blood pressure and is also believed to reduce asthma. Toasted flowers of the breadfruit tree are also rubbed on the gums as a cure for tooth ache.
Also, The reason why breadfruit is considered as cholestrol controller is because it is a rich source of fiber. The kind of fiber in breadfruit actually lowers the LDL levels (the “bad” cholesterol) while raising the levels of the HDL (the “good” cholesterol) which protect the arteries. [adapted from, http://www.fruitsinfo.com/breadfruit-tropical-fruit.php on 1/02/2013]
Varieties
An unpublished report of 1921 covered 200 cultivars of breadfruit in the Marquesas. The South Pacific Commission published the results of a breadfruit survey in 1966. In it, there were described 166 named sorts from Tonga, Niue, Western and American Samoa, Papua and New Guinea, New Hebrides and Rotuma. There are 70 named varieties of seeded and seedless breadfruits in Fiji. They are locally separated into 8 classes by leaf form. The following, briefly presented, are those that are recorded as "very good". It will be noted that some varietal names are reported under more than one class.
Class I: Leaf entire, or with one or two, occasionally, three lobes.
'Koqo'— round; 4 in (10 cm) wide; seedless; does not deteriorate quickly.
'Tamaikora'—gourd shaped (constricted around middle); to 4 1/2 in (11.5 cm) long, 3 in (7.5 cm) wide; with many seeds. Can be eaten raw when ripe. Highly perishable. Tree to 40 or 45 ft (12-13.5 m).
Class II: Leaf dissected at apex.
'Temaipo'—round; 3 1/2 in (9 cm) long; seedless. Can be eaten raw when ripe. There is also an oblong form with many seeds.
Class III: Leaf moderately deeply dissected at apex.
'Uto Kuro'—round; 5 in (12.5 cm) long; does not deteriorate quickly.
Class IV: Leaf moderately deeply dissected on upper half.
'Samoa'—('Kasa Balavu') round; 4 to 6 in (10-15 cm) long; seeds sparse to many.
'Uto Yalewa'—oblong; to 8 in (20 cm) long and 6 in (15 cm) wide; seedless.
'Kulu Dina'—oblong; to 16 in (40 cm) long and 13 in (33 cm) wide; seedless. Need not be peeled after cooking. Tree bears all year.
'Sogasoga'—oblong; to 9 in (23 cm) long and 6 1/2 in (16.5 cm) wide; seedless.
'Uto Dina'—oblong; to 6 in (15 cm) long and 3 to 3 1/2 in (7.5-9 cm) wide; seedless; need not be peeled after cooking. Tree 60 to 70 ft (18-21 m) high.
'Buco Ni Viti'—oblong; 11 to 14 in (28-35.5 cm) long, 6 to 7 in (15-18 cm) wide; seedless; one of the best cultivars.
'Tamaikora'—oblong; 7 to 9 in (18-23 cm) long, 5 to 6 1/2 in (12.5-16.5 cm) wide; seeds sparse; pulp eaten raw when ripe. Tree to 75 or 85 ft (23-26 m) high; bears 2 crops per year.
'Kulu Mabomabo'—oval; 6 to 8 in (15-20 cm) long, 4 to 5 1/2 in (10-14 cm) wide; seedless.
Class V: Leaf moderately deeply dissected; shape of leaf base variable.
'Uto Dina'—round; 4 1/2 to 5 in (11.5-12.5 cm) wide; seed less. Highly recommended. Tree is 25-30 ft (7.5-9 m) tall.
'Balekana Ni Samoa'—round; 4 to 5 in (10-12.5 cm) long; seeds sparse. Best of all Samoan varieties. There is an oval form by the same name; seedless; deteriorates very quickly.
'Balekana Ni Vita'—round; 3 1/2 to 4 in (9-10 cm) long; seedless. Does not deteriorate quickly.
'Balekana Dina'—oval; 6 to 8 in (15-20 cm) long, 3 to 5 in (7.5-12.5 cm) wide; seeds sparse. One of the best, especially when boiled.
'Tabukiraro'—round; 8 in (20 cm) long; seedless; skin sometimes eaten after cooking.
'Sici Ni Samoa'—oval; 5 to 6 in (12.5-15 cm) long, 3 to 3 1/2 in (7.5-9 cm) wide; seedless. One of the highly recommended Samoan varieties.
'Uto Me'—oval; 5 to 6 3/4 in (12.5-17 cm) long, 4 1/2 to 5 in (11.5 cm) wide; with many seeds; does not deteriorate quickly.
'Uto Wa'—oval; 6 to 7 1/2 in (15-19 cm) long, 5 to 5 1/2 in (12.5-14 cm) wide. The variety most recommended.
'Kulu Vawiri'—oval; 9 to 12 in (22-30 cm) long, 8 to 9 in (20-22 cm) wide; especially good when boiled.
Class VI: Leaf deeply dissected.
'Kulu Dina'—round; 3 to 4 in (7.5-10 cm) long; seedless. Need not be peeled after boiling. Highly recommended.
'Balekana'—oval; 4 in (10 cm) long, 3 in (7.5 cm) wide; of the best quality. Tree 70 to 80 ft (21-24 m) high.
'Balekana Ni Samoa'—round; 3 in (7.5 cm) long; seeds sparse. Best of all Samoan varieties.
'Balekana Ni Viti'—oblong; 5 to 6 in (12.5-15 cm) long, 3 to 4 in (7.5-10 cm) wide; seedless. The best native-type variety.
'Uto Dina'—('Kasa Leka') round; 4 in (10 cm) long; seedless.
'Uto Matala'—round; 3 to 4 in (7.5-10 cm) long. Especially fine when boiled. Tree bears 3 times a year.
Class VII: Leaf deeply dissected; apex pointed.
'Balekana Ni Samoa'—round; 5 to 5 1/2 in (12.5-14 cm) long; seeds sparse. Best of all Samoan varieties.
'Kulu Dina'—('Kasa Balavu') oval; 6 to 7 in (15-18 cm) long, 4 to 5 in (10-12.5 cm) wide; seedless.
'Uto Dina'—(Large) oval; 8 to 9 in (20-22 cm) long, 4 to 7 in (10-18 cm) wide; seedless. Also, by the same name, a form with only moderately dissected leaves.
'Bokasi'—round; 4 in (10 cm) long, 3 in (7.5 cm) wide.
Class VIII: Leaf deeply dissected, wide spaces between lobes.
'Savisavi Ni Samoa'—oval; 4 to 5 in (10-12.5 cm) long, 3 to 3 1/2 in (7.5-9 cm) wide. Ranks with best Samoan varieties.
'Savisavi Ni Viti'—oblong; 6 to 8 in(16-20 cm) long, 4 to 6 in (10-15 cm) wide; seedless; especially good when boiled.
'Savisavi'—round; 3 to 3 1/2 in (7.5-9 cm) wide; especially good when boiled.
'Balawa Ni Viti'—oval; 6 to 7 in (15-18 cm) long, 3 1/2 to 4 in (9-10 cm) wide; seedless.
'Uto Kasekasei'—round; 4 to 5 in (10-12.5 cm) long; seeds sparse.
'Via Loa'—oblong; 6 to 7 in (15-18 cm) long, 4 to 5 in (10-12.5 cm) wide; seedless; does not deteriorate quickly.
Koroieveibau provides a key to the 8 classes illustrated by leaf and fruit outline sketches.
P.J. Wester, in 1928, published descriptions of 52 breadfruit cultivars of the Pacific Islands. In the book, The Breadfruit of Tahiti; by G.P. Wilder, there are detailed descriptions and close-up, black-and-white photographic illustrations of the foliage and fruit of 30 named varieties, and of the foliage only of one which did not have mature fruit at the time of writing. One 'Aata', an oblong fruit, is described as of poor quality and eaten by humans only when better breadfruits are scarce, but it is important as feed for pigs and horses. The tree bears heavily. Among the best are:
'Aravei'—fruit ellipsoidal; large, 8 to 12 in (10-30 cm) long, 6 to 9 in (15-22 cm) wide; rind yellowish-green with brown spots on the sunny side; rough, with sharp points which are shed on maturity. Pulp is light-yellow, dry or flaky and of delicious flavor after cooking which takes very little time. Core long, slim, with many abortive seeds.
'Havana'—fruit oval-round; the rind yellowish-green, spiny; pulp golden-yellow, moist, pasty, separates into loose flakes when cooked; very sweet with excellent flavor; core oval, large, with a row of abortive seeds. Very perishable; must be used within 2 days; cooks quickly over fire. Fruit borne in 2's and 3's. Popularly claimed to be one of the best breadfruits.
'Maohi'—fruit round; 6 in (15 cm) wide; rind bright yellow-green with patches of red-brown; rough, with spines, and often bears much exuded latex. Pulp cream-colored and smooth when cooked; of very good flavor; slow cooking, needs even heat. Core is large. Fruit is borne in 2's and 3's. Tree a heavy bearer. This is the most common breadfruit of Tahiti.
'Paea'—ellipsoidal; very large, to 11 in (28 cm) long and 9 in (22.8 cm) wide; rind yellowish-green, spiny; core oblong, thick, with a row of brown, abortive seeds; pulp bright-yellow, moist, slightly pasty, separating into flakes when cooked; agreeable but only one of its forms, 'Paea Maaroaro', is really sweet. Formerly, 'Paea' was reserved for chiefs only. Needs one hour to roast on open fire. The tree is tall, especially well formed and elegant.
'Pei'—broad-ellipsoidal; large; rind light-green, relatively smooth; pulp light-yellow and flaky when cooked, aromatic, of sweet, delicious "fruity" flavor; cooks quickly. Ripens earlier than others. When the breadfruit crop is scant, the fruits of this cultivar are stored by burying in the ground until needed, even for a year, then taken up, wrapped in Cordyline leaves and boiled.
'Pucro'—fruit spherical or elongated; large; rind yellow-green with small brown spots, very rough, spiny, thin; pulp light-yellow and smooth, of excellent flavor. Cooks quickly. Highly esteemed, ranked with the very best breadfruits. There are two oblong forms, one with a large, hairy core.
'Rare'—fruit broad-ovoid; to 7 in (17.5 cm) long, rind bright-green, rough, spiny; pulp of deep-cream tone, fine-grained, smooth, flaky when cooked; of very sweet, excellent flavor. Core is small with a great many small abortive seeds. Must be cooked for about one hour. There are 3 forms that are well recognized. Fruits are borne singly on a tall, open, short branched tree.
'Rare Aumee'—fruit round; 6 1/2 in (16.5 cm) across; rind bright-green with red-brown splotches, fairly smooth at the base but rough at the apex; pulp deep-ivory, firm, smooth when cooked; not very sweet but of excellent flavor. Cooks quickly. Highly prized; in scarce supply because the tall, few branched tree bears scantily.
'Rare Autia'—fruit round; 6 in (15 cm) across; rind dull-green with red-brown markings. Pulp light-yellow when cooked and separates into chunks; has excellent flavor. Core is large with small abortive seeds all around. This cultivar is so superior it was restricted to royalty and high chiefs in olden times.
'Tatara'—fruit broad-ellipsoid; verylarge, up to 10 lbs(4.5 kg) in weight; rind has prominent faces with long green spines; pulp light-yellow, smooth when cooked and of pleasant flavor. Core is oblong. This variety is greatly esteemed. The tree is found only in a small coastal valley where there is heavy rainfall. It is of large dimensions and high-branching and it is difficult to harvest the fruits.
'Vai Paere'—fruit is obovoid; 10 to 12 in (25-30 cm) long, 7 to 8 in (17.5-20 cm) wide; rind is yellow-green with red-brown splotches and there is a short raised point at the center of each face; pulp light-yellow, firm, smooth, a little dryish when cooked, with a slightly acid, but excellent flavor. Core is oblong, large, with a few abortive seeds attached. Fruit cooks easily. Tree is very tall, bears fruit in clusters. Grows at sea level in fairly dry locations.
There are at least 50 cultivars on Ponape and about the same number on Truk. In Samoa, a variety known as 'Maopo', with leaves that are almost entire or sometimes very shallowly lobed, is very common and considered one of the best.
'Puou' is another choice and much planted variety since early times. It has deeply cut leaves and nearly round fruits 6 in (15 cm) long. 'Ulu Ea', with leaves even more deeply lobed, has oblong fruits to 6 1/8 in (15.5 cm) long and 5 in (12.5 cm) wide; is a longtime favorite.
In the past three decades there has been an awakening to the possibilities of increasing the food supply of tropical countries by more plantings of selected varieties of seedless breadfruit. In 1958, many appealing varieties (some early, some late in season) were collected around the South Pacific region and transferred to Western Samoa, Tahiti and Fiji for comparative trials. Two years later, plans were made to introduce Polynesian varieties into Micronesia, and propagating material of 36 Micronesian types was distributed to other areas. [source - retrieved from http://www.hort.purdue.edu/newcrop/morton/breadfruit.html on 1/02/2013]
To see many pictures of breadfruit, go to http://www.bijlmakers.com/fruits/breadfruit.htm
How this tree and other plants absorb water from the ground. Plants have developed an effective system to absorb, translocate, store, and utilize water. Plants contain a vast network of conduits, which consists of xylem and phloem tissues. These conducting tissues start in the roots and continue up through the trunks of trees, into the branches and then into every leaf. Phloem tissue is made of living elongated cells that are connected to one another and responsible for translocating nutrients and sugars (carbohydrates), which are produced by leaves for energy and growth. The xylem is also composed of elongated cells but once the cells are formed, they die. The walls of the xylem cells still remain intact and serve as an excellent peipline to transport water from the roots to the leaves.

The main driving force of water uptake and transport into a plant is transpiration of water from leaves through specialized openings called stomata. Heat from the sun causes the water to evaporate, setting this ‘water chain’ in motion. The evaporation creates a negative water vapor pressure. Water is pulled into the leaf to replace the water that has transpired from the leaf. This pulling of water, or tension, occurs in the xylem of the leaf. Since the xylem is a continuous water column that extends from the leaf to the roots, this negative water pressure extends into the roots and results in water uptake from the soil. [adapted from: http://www.scientificamerican.com/article.cfm?id=follow-up-how-do-trees-ca ]

Clearly this clever water transport system shows a superior intelligence of the Creator (YHWH).


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2) http://www.network54.com/Forum/403209/

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Your Friend in Christ Iris89

Francis David said it long ago, "Neither the sword of popes...nor the image of death will halt the march of truth."Francis David, 1579, written on the wall of his prison cell." Read the book, "What Does The Bible Really Teach" and the Bible today, and go to www.jw.org!





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the Brosimum alicastrum, the breadnut or Maya nut

Post  Admin on Wed Jan 30, 2013 12:24 am

Hi Everyone:

Here is a Commentary on Bountiful Trees and Vegetables God (YHWH) has provided for mankind, specifically the Brosimum alicastrum, the breadnut or Maya nut, is a Brosimum tree species under the Moraceae family of flowering plants, whose other genera include fig and mulberries The plant is known by a range of names in indigenous Mesoamerican and other languages, including but not limited to: ramon,ojoche, ojite, ojushte, ujushte, ujuxte, capomo, mojo, ox, iximche, masica in Honduras, uje in Michoacan, and mojote in Jalisco.

Two subspecies are commonly recognized:

* Brosimum alicastrum ssp. alicastrum
* Brosimum alicastrum ssp. bolivarense (Pittier) C.C.Berg
Distribution and habitat: The west coast of central Mexico, southern Mexico, Guatemala, El Salvador, the Caribbean, and the Amazon. Large stands in moist lowland tropical forests 300–2000 m elevation (especially 125–800 m), in humid areas where rainfall of 600–2000 mm, and average temperature 24 C / 75 F.[1]
The breadnut fruit disperses on the ground at different times throughout its range. It has a large seed covered by a thin, citrus-flavored orange-colored skin favored by a number of forest creatures. More important, the large seed which is enveloped by the tasty skin is an edible ‘nut’ that can be boiled or dried and ground into a meal for porridge or flatbread. Breadnut is nutritious and has value as a food source, and formed a part of the diet of the pre-Columbian Maya of the lowlands region in Mesoamerica,[2][3] although to what extent has been a matter of some debate among Maya historians and archaeologists.

It was planted by the Maya civilization two thousand years ago and it has been claimed in several articles by Dennis E. Puleston to have been a staple food in the Maya diet,[4] although other research has downplayed its significance. In the modern era it has been marginalized as a source of nutrition and has often been characterized as a famine food.

The breadnut is extremely high in fiber, calcium, potassium, folic acid, iron, zinc, protein and B vitamins.[5] It has a low glycemic index (<50) and is very high in antioxidants. The fresh seeds can be cooked and eaten or can be set out to dry in the sun to roast and eaten later. Stewed the nut tastes like mashed potato, roasted it tastes like chocolate or coffee and can be prepared in numerous other dishes. In Petén, Guatemala, the breadnut is being cultivated for exportation and local consumption as powder, for hot beverages, and bread.

The tree can reach up to 45 meters (130 feet).
The tree lends its name to the Maya archaeological sites of Iximché and Topoxte, both in Guatemala and also of Tamuin (reflecting the Maya origin of the Huastec peoples). It is one of the twenty dominant species of the Maya forest.[6] Of the dominant species, it is the only one that is wind-pollinated. It is also found in traditional Maya forest gardens.[7]

References:
1. ^ Melgar in "Utilizacion Integral del Arbol Genero Brosimum" INCAP 1987
2. ^ Flannery, Kent; Puleston, Dennis E. (1982), "The Role of Ramon in Maya Subsistence", Maya Subsistence: Studies in Memory of Dennis E. Puleston, Academic Press, pp. 353-366
3. ^ 1. Harrison, Peter D.; Turner, B. L.; Puleston, Dennis E. (1978), "Terracing, Raised Fields, and Tree Cropping in the Maya Lowlands: A New Perspective on the Geography of Power", Pre-Hispanic Maya Agriculture, University of New Mexico Press, pp. 225-245
4. ^ 1. Harrison, Peter D.; Turner, B. L.; Puleston, Dennis E. (1978), "Terracing, Raised Fields, and Tree Cropping in the Maya Lowlands: A New Perspective on the Geography of Power", Pre-Hispanic Maya Agriculture, University of New Mexico Press, pp. 225-245
5. ^ Flannery, Kent; Puleston, Dennis E. (1982), "The Role of Ramon in Maya Subsistence", Maya Subsistence: Studies in Memory of Dennis E. Puleston, Academic Press, pp. 353-366
6. ^ Campbell, D. G., A. Ford, et al. "The Feral Forests of the Eastern Petén" (2006), Time and Complexity in the Neotropical Lowlands New York, Columbia University Press: 21-55.
7. ^ Ford, A. "Dominant Plants of the Maya Forest and Gardens of El Pilar: Implications for Paleoenvironmental Reconstructions" (2008), Journal of Ethnobiology 28(2): 179-199.
[source - retrieved from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Brosimum_alicastrum on 1/02/2013]

For pictures of this fruit, go to http://www.tradewindsfruit.com/breadfruit.htm

In Genesis 1:11-13, "And God said, Let the earth put forth grass, herbs yielding seed, and fruit-trees bearing fruit after their kind, wherein is the seed thereof, upon the earth: and it was so. 12 And the earth brought forth grass, herbs yielding seed after their kind, and trees bearing fruit, wherein is the seed thereof, after their kind: and God saw that it was good. 13 And there was evening and there was morning, a third day. (American Standard Version, ASV)[for more details, go to www.jw.org].

Uses:
The fruits reported to be nutritious and are usually consumed when immature. These are thinly sliced and boiled as a vegetable in soups or stews.

Breadnut has nutritious seeds that are a good source of protein and low in fat compared to nuts such as almonds, Brazil nuts and macadamia nuts.

The seeds are a valued food and are widely collected. Today gathered seeds are sold in village markets, providing an important source of income for women in some areas.

Other uses:
Breadnut trees provide shade, mulch, soil stabilization, animal fodder and are commonly used in mixed agroforestry systems and home gardens. Breadnut is a natural component of the forests of Papua New Guinea and is an important part of the subsistence economy of lowland areas. [Source - retrieved from http://www.fruitipedia.com/breadnut.htm on 1/02/2013]

How this tree and other plants absorb water from the ground. Plants have developed an effective system to absorb, translocate, store, and utilize water. Plants contain a vast network of conduits, which consists of xylem and phloem tissues. These conducting tissues start in the roots and continue up through the trunks of trees, into the branches and then into every leaf. Phloem tissue is made of living elongated cells that are connected to one another and responsible for translocating nutrients and sugars (carbohydrates), which are produced by leaves for energy and growth. The xylem is also composed of elongated cells but once the cells are formed, they die. The walls of the xylem cells still remain intact and serve as an excellent peipline to transport water from the roots to the leaves.

The main driving force of water uptake and transport into a plant is transpiration of water from leaves through specialized openings called stomata. Heat from the sun causes the water to evaporate, setting this ‘water chain’ in motion. The evaporation creates a negative water vapor pressure. Water is pulled into the leaf to replace the water that has transpired from the leaf. This pulling of water, or tension, occurs in the xylem of the leaf. Since the xylem is a continuous water column that extends from the leaf to the roots, this negative water pressure extends into the roots and results in water uptake from the soil. [adapted from: http://www.scientificamerican.com/article.cfm?id=follow-up-how-do-trees-ca ]

Clearly this clever water transport system shows a superior intelligence of the Creator (YHWH).


Now to know the truth, go to:

1) http://religioustruths.forumsland.com/

2) http://www.network54.com/Forum/403209/

3) http://religioustruths.lefora.com/

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5) http://religious-truths.forums.com/

6) http://religioustruthsbyiris.createmybb3.com/

7) http://religioustruths.forumotion.com/


Your Friend in Christ Iris89

Francis David said it long ago, "Neither the sword of popes...nor the image of death will halt the march of truth."Francis David, 1579, written on the wall of his prison cell." Read the book, "What Does The Bible Really Teach" and the Bible today, and go to www.jw.org!





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Pleiogynium timorense, commonly known as the Burdekin Plum,

Post  Admin on Sat Feb 02, 2013 7:04 pm

Hi Everyone:

Here is a Commentary on Bountiful Trees and Vegetables God (YHWH) has provided for mankind, specifically the Pleiogynium timorense, commonly known as the Burdekin Plum, is a medium-sized fruit-bearing tree native to Australia.
This semi-deciduous tree can naturally reach up to 20 m high but in cultivation generally grows to approximately 12 m. It has a dense canopy with glossy dark green leaves and rough dark bark. The tree has yellowish-green flowers which flower between January and March and later grow into a fruit. The fruit's flesh is generally plum coloured however, white varieties have been reported. The fruit is edible when ripe. Fruit must be removed from tree to ripen for several days in a dark, damp place. Native aboriginals are known to have buried the fruit underground to ripen. Fruit can be cooked, eaten raw or used in jellies, jams and preserves. [source - retrieved from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pleiogynium_timorense#cite_note-1 on 1/02/2013]

the Burdekin Plum has a dark grey trunk and often glossy, compound leaves. This tree can be found in vine thickets, gallery rainforest and along creek lines in tropical Queensland and Papua New Guinea.

Even within a small area, Burdekin Plum can be extremely variable in appearance and the fruit vary considerably in size, colour and taste. In the wild, fruiting occurs in the winter months and seeds are apparently dispersed by flying foxes and wallabies. As with its close relative, the Mango, the flowers are small and insignificant.

Seeds germinate readily if they have been soaked in a bucket of water for 24 hours prior to planting. Burdekin Plum can be a little slow in the first couple of years, but soon puts on some fairly rapid growth. Eight years seems to be the minimum age for fruiting. However, grafting may produce some interesting effects. Burdekin Plums are widely grown in Townsville gardens and revegetation projects. [source - retrieved from http://www.sgapqld.org.au/bushtucker7.html on 1/02/2013]

These plants have male and female flowers occurring on separate plants. The flowers are small and yellowish – green. Male flowers are on drooping branchlets, while the female flowers occur on spikes.

Fruit is globular and turns a deep purple colour, resembling a typical plum. This fruit is excellent for making jams but may often need ripening for days before they are soft enough to eat. It contains a large stone inside the flesh. Fruit attracts a wide variety of birds (eg Red-tailed Black Cockatoos), bats, insects and bees. These trees can grow on a broad range of soils. They are drought tolerant but look best when given extra water. They are slow growing and have been known to withstand harsh weather condidions. [source - retrieved from http://wiki.bdtnrm.org.au/index.php/Burdekin_Plum on 1/02/2013]

For pictures of the fruit, go to http://www.flickr.com/photos/tgerus/4559852611/

In Genesis 1:11-13, "And God said, Let the earth put forth grass, herbs yielding seed, and fruit-trees bearing fruit after their kind, wherein is the seed thereof, upon the earth: and it was so. 12 And the earth brought forth grass, herbs yielding seed after their kind, and trees bearing fruit, wherein is the seed thereof, after their kind: and God saw that it was good. 13 And there was evening and there was morning, a third day. (American Standard Version, ASV)[for more details, go to www.jw.org].

The large, black, globular or pumpkin-shaped fruit vary in taste. Those that have red-purplish flesh are quite tart, those with a pale greenish-white flesh are milder but less tasty. Some fruit are half red - half white, and these are delicious! This variety occurs naturally around Townsville.

The riper the fruit, the less unpleasant the drying effect of eating the fruit. In the centre is a large pitted stone which usually fills 70-80% of the total fruit. They do not ripen on the tree, but must be stored, either buried in sand or kept in paper bags in a dark spot for a few days.

They can either be eaten raw, cooked into jam or jelly, used to flavour meat, or to make wine. A ripe fruit is mostly water (73%), but has moderate levels of energy, fat, vitamin C and is high in fibre and most minerals. Analysis has shown that, like tree shape and fruit colour, the nutritional content is extremely variable between trees. [source - retrieved from http://www.sgapqld.org.au/bushtucker7.html on 1/02/2013]

This tree is very rare outside of Australia and New Guinea,
How this tree and other plants absorb water from the ground. Plants have developed an effective system to absorb, translocate, store, and utilize water. Plants contain a vast network of conduits, which consists of xylem and phloem tissues. These conducting tissues start in the roots and continue up through the trunks of trees, into the branches and then into every leaf. Phloem tissue is made of living elongated cells that are connected to one another and responsible for translocating nutrients and sugars (carbohydrates), which are produced by leaves for energy and growth. The xylem is also composed of elongated cells but once the cells are formed, they die. The walls of the xylem cells still remain intact and serve as an excellent peipline to transport water from the roots to the leaves.

The main driving force of water uptake and transport into a plant is transpiration of water from leaves through specialized openings called stomata. Heat from the sun causes the water to evaporate, setting this ‘water chain’ in motion. The evaporation creates a negative water vapor pressure. Water is pulled into the leaf to replace the water that has transpired from the leaf. This pulling of water, or tension, occurs in the xylem of the leaf. Since the xylem is a continuous water column that extends from the leaf to the roots, this negative water pressure extends into the roots and results in water uptake from the soil. [adapted from: http://www.scientificamerican.com/article.cfm?id=follow-up-how-do-trees-ca ]

Clearly this clever water transport system shows a superior intelligence of the Creator (YHWH).


Now to know the truth, go to:

1) http://religioustruths.forumsland.com/

2) http://www.network54.com/Forum/403209/

3) http://religioustruths.lefora.com/

4) http://religioustruths.boardhost.com/

5) http://religious-truths.forums.com/

6) http://religioustruthsbyiris.createmybb3.com/

7) http://religioustruths.forumotion.com/


Your Friend in Christ Iris89

Francis David said it long ago, "Neither the sword of popes...nor the image of death will halt the march of truth."Francis David, 1579, written on the wall of his prison cell." Read the book, "What Does The Bible Really Teach" and the Bible today, and go to www.jw.org!



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Myrciaria dubia, commonly known as Camu camu, Camucamu, Cacari, and Camocamo,

Post  Admin on Wed Feb 06, 2013 8:07 pm


Hi Everyone:

Here is a Commentary on Bountiful Trees and Vegetables God (YHWH) has provided for mankind, specifically the Myrciaria dubia, commonly known as Camu camu, Camucamu, Cacari, and Camocamo, is a small (approx. 3–5 m tall) bushy riverside tree from the Amazon rainforest vegetation in Peru and Brazil, which bears a red/purple cherry-like fruit. It is a close relative of the Jaboticaba (Myrciaria cauliflora) and the Guavaberry or Rumberry (Myrciaria floribunda). The extraordinarily high Vitamin C content (in the order of 2–3% of fresh weight) is the most important property of the fruit, which has been exploited in positioning camu camu on international markets.
The features of this tree are as follows:

Description
Camu camu has small flowers with waxy white petals and a sweet-smelling aroma. It has bushy feathery foliage. The evergreen, opposite leaves are lanceolate to elliptic. Individual leaves are 3–20 cm in length and 1–2 cm wide.

Native range
The current range of Camu camu comprises the Amazonian lowlands of Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia and Brazil. The distribution of Camu camu extends from the center of Pará state, Brazil, along the mid and upper Amazon River to the eastern part of Peru; in the north it appears in the Casiquiare and the upper and middle Orinoco River. In Brazil it is found in Rondônia along the Maçangana and Urupa Rivers and in Amazonas, in the municipalities of Manaus and Manacapuru and along the Javarí, Madeira and Negro Rivers.

Harvest
Long used by native peoples, wild Camu camu fruit is harvested directly into canoes. The fruit has only recently come into large-scale cultivation and sale to the world market with Japan being the major buyer. It is relatively easy to cultivate. It survives best in hot, damp tropical climates but will grow in the subtropics, surviving temperatures down to just above freezing. It requires copious water. Fair trade is present in low-land production from the Association of Camu Camu Producers of the Peruvian Amazon.

The tree occurs in locally dense populations (1000/ha) or even monospecific stands in Amazonian flood plains and riparian vegetation. The plant is extremely tolerant of flooding, withstanding 4 to 5 months with the roots and even much of the aerial parts submerged in water. The species propagates through seeds. In cultivation, the tree begins bearing fruits after attaining 2 cm in stem girth (three years after emergence of the seedling). Plants flower at the end of the dry season and fruit at the peak of the rainy season. Observations with both wild and cultivated plants suggest that trees can remain productive for several decades.

Wild trees have been found to yield 12 kg of fruit on average. At suggested planting densities of 600–1100 trees/ha, about 12 t fruit can be derived in cultivation from one hectare. However, with improved horticultural techniques, such as the use of clonal elite material, pruning and fertilization, much higher yields could be achieved.

Uses
Documentation of traditional Camu camu uses is scarce. It is unlikely that in traditional Amazonian societies Camu camu has ever been nutritionally relevant. The fruit is extremely acidic, and the flavour can only be appreciated in recipes requiring a blender, dilution in milk/water and the addition of sugar.
Camu camu has an extraordinarily high vitamin C content (in the order of 2–3% of fresh weight,[1] second only to the Australian native Terminalia ferdinandiana) and is the most important property of the Camu camu fruit, which has been exploited consistently in positioning Camu camu on international markets. Vitamin C content declines as full maturity is reached, and there is a trade-off between vitamin C and flavour expression. As a myrtaceous fruit, Camu camu most likely provides other nutritional benefits,[citation needed] but these are less understood and communicated to consumers. Camu camu has also a unique aroma and fruit pigmentation. A reddish pigment in the leathery skin (probably anthocyanins) imparts an attractive and unique pink color on juices extracted from Camu camu. The aroma is subtle, but is not as captivating as in more popular fruits. Camu camu is more recently also used in ice creams, sweets, etc.
Processed powder from the fruit pulp is beginning to be sold in the west as a health food in loose powder or capsule form. In addition to the high vitamin C content it contains the amino acids valine, leucine and serine.[2]
It is also rich in flavonoids, such as anthocyanins, flavonols and flavanols, catechins, delphinidin 3-glucoside, cyanidin 3-glucoside, ellagic acid and rutin; other analysis revealed the presence of gallic and ellagic acids, suggesting that Camu camu fruit possesses hydrolyzed tannins (gallo- and/or ellagitannins).

* Constraints to the expansion of current usePrice. At FOB prices in Peru soaring to USD 3500 per ton of single-strength juice, Camu camu is 4–5 times more expensive than comparable fruit pulps and even concentrates. The high price of Camu camu is a consequence of the difficult logistics involved in production for off-site consumption. The fruits are locally collected, processed and frozen, then shipped over long distances, and exported via ocean freight. The high price of Camu camu obviously limits demand.[citation needed]
* Competition from natural sources of vitamin C. Concentrates and extracts of rose hips, acerola (a Malpighiaceous fruit) are less expensive per unit of vitamin C, probably because of economies of scale.[citation needed]
* Irregularity of quality and timing of raw material supplies from wild populations. Prices paid to fruit collectors on the Rio Napo in Peru in Jan 2006 soared to $1/kg fresh fruit because of drought-induced low harvests. Local markets are still able to pay such prices for limited quantities, but local processors and exporters have been put out of business, at least until prices relax to make the purchase of raw material affordable again. Exporters insure themselves against irregular raw material supplies by maintaining large stocks of frozen finished produce, but this further adds to cost.[citation needed]
* Food safety legislation in export markets. As a food product Camu camu has probably not been available in the EU prior 1997 and may therefore be subject to the Novel Food Regulation (NFR), which requires very stringent food safety requirements to be met before a product is granted access to the community’s market. The scientific documentation as to the toxicity, nutritional composition and potential allergenic hazards required by NFR is currently not available. The NFR has discouraged investment in export-oriented supply chains and has emerged as a serious constraint to many NUS products (see external links to GFU documentation, Hermann 2004).

References
1. ^ Peruvian Camu Camu fruit conquers Japan Percy Takayama, Living in Peru - Business, February 12, 2007. Accessed July 2012.
2. ^ 3rd Party Research - Camu Camu Mama Camu
3. ^ Antioxidant compounds and antioxidant capacity of Peruvian camu camu (Myrciaria dubia (H.B.K.) McVaugh) fruit at different maturity stages. Rosana Chirinos, Jorge Galarza, Indira Betalleluz-Pallardel, Romina Pedreschi and David Campos, Food Chemistry, Volume 120, Issue 4, 15 June 2010, Pages 1019-1024, doi:10.1016/j.foodchem.2009.11.041

* Penn, J.W., Jr. 2006. The cultivation of camu camu (Myrciaria dubia): A camel urine harvesting programme in the Peruvian Amazon. Forests, Trees and Livelihoods. Vol. 16 (1), pp. 85–101. [source - retrieved from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/CamuCamu on 1/02/2013]
In Genesis 1:11-13, "And God said, Let the earth put forth grass, herbs yielding seed, and fruit-trees bearing fruit after their kind, wherein is the seed thereof, upon the earth: and it was so. 12 And the earth brought forth grass, herbs yielding seed after their kind, and trees bearing fruit, wherein is the seed thereof, after their kind: and God saw that it was good. 13 And there was evening and there was morning, a third day. (American Standard Version, ASV)[for more details, go to www.jw.org].

Myrciaria dubia

This is a small, round fruit that is usually red to dark purple that is very rich in vitamin ‘C’ and has over 100 times the amount of this vitamin, per weight, as does the orange.

It does best in hot, damp tropical climates but will grow in the subtropics such as extreme south Florida, and can survive temperatures down to 32 degrees F. It requires a lot of water and will stand intermittent flooding. It can be propagated from seeds.

While it can be eaten fresh, although the pulp is very acidic; it is usually used to flavor drinks, ice creams, etc.

How this tree and other plants absorb water from the ground. Plants have developed an effective system to absorb, translocate, store, and utilize water. Plants contain a vast network of conduits, which consists of xylem and phloem tissues. These conducting tissues start in the roots and continue up through the trunks of trees, into the branches and then into every leaf. Phloem tissue is made of living elongated cells that are connected to one another and responsible for translocating nutrients and sugars (carbohydrates), which are produced by leaves for energy and growth. The xylem is also composed of elongated cells but once the cells are formed, they die. The walls of the xylem cells still remain intact and serve as an excellent peipline to transport water from the roots to the leaves.

The main driving force of water uptake and transport into a plant is transpiration of water from leaves through specialized openings called stomata. Heat from the sun causes the water to evaporate, setting this ‘water chain’ in motion. The evaporation creates a negative water vapor pressure. Water is pulled into the leaf to replace the water that has transpired from the leaf. This pulling of water, or tension, occurs in the xylem of the leaf. Since the xylem is a continuous water column that extends from the leaf to the roots, this negative water pressure extends into the roots and results in water uptake from the soil. [adapted from: http://www.scientificamerican.com/article.cfm?id=follow-up-how-do-trees-ca ]

Clearly this clever water transport system shows a superior intelligence of the Creator (YHWH).


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The Canistel, Pouteria Campechiana, is a fruit native to Central America, Cuba, and south Florida

Post  Admin on Sat Feb 09, 2013 8:59 pm

Hi Everyone:

Here is a Commentary on Bountiful Trees and Vegetables God (YHWH) has provided for mankind, specifically the Canistel, Pouteria Campechiana:

In Genesis 1:11-13, "And God said, Let the earth put forth grass, herbs yielding seed, and fruit-trees bearing fruit after their kind, wherein is the seed thereof, upon the earth: and it was so. 12 And the earth brought forth grass, herbs yielding seed after their kind, and trees bearing fruit, wherein is the seed thereof, after their kind: and God saw that it was good. 13 And there was evening and there was morning, a third day. (American Standard Version, ASV)

The Canistel, Pouteria Campechiana, is a fruit native to Central America, Cuba, and south Florida. The fruit can be eaten at various stages, but is most favorable when fully ripe tasting somewhat like an excellent mango at this stage. At earlier stages it is rather dry of texture and not to the likening of many individuals. It is often called the egg fruit tree due to the shape of its fruit being that of a giant egg.

The height and bushiness of the tree is highly variable. I have seen both bush and tree forms including trees over 20 feet. Also, the fruit and leaves are highly variable, but there is as yet no recognized name variety, but the Hispanic community of south Florida is attempting to selectively breed this tree. I myself am a part of this experiment, but I have not been having much success.

When some one gets a good/better specimen as a result of a 'sport' of nature, a scion is taken from it and usually side-grafted onto a tree with less desirable fruit. Only about 1 graft in 5 actually takes so one usually side-grafts a number of scions on the tree if size permits. The Rare Fruit Council International is very active in this area, and of course I am a member.

This tree would NOT make a good indoor house plant for the north.

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Ever wonder what causes fruit to ripen?

Post  Admin on Sun Feb 10, 2013 3:59 pm

Ever wonder what causes fruit to ripen?

What Causes Fruit to Ripen?
The unripe fruit on the left is hard, green, sour, has no smell, and is mealy because of the presence of
starch. Fruits ripen because there is a ripening signal: a burst of ethylene production. Ethylene is
produced by rapidly growing tissue in the tips of roots,
flowers, ripening fruit and damaged fruit. Ethylene is a
simple hydrocarbon gas (H2C=CH2) that ripening fruits
make and shed into the atmosphere. Sometimes a
wound on the fruit will cause rapid ethylene
production. Just picking a fruit will sometimes signal it
to ripen. An infection of bacteria or fungi on the fruit
will signal the ripening process.
This ethylene signal causes developmental changes
that result in fruit ripening. New enzymes are made
such as hydrolases to help break down chemicals
inside the fruits, amylase to accelerate hydrolysis of starch into sugar, pectinase to catalyze digestion of
pectin, the glue between cells. Ethylene activates the genes that make these enzymes. The enzymes
then catalyze reactions to alter the characteristics of the fruit. The action of the enzymes cause the
ripening responses. Chlorophyll is broken down and sometimes new pigments are made so that the fruit
skin changes color to red, yellow, or blue. Acids are broken down so that the fruit changes from sour to
neutral. The digestion of starch by amylase produces sugar. This reduces the mealy quality and increases
juiciness. The breakdown of pectin between the fruit cells unglues them resulting in softer fruit. Enzymes
break down large organic molecules into smaller ones that are volatile, evaporating into the air around the
fruit causing an aroma.
If you think of this process in bananas, the ethylene signal causes the fruit to change from green to
yellow, from hard to soft, from mealy to juicy, from tart to sweet, from odorless to fragrant.
Commercial banana distributors use this naturally occurring gas when bananas are shipped to the U.S.
as hard, green, sour, unripen fruits When they arrive into a distributor's warehouse the bananas are put in
a room and gassed with ethylene; they all begin to ripen.
At home you can allow the bananas to ripen to the stage you like them and then put them in the
refrigerator. This slows the process down drastically. For several days after that you can take bananas
from the refrigerator and enjoy the fruit inside. The peel will turn very dark in color after only a short time
in the refrigerator but the fruit inside remains just as it was before you put the banana into the refrigerator.
Bananas can also be frozen, just peel the skin off and seal them in a plastic bag.
(source - retrieved from The February Member newsletter of the Palm Beach Chapter Of Rare Fruit Council, International on 2/9/2013)

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the CARAMBOLA, Averrhoa Carambola:

Post  Admin on Tue Feb 12, 2013 3:11 pm

Hi Everyone:

Here is a Commentary on Bountiful Trees and Vegetables God (YHWH) has provided for mankind, specifically the CARAMBOLA, Averrhoa Carambola:

In Genesis 1:11-13, "And God said, Let the earth put forth grass, herbs yielding seed, and fruit-trees bearing fruit after their kind, wherein is the seed thereof, upon the earth: and it was so. 12 And the earth brought forth grass, herbs yielding seed after their kind, and trees bearing fruit, wherein is the seed thereof, after their kind: and God saw that it was good. 13 And there was evening and there was morning, a third day. (American Standard Version, ASV)

This is an interesting fruit as its fruit is star shapped. Some Carambolas are quite sweet and almost like candy to the taste and others are quite sour. The ones you are likely to find in the store are rather tart as the real sweet type I so much enjoy do NOT ship well.

The leaves of this tree are compound and sensitive to both light and to touch; they will fold-up when they are touched or shaded. The fruit is golden yellow when ripe, translucent, ribbed and star-shaped in cross-section.

There are many named varieties, over 40, of both sweet and sour types. The only three varieties , that in my opinion are truly sweet are the Cary, the Orkin, and the Sherimberka (probably spelt wrong). I am growing the Cary and the Sherimberka, but the Cary has done the best for me. It is very prolific with respect fruit production and its fruit are just wonderful in flavor.

It can either be eaten fresh, made into pulp and frozen, made into jellies and jams, and into juices. The juice is a drink very rich in vitamin C and of excellent flavor if made from sweet carambolas or if the sour one's juice is mixed with either orange juice or pineapple juice. Also, a candy is made from this fruit. This fruit is one of my favorites.


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the Carissa is a genus of about 20-30 species of shrubs or small trees

Post  Admin on Fri Feb 15, 2013 11:06 am

Hi Everyone:

Here is a Commentary on Bountiful Trees and Vegetables God (YHWH) has provided for mankind, specifically the Carissa is a genus of about 20-30 species of shrubs or small trees native to tropical and subtropical regions of Africa, Australia and Asia. Conkerberry (C. spinarum) flowers in Shamirpet, Rangareddy district, Andhra Pradesh, India.

The species have maximum heights between 2 and 10 m tall, with spiny branches. The leaves are waxy and oblong, 3–8 cm long, and thick and leathery. The flowers are produced throughout most of the year; they are 1–5 cm diameter, with a five-lobed white or pink corolla, solitary or borne in clusters; some have a fragrance reminiscent of Gardenia. This makes them popular garden plants. The fruit is a plum-shaped berry, red to dark purple-black in different species, 1.5–6 cm in length, and containing up to 16 flat brown seeds. The fruit are edible but tart, and taste like a giant cranberry, though some also taste overtones of strawberry or apple-like flavour, and rich in Vitamin C, calcium, magnesium and phosphorus. The fruit of C. macrocarpa is especially delicious and is used to make jelly. They are eagerly consumed by birds, which also distribute the seed. If eaten before fully ripe, a bitter, latex-like substance is released from the skin. Other than the fruit, the plant is poisonous. This can also come in forms of a lovely bush. Because of its abundance of sharp thorns, the plant is often used as a security hedge. Carissa species are grown from seed or cuttings and tolerate slight frost. [source - retrieved from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Carissa on 1/02/2013]

In Genesis 1:11-13, "And God said, Let the earth put forth grass, herbs yielding seed, and fruit-trees bearing fruit after their kind, wherein is the seed thereof, upon the earth: and it was so. 12 And the earth brought forth grass, herbs yielding seed after their kind, and trees bearing fruit, wherein is the seed thereof, after their kind: and God saw that it was good. 13 And there was evening and there was morning, a third day. (American Standard Version, ASV)[for more details, go to www.jw.org].

Two species of the notorious family Apocynaceae are noteworthy because of their edible fruits and innocuous milky latex. The more attractive of these is the carissa, Carissa macrocarpa A. DC. (syn. C. grandiflora A. DC.), also called Natal plum and amantungula.

Description
A vigorous, spreading, woody shrub with abundant white, gummy sap, the carissa may reach a height of 15 to 18 ft (4.5-5.5 m) and an equal breadth. The branches are armed with formidable stout, double-pronged thorns to 2 in (5 cm) long. The handsome, evergreen, opposite leaves are broad-ovate, 1 to 2 in (2.5-5 cm) long, dark-green, glossy, leathery. Sweetly fragrant, white, 5-lobed, tubular flowers to 2 in (5 cm) broad are borne singly or a few together at the tips of branchlets all year. Some plants bear flowers that are functionally male, larger than normal and with larger anthers, and stamens much longer than the style. Functionally female flowers have stamens the same length as the style and small anthers without pollen.

The round, oval or oblong fruit, to 2 1/2 in (6.25 cm) long and up to 1 1/2 in (4 cm) across, is green and rich in latex when unripe. As it ripens, the tender, smooth skin turns to a bright magenta-red coated with a thin, whitish bloom, and finally dark-crimson. The flesh is tender, very juicy, strawberry-colored and -flavored, with flecks of milky sap. Massed in the center are 6 to 16 small, thin, flat, brown seeds, not objectionable when eaten.

Origin and Distribution
The carissa is native to the coastal region of Natal, South Africa, and is cultivated far inland in the Transvaal. It was first introduced into the United States in 1886 by the horticulturist Theodore L. Meade. Then, in 1903, Dr. David Fairchild, heading the Office of Foreign Seed and Plant Introduction of the United States Department of Agriculture, brought in from the Botanical Garden at Durban, a large quantity of seeds. Several thousand seedlings were raised at the then Plant Introduction Garden at Miami and distributed for testing in Florida, the Gulf States and California, and much effort was devoted to following up on the fate of the plants in different climatic zones. The carissa was introduced into Hawaii in 1905 and over the next few years was extensively distributed throughout the islands. It was planted in the Bahamas in 1913. It first fruited in the Philippines in 1924; is grown to a limited extent in India and East Africa. It was widely planted in Israel, flourished and flowered freely but rarely set fruit. Elsewhere, it is valued mainly as a protective hedge and the fruit is a more-or-less-welcomed by-product.

Varieties
Horticulturists in South Africa, California and Florida have selected and named some types that tend to bear more reliably than others:
'Fancy', selected in California in the 1950's, was an erect form bearing an abundance of large fruits with few seeds.
'Torrey Pines' produces good crops of fruit and pollen.
'Gifford' is one of the best fruit bearers in Florida.
'Extra Sweet' was advertised in Florida in the early 1960's.
'Alles' ('Chesley') produces few fruits in California.
'Frank' is a light bearer though it has a good supply of pollen.
As space for massive barrier hedges has diminished and interest in the fruits declined, efforts have been directed to the development of dwarf, compact, less spiny types for landscape use. Some of the popular ornamental cultivars include: 'Bonsai', 'Boxwood Beauty', 'Dainty Princess', 'Grandiflora', 'Green Carpet', 'Horizontalis', 'Linkii', 'Low Boy', 'Minima', 'Nana', 'Nana Compacta', 'Prostrata' and 'Tuttlei'.

Pollination
In its homeland, the carissa is pollinated by small beetles and hawk-moths and other night-flying insects. Various degrees of unfruitfulness in America has been attributed to inadequate pollination. Some seedlings are light-croppers, but others never bear at all. It has been found that unproductive plants, apparently self-infertile, will bear fruits after cross-pollination by hand.

Climate
The carissa is subtropical to near-tropical, thriving throughout the state of Florida and enduring temperatures as low as 25º F (-3.89º C) when well-established. Young plants need protection when the temperature drops below 29º F (-1.67º C). Best growth is obtained in full sun.

Soil
The shrub thrives in dry, rocky terrain in Hawaii; in red clay or sandy loam in California, and in sandy or alkaline soils in Florida, though the latter may induce deficiencies in trace elements. The plant has moderate drought tolerance and high resistance to soil salinity and salt spray. It cannot stand water-logging.
Propagation
Seeds germinate in 2 weeks but the seedlings grow very slowly at first and are highly variable. Vegetative propagation is preferred and can be done easily by air-layering, ground-layering, or shield-budding. Cuttings root poorly unless the tip of a young branchlet is cut half-way through and left attached to the plant for 2 months. After removal and planting in sand, it will root in about 30 days. Grafting onto seedlings of the karanda (q.v.) has considerably increased fruit yield.

Culture
Seedlings may begin to produce fruit in 2 years; cuttings earlier. A standard, well-balanced fertilizer suffices except on limestone where trace elements must be added. Dwarf cultivars must be kept under control, otherwise they are apt to revert to the ordinary type. Vigorous shoots will develop and outgrow the compact form.

Season
While the carissa flowers and fruits all year, the peak period for blooming and fruiting is May through September. The 5-pointed calyx remains attached to the plant when the fruit is picked.

Pests and Diseases
Spider mites, thrips and whiteflies, and occasionally scale insects, attack young plants, especially in nurseries and in the shade.
A number of fungus diseases have been recorded in Florida; algal leaf spot and green scurf caused by Cephaleuros virescens; leaf spot from Alternaria sp., Botryosphaeria querquum, Fusarium sp., Gloeosporium sp., Phyllosticta sp. and Colletotrichum gloeosporioides which also is responsible for anthracnose; stem gall from Macrophoma sp., Nectria sp., Phoma sp., Phomopsis sp., and both galls and cankers from Sphaeropsis tumefaciens; dieback caused by Diplodia natalensis and Rhizoctonia solani; thread blight from Rhizoctonia ramicola; root rot resulting from infection by Phytophthora parasitica and Pythium sp.

Food Uses
The carissa must be fully ripe, dark-red and slightly soft to the touch to be eaten raw. It is enjoyed whole, without peeling or seeding, out-of-hand. Halved or quartered and seeded it is suitable for fruit salads, adding to gelatins and using as topping for cakes, puddings and ice cream. Carissas can be cooked to a sauce or used in pies and tarts. Stewing or boiling causes the latex to leave the fruit and adhere to the pot (which must not be aluminum), but this can be easily removed by rubbing with cooking oil.

Carissas are preserved whole by pricking, cooking briefly in a sugar sirup and sterilizing in jars. Peeled or unpeeled, they are made into jam, other preserves, sirup or sweet pickles. Jelly is made from slightly underripe fruits, or a combination of ripe and unripe to enhance the color.

Food Value
Analyses made in the Philippines show the following values: calories, 270/lb (594/kg); moisture, 78.45%; protein, 0.56%; fat, 1.03%; sugar, 12.00%; fiber, 0.91%; ash, 0.43%. Ascorbic acid content has been calculated as 10 mg/100 g in India. [source - retrieved from http://www.hort.purdue.edu/newcrop/morton/carissa.html on 1/02/2013]
I have found this makes a great barrier hedge as few animals and/or humans will try to penetrate it owing to its long and sharp thorns.
How this tree and other plants absorb water from the ground. Plants have developed an effective system to absorb, translocate, store, and utilize water. Plants contain a vast network of conduits, which consists of xylem and phloem tissues. These conducting tissues start in the roots and continue up through the trunks of trees, into the branches and then into every leaf. Phloem tissue is made of living elongated cells that are connected to one another and responsible for translocating nutrients and sugars (carbohydrates), which are produced by leaves for energy and growth. The xylem is also composed of elongated cells but once the cells are formed, they die. The walls of the xylem cells still remain intact and serve as an excellent peipline to transport water from the roots to the leaves.

The main driving force of water uptake and transport into a plant is transpiration of water from leaves through specialized openings called stomata. Heat from the sun causes the water to evaporate, setting this ‘water chain’ in motion. The evaporation creates a negative water vapor pressure. Water is pulled into the leaf to replace the water that has transpired from the leaf. This pulling of water, or tension, occurs in the xylem of the leaf. Since the xylem is a continuous water column that extends from the leaf to the roots, this negative water pressure extends into the roots and results in water uptake from the soil. [adapted from: http://www.scientificamerican.com/article.cfm?id=follow-up-how-do-trees-ca ]

Clearly this clever water transport system shows a superior intelligence of the Creator (YHWH).


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the Ceratonia siliqua, commonly known as the Carob tree and St John's-bread

Post  Admin on Mon Feb 18, 2013 11:18 am


Hi Everyone:

Here is a Commentary on Bountiful Trees and Vegetables God (YHWH) has provided for mankind, specifically the Ceratonia siliqua, commonly known as the Carob tree and St John's-bread,[1] is a species of flowering evergreen shrub or tree in the pea family, Fabaceae. It is widely cultivated for its edible legumes, and as an ornamental tree in gardens. The seed pod may be crushed and used as ersatz chocolate.

It is native to the Mediterranean region including Southern Europe, Northern Africa, the larger Mediterranean islands; to the Levant and Middle-East of Western Asia into Iran; and to the Canary Islands and Macaronesia.[2][3]
The vernacular names in other cultures and languages for Ceratonia siliqua include: Arabic: ????? kharr?b; German: Johannisbrotbaum; Greek: ???????? kharoupia or ??????????? ksylokeratia; Spanish: algarrobo, caroba; French: caroubier, caroube; Hebrew: ???? ?aruv; Portuguese: alfarrobeira; Catalan: garrofa; Sicilian: carrubba; Turkish: harnup, keçiboynuzu; Croatian: roga?.[2]
The Ceratonia siliqua tree grows up to 15 metres (Template:Convert/49.21ft) tall. The crown is broad and semi-spherical, supported by a thick trunk with brown rough bark and sturdy branches. Leaves are 10 to 20 centimetres (3.9 to 7.9 in) long, alternate, pinnate, and may or may not have a terminal leaflet. It is frost-tolerant.

Most carob trees are dioecious. The trees blossom in autumn (September–October). The flowers are small and numerous, spirally arranged along the inflorescence axis in catkin-like racemes borne on spurs from old wood and even on the trunk (cauliflory); they are pollinated by both wind and insects. Male flowers produce a characteristic odour, resembling semen.

The fruit is a pod that can be elongated, compressed, straight or curved, and thickened at the sutures. The pods take a full year to develop and ripen. The ripe pods eventually fall to the ground and are eaten by various mammals, thereby dispersing the seed. Likewise, carob consumed by humans is actually the dried (and sometimes roasted) pod, and not the 'nuts' or seeds.
The seeds of Ceratonia siliqua contains leucodelphinidin, a colourless chemical compound.[5]

The carob genus, Ceratonia, belongs to the Fabaceae (legume) family, and is believed to be an archaic remnant of a part of this family now generally considered extinct. It grows well in warm temperate and subtropical areas, and tolerates hot and humid coastal areas. As a xerophytic (drought-resistant) species, carob is well adapted to the ecological conditions of the Mediterranean region. Trees prefer well drained loam and are intolerant of waterlogging, but the deep root systems can adapt to a wide variety of soil conditions and are fairly salt-tolerant.[6]

While previously not believed to form nitrogen fixation nodules typical of the legume family,[6] trees have been identified more recently with nodules containing bacteria believed to be from the Rhizobium genus.[7]

Although used extensively for agriculture, carob can still be found growing wild in eastern Mediterranean regions, and has become naturalized in the west.[6] The carob tree is typical in the southern Portuguese region of the Algarve, where it has the name alfarrobeira (for the tree), and alfarroba (for the fruit), as well as in southern Spain (Spanish: algarrobo, algarroba), Catalonia and Valencia (Catalan: garrofer, garrofa), Malta (Maltese: ?arruba), on the Italian islands of Sicily and Sardinia (Italian: carrubo, carruba), and in Southern Greece, Cyprus as well as many Greek islands such as Crete and Samos. The common Greek name is (Greek: ????????, charoupia), or (Greek: ???????????, ksilokeratia), meaning "wooden horn". In Turkey, it is known as "keçiboynuzu", meaning "goat's horn". In Israel it's called "Haroov" (????),known as "life saving tree - kav kharoovin".[6][8] The various trees known as algarrobo in Latin America (Albizia saman in Cuba and four species of Prosopis in Argentina and Paraguay) belong to a different subfamily, Mimosoideae.

Carob is typically dried or roasted, and is mildly sweet. In powdered, chip, or syrup form it is used as an ingredient in cakes and cookies, and is used as a substitute for chocolate.

Carob is also used to make chocolate-flavored treats for dogs.[12]
The seeds, also known as locust beans, are used as animal feed, and are the source of locust bean gum — a food thickening agent. Crushed pods may be used to make a beverage; compote, liqueur, and syrup are made from carob in Turkey, Malta, Portugal, Spain and Sicily. Several studies suggest that carob may aid in treating diarrhea in infants.[13] In Libya, carob syrup (there called rub) is used as a complement to Asida. The so-called carob syrup made in Peru is actually from the fruit of the Prosopis nigra tree.

Carob is rich in sugars - Sucrose = 531g ± 93 g/kg dry weight for cultivated varieties and 437 ± 77 g/kg in wild type varieties. Fructose and glucose levels do not differ between cultivated and wild type carob.[14]

Ceratonia siliqua is widely cultivated in the horticultural nursery industry as an ornamental plant for planting in Mediterranean climate and other temperate regions around the world, as its popularity in California and Hawaii shows. The plant develops a sculpted trunk and ornamental tree form when 'limbed up' as it matures, otherwise it is used as a dense and large screening hedge. When not grown for legume harvests the plant is very drought tolerant and part of 'xeriscape' landscape design for gardens, parks, and public municipal and commercial landscapes.[2]

The Jewish Talmud features a parable of altruism, commonly known as "Honi and the Carob Tree", in which a carob tree takes 70 years to bear fruit; the planter did not benefit from planting, but did so in the interest of future generations.
In reality, the fruiting age of carob trees varies: cuttings taken from fruit-bearing trees may bear fruit in as few as three to four years, and seedlings grown in ideal conditions may fruit within six to eight years. Although it is native to moderately dry climates, two or three summers irrigation will greatly aid the development, hasten fruiting, and increase the yield."[15]

In the Parable of the Prodigal Son, the Prodigal Son, having squandered his inheritance, wishes that he could also partake in eating the pigs' diet of carob pods.[[Luke 15:11-17, “11 And he said, A certain man had two sons:
12 And the younger of them said to his father, Father, give me the portion of goods that falleth to me. And he divided unto them his living.
13 And not many days after the younger son gathered all together, and took his journey into a far country, and there wasted his substance with riotous living.
14 And when he had spent all, there arose a mighty famine in that land; and he began to be in want.
15 And he went and joined himself to a citizen of that country; and he sent him into his fields to feed swine.
16 And he would fain have filled his belly with the husks that the swine did eat: and no man gave unto him.
17 And when he came to himself, he said, How many hired servants of my father’s have bread enough and to spare, and I perish with hunger!” and what he fed them was carob pods.]]

Carob was eaten in Ancient Egypt. It was also a common sweetener and was used in the hieroglyph for "sweet" (nedjem). Dried carob fruit is traditionally eaten on the Jewish holiday of Tu Bishvat. Carob juice drinks are traditionally drunk during the Islamic month of Ramadan. Also it is believed to be an aphrodisiac.
In Cyprus, carob syrup is known as Cyprus's black gold, and is widely exported.
In Malta, a syrup (?ulepp tal-?arrub) is made out of carob pods. This is a traditional medicine for coughs and sore throat. A traditional sweet, eaten during Lent and Good Friday, is also made from carob pods in Malta. However, carob pods were mainly used as animal fodder in the Maltese Islands, apart from times of famine or war when they formed part of the diet of many Maltese.
In the Iberian Peninsula, carob pods were used mainly as animal fodder, especially to feed donkeys.

Carob pods were an important source of sugar before sugarcane and sugar beets became widely available.
References:

1. ^ ITIS Report Page: Ceratonia siliqua . accessed 5.11.2011
2. ^ a b c NPGS/GRIN - Ceratonia siliqua information . accessed 5.11.2011
3. ^ http://www.tropicos.org/Name/13028551 Tropicos.org. Ceratonia siliqua accessed 5.10.2011
4. ^ Battle I, Tous J (1997) (PDF). Carob tree. Rome, Italy: International Plant Genetic Resources Institute. p. 16. ISBN 978-92-9043-328-6. http://www.bioversityinternational.org/fileadmin/bioversity/publications/pdfs/347_Carob_tree_Ceratonia_siliqua_L.pdf. Retrieved 2012-03-12.
5. ^ liberherbarum.com
6. ^ a b c d Battle I, Tous J (1997) (PDF). Carob tree. Rome, Italy: International Plant Genetic Resources Institute. ISBN 978-92-9043-328-6. http://www.bioversityinternational.org/fileadmin/bioversity/publications/pdfs/347.pdf. Retrieved 2011-02-19.[page needed]
7. ^ M. Missbah El Idrissi, N. Aujjar, A. Belabed, Y. Dessaux, A. Filali-Maltouf (1996). "Characterization of rhizobia isolated from Carob tree (Ceratonia siliqua)". Journal of Applied Microbiology 80 (2): 165–73. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2672.1996.tb03205.x.
8. ^ "Turkish Cuisine". Turkish Cuisine. http://www.turkish-cuisine.org/english/pages.php?ParentID=6&FirstLevel=95. Retrieved 2010-07-26.
9. ^ http://faostat.fao.org/site/567/DesktopDefault.aspx?PageID=567#ancor
10. ^ Harper, Douglas. "carat". Online Etymology Dictionary. http://www.etymonline.com/index.php?term=carat.
11. ^ a b "A Brief on Bokser - Forward.com"
12. ^ Burg, Barbara. Good Treats For Dogs Cookbook for Dogs: 50 Home-Cooked Treats for Special Occasions. Quarry Books, 2007, p. 28
13. ^ Fortier D, Lebel G, Frechette A (June 1953). "Carob flour in the treatment of diarrhoeal conditions in infants". Canadian Medical Association Journal 68 (6): 557–61. PMC 1822828. PMID 13059705. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1822828/.
14. ^ http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0308814605010824
15. ^ Bailey, Liberty Hyde. "The standard cyclopedia of horticulture". The Macmillan Company, 1914. http://books.google.com/books?id=fWADAAAAMAAJ&pg=PA718&lpg=PA718&dq=carob+tree+fruiting+age+years&source=bl&ots=GoXH3kkRA6&sig=aOtDf0IrC0fT2ROf0ZJR2WypZXE&hl=en&ei=XrnMTo6lBKXW0QH89-BM&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=3&ved=0CCoQ6AEwAg#v=snippet&q=fruit%20years&f=false. Retrieved 23 November 2011. [source - retrieved from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Carob on 1/02/2013]
In Genesis 1:11-13, "And God said, Let the earth put forth grass, herbs yielding seed, and fruit-trees bearing fruit after their kind, wherein is the seed thereof, upon the earth: and it was so. 12 And the earth brought forth grass, herbs yielding seed after their kind, and trees bearing fruit, wherein is the seed thereof, after their kind: and God saw that it was good. 13 And there was evening and there was morning, a third day. (American Standard Version, ASV)[for more details, go to www.jw.org].

This tree is mentioned in the Bible. One place it is mentioned is in Luke the 15 th. Chapter, as follows, (Luke 15:10-16) Thus, I tell YOU, joy arises among the angels of God over one sinner that repents.” 11 Then he said: “A certain man had two sons. 12 And the younger of them said to his father, ‘Father, give me the part of the property that falls to my share.’ Then he divided his means of living to them. 13 Later, after not many days, the younger son gathered all things together and traveled abroad into a distant country, and there squandered his property by living a debauched life. 14 When he had spent everything, a severe famine occurred throughout that country, and he started to be in need. 15 He even went and attached himself to one of the citizens of that country, and he sent him into his fields to herd swine. 16 And he used to desire to be filled with the carob pods which the swine were eating, and no one would give him [anything].

As a healthy substitute for chocolate, Many people the world over love chocolate in all its various forms: chocolate candy, chocolate cake, chocolate ice cream, etc. Often chocolate is associated with pleasure, happy times, and holidays. So how could anything be better than chocolate? Well, carob is better for you than chocolate in several ways.
Chocolate packs more than just good times. Chocolate contains chemical substances from the same family as caffeine, which is found in coffee and tea. These chemicals are caffeine and theobromine. The main chemical substance in chocolate (theobromine) is exactly the same as caffeine except for one atom; and like caffeine, it also affects the body in serious ways. This family of chemical substances (which include caffeine and theobromine) can cause or contribute to imperfect balance, racing heart, insomnia and sleep disturbances, bedwetting, fatigue, obesity, dizziness, irritability, agitation, anxiety, acne, and more. Some diseases and health problems, including heart disease, allergies, diabetes, stomach disturbances, and depression, can be exacerbated by these substances. Also, chromosome damage, birth deformities, and cancer have been associated to these chemicals, and resistance to disease is lowered. Some physicians also believe that they contribute to breast disease and prostate problems by stepping up cell growth in certain tissues.

Cocoa from which chocolate is made is naturally quite bitter. In order to cover up its bitterness, large amounts of sugar and fat (including milk and cream) are added, which gives chocolate its rich, velvety texture. But these things also lower resistance to diseases and hinders digestion. Other additives are also added before the product is finished.

For part of the process necessary to produce chocolate, the cocoa beans must be left out to ferment. During this process it is possible for cancer causing agents to form, as well as for insects, rodents, and small animals to contaminate the fermenting cocoa beans. These contaminants remain in the finished product. The FDA allows up to 10 milligrams of animal excrement per pound, or up to 25 insect fragments per tablespoon of cocoa powder.
The above points provide good reasons for an alternative. However, chocolate lovers are not left without a replacement. Carob is a wonderful substitute for chocolate. It tastes great with a chocolate-like flavor but without the health risks, additives, or contamination that comes with chocolate.

Carob is a legume that comes from the carob tree (Ceratonia siliqua), an evergreen tree native to the Mediterranean (it is actually a shrub that is trained into tree form by pruning). Today it is also grown in other warm climates including Florida and the southwestern United States. The tree is drought tolerant, does well in direct sun, and can handle temperatures down to 18 degrees F. It has a broad, spreading form that makes it an ideal shade tree and can grow to a height of 50 feet. The leaves are dark green, glossy, and leathery. The tree bears fruit (carob pods) after six to eight years of growth, and can easily bear 100 pounds of pods per year by its twelfth year, increasing to an average of 200 to 250 pounds annually as the tree grows older. It can continue to bear fruit for 100 years. The pods are reddish-brown and can be up to a foot long.

Carob has been used for food for over 5000 years and continues to play an important role in Jewish tradition. It is also called "honey locust" or St. John's Bread as this was consumed by John the Baptist while he was in the wilderness (Matt. 3:4). The husks that were eaten by the Prodigal Son in Jesus' parable (Luke 15:16) were discarded carob pods. Even today carob continues to be an important feed for livestock. The word carat, which is still used today to measure gold and diamonds, comes from the Arabic name for the carob seeds because of their uniformity in weight.

After harvesting, the long bean-like pods from the carob tree are cooked for a short time or roasted and then ground into carob powder (roasting enhances its chocolate-like flavor). Carob can be used to make such items as cakes, cookies, candy, pudding, icing, bread, beverages, shakes, ice cream, muffins, fudge, and brownies. Carob is naturally sweet and requires much less sweetener when used in recipes. When replacing chocolate with carob in a recipe, use 3 tablespoons of carob powder plus 1 tablespoon of water for every ounce of unsweetened chocolate called for. When substituting cocoa powder, use an equal amount of carob powder. Remember to reduce the amount of sugar in the recipe because of the natural sweetness of carob.

In addition to not having the negative effects of chocolate, carob is very nutritious. Carob contains as much Vitamin B1 as asparagus or strawberries; as much niacin as lima beans, lentils, or peas; and more Vitamin A than eggplant, asparagus, and beets. It also contains Vitamin B2, calcium, magnesium, potassium, and the trace minerals iron, manganese, chromium, copper, and nickel. It contains approximately 8 percent protein and is a good source of fiber. Compared to chocolate, carob is three times richer in calcium, has one third less calories and seventeen times less fat.

Carob also has therapeutic uses. It is known to halt serious cases of diarrhea in adults, infants, and animals. Use 1 tablespoon of carob power in a cup of liquid, or make a paste of carob powder and water. It is also known to help with nausea, vomiting, and upset stomach. One French physician successfully reversed kidney failure with carob. Use approximately 2 teaspoons carob powder in unsweetened cranberry juice four or five times daily. A decoction of the leaves and bark has been useful for syphilis and venereal diseases, and seems to have a soothing effect on epilepsy.

Carob is a chocolate lovers delight as it is not only delicious, but low in fat and calories, caffeine-free, and lacks the health risks of chocolate. Please give carob a try. Different carob products taste differently, as some taste more chocolate-like than others. Therefore, try out several different carob products, and congratulate yourself on treating yourself to a healthy and delicious treat. [source - retrieved from http://www.gilead.net/health/carob.html on 1/02/2013]
How this tree and other plants absorb water from the ground. Plants have developed an effective system to absorb, translocate, store, and utilize water. Plants contain a vast network of conduits, which consists of xylem and phloem tissues. These conducting tissues start in the roots and continue up through the trunks of trees, into the branches and then into every leaf. Phloem tissue is made of living elongated cells that are connected to one another and responsible for translocating nutrients and sugars (carbohydrates), which are produced by leaves for energy and growth. The xylem is also composed of elongated cells but once the cells are formed, they die. The walls of the xylem cells still remain intact and serve as an excellent peipline to transport water from the roots to the leaves.

The main driving force of water uptake and transport into a plant is transpiration of water from leaves through specialized openings called stomata. Heat from the sun causes the water to evaporate, setting this ‘water chain’ in motion. The evaporation creates a negative water vapor pressure. Water is pulled into the leaf to replace the water that has transpired from the leaf. This pulling of water, or tension, occurs in the xylem of the leaf. Since the xylem is a continuous water column that extends from the leaf to the roots, this negative water pressure extends into the roots and results in water uptake from the soil. [adapted from: http://www.scientificamerican.com/article.cfm?id=follow-up-how-do-trees-ca ]

Clearly this clever water transport system shows a superior intelligence of the Creator (YHWH).


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Francis David said it long ago, "Neither the sword of popes...nor the image of death will halt the march of truth."Francis David, 1579, written on the wall of his prison cell." Read the book, "What Does The Bible Really Teach" and the Bible today, and go to www.jw.org!






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the Psidium. friedrichsthalianum Ndz., known variously in Latin America as cas or cas ácida (Costa Rica), guayaba ácida (Guatemala),

Post  Admin on Tue Feb 19, 2013 3:48 pm


Hi Everyone:

Here is a Commentary on Bountiful Trees and Vegetables God (YHWH) has provided for mankind, specifically the Psidium. friedrichsthalianum Ndz., known variously in Latin America as cas or cas ácida (Costa Rica), guayaba ácida (Guatemala), guayaba agria (Colombia), guayaba de danto (Honduras), guayaba de agua (Panama), guayaba del Choco (Ecuador), guayaba montes (Mexico), guayaba (Nicaragua), and arrayan (El Salvador).

Description
An attractive, shapely tree, 20 to 35 ft (6-10 m) high, it has wiry, quadrangular, or 4-winged, branchlets which are dark reddish and minutely hairy. The trunk bark is red-brown with grayish patches. The evergreen leaves are 2 to 4 3/4 in (5-12 cm) long, 1 to 2 in (2.5-5 cm) wide, elliptic or oval, pointed, gland-dotted, thin; dark and smooth above, pale beneath. Flowers, usually borne singly, are fragrant, white, 1 in (2.5 cm) wide, with 5 waxy petals and about 300 stamens up to 1/2 in (1.25 cm) long. The fruit is round or oval, 1 1/4 to 2 1/2 in (3-6 cm) long, with yellow skin and soft, white, very acid flesh, and a few flattened seeds 3/16 in (5 mm) long. There is no musky odor.

Distribution
This tree grows naturally in Colombia (especially in the Cauca and Magdalena valleys), throughout Central America and around Oaxaca in southern Mexico, usually bordering streams and in swampy woods along the coast and inland. It is commonly cultivated in home gardens in temperate highlands of Costa Rica, occasionally in El Salvador, Guatemala and northern Ecuador. It thrives in the Philippines at medium and low elevations. Introductions into California and Florida have not been very successful, the tree bearing poorly and eventually succumbing to cold spells.

Food Uses
Because of its acidity, the fruit is mostly used for ade, jelly and jam. It makes fine filling for pies. Early Spaniards complained that eating the raw fruits "set the teeth on edge".

Food Value
Analyses in Guatemala show: moisture, 83.15%; protein, 0.78-0.88%; carbohydrates, 5.75-6.75%; fat, 0.39-0.52%; fiber, 7.90%; ash, 0.80%. The fruit is rich in pectin even when fully ripe. [source - retrieved from http://www.hort.purdue.edu/newcrop/morton/costa_rican_guava.html on 1/02/2013]

In Genesis 1:11-13, "And God said, Let the earth put forth grass, herbs yielding seed, and fruit-trees bearing fruit after their kind, wherein is the seed thereof, upon the earth: and it was so. 12 And the earth brought forth grass, herbs yielding seed after their kind, and trees bearing fruit, wherein is the seed thereof, after their kind: and God saw that it was good. 13 And there was evening and there was morning, a third day. (American Standard Version, ASV)[for more details, go to www.jw.org].

This moderate-growing, small tree from Central America grows well in protected areas but doesn't bear well. It bears large, white fragrant flowers and large round or oval, green-to-yellow fruit with a number of seeds and white, slightly acid but tasty flesh. It is eaten fresh, in ades or jellies. Propagated by seed or air layer. [source - retrieved from http://www.dianangelov.com/EFA/trees/cas_guavas.html on 1/02/2013]

How this tree and other plants absorb water from the ground. Plants have developed an effective system to absorb, translocate, store, and utilize water. Plants contain a vast network of conduits, which consists of xylem and phloem tissues. These conducting tissues start in the roots and continue up through the trunks of trees, into the branches and then into every leaf. Phloem tissue is made of living elongated cells that are connected to one another and responsible for translocating nutrients and sugars (carbohydrates), which are produced by leaves for energy and growth. The xylem is also composed of elongated cells but once the cells are formed, they die. The walls of the xylem cells still remain intact and serve as an excellent peipline to transport water from the roots to the leaves.

The main driving force of water uptake and transport into a plant is transpiration of water from leaves through specialized openings called stomata. Heat from the sun causes the water to evaporate, setting this ‘water chain’ in motion. The evaporation creates a negative water vapor pressure. Water is pulled into the leaf to replace the water that has transpired from the leaf. This pulling of water, or tension, occurs in the xylem of the leaf. Since the xylem is a continuous water column that extends from the leaf to the roots, this negative water pressure extends into the roots and results in water uptake from the soil. [adapted from: http://www.scientificamerican.com/article.cfm?id=follow-up-how-do-trees-ca ]

Clearly this clever water transport system shows a superior intelligence of the Creator (YHWH).


Now to know the truth, go to:

1) http://religioustruths.forumsland.com/

2) http://www.network54.com/Forum/403209/

3) http://religioustruths.lefora.com/

4) http://religioustruths.boardhost.com/

5) http://religious-truths.forums.com/

6) http://religioustruthsbyiris.createmybb3.com/

7) http://religioustruths.forumotion.com/


Your Friend in Christ Iris89

Francis David said it long ago, "Neither the sword of popes...nor the image of death will halt the march of truth."Francis David, 1579, written on the wall of his prison cell." Read the book, "What Does The Bible Really Teach" and the Bible today, and go to www.jw.org!

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the Aronia

Post  Admin on Sat Feb 23, 2013 9:28 pm

Hi Everyone:

Here is a Commentary on Bountiful Trees and Vegetables God (YHWH) has provided for mankind, specifically the Aronia, the chokeberries, are two[2] to three species of deciduous shrubs in the family Rosaceae, native to eastern North America. They are most commonly found in wet woods and swamps.[3][4][5][6] Chokeberries are cultivated as ornamental plants and also because they are very high in antioxidant pigment compounds, such as anthocyanins. The name "chokeberry" comes from the astringency of the fruits, which are inedible when raw. The berries can be used to make wine, jam, syrup, juice, soft spreads, tea and tinctures. The fruits are eaten by birds, which then disperse the seeds in their droppings; birds do not taste astringency and feed on them freely.
The chokeberries are often mistakenly called chokecherries, which is the common name for Prunus virginiana. Further adding to the ambiguity, there is a cultivar of Prunus virginiana named 'Melanocarpa',[7][8] easily confused with Aronia melanocarpa. Chokecherries are also high in antioxidant pigment compounds, like anthocyanins, further contributing to confusion. In fact, the two plants are only distantly related within the Rosaceae.
Identification and taxonomy
The leaves are alternate, simple, and oblanceolate with crenate margins and pinnate venation; in autumn the leaves turn a bold red color. Dark trichomes are present on the upper midrib surface. The flowers are small, with 5 petals and 5 sepals, and produced in corymbs of 10-25 together. Hypanthium is urn-shaped. The fruit is a small pome, with a very astringent flavor.
Aronia has been thought to be closely related to Photinia, and has been included in that genus in some classifications,[9] but botanist Cornelis Kalkman observed that a combined genus should be under the older name Aronia.[10] The combined genus contains about 65 species.[11] In 2004, Kalkman expressed doubt about the monophyly of the combined group, and new molecular studies confirm this.[1][12] They do not place these two genera together or even near one another.
In eastern North America, there are two well-known species, named after their fruit color, red chokeberry and black chokeberry, plus a purple chokeberry whose origin is a natural hybrid of the two.[11]
Red chokeberry, Aronia arbutifolia (Photinia pyrifolia),[3] grows to 2–4m tall, rarely up to 6 m. Leaves are 5–8 cm wide and densely pubescent on the underside. The flowers are white or pale pink, 1 cm wide, with glandular sepals. The fruit is red, 4–10mm wide, persisting into winter.
Black chokeberry, Aronia melanocarpa (Photinia melanocarpa),[4] tends to be smaller, rarely exceeding 1m tall, rarely 3 m, and spreads readily by root sprouts. The leaves are smaller, not more than 6-cm wide, with terminal glands on leaf teeth and a glabrous underside. The flowers are white, 1.5 cm wide, with glabrous sepals. The fruit is black, 6–9mm wide, not persisting into winter.
The Purple chokeberry, Aronia prunifolia (Photinia floribunda)[5] apparently originated as a hybrid of the black and red chokeberries but might be more accurately considered a distinct species than a hybrid[11] (see also nothospecies). Leaves are moderately pubescent on the underside. Few to no glands are present on the sepal surface. The fruit is dark purple to black, 7–10mm in width, not persisting into winter. There are purple chokeberry populations which seem to be self-sustaining independent of the two parent species – including an introduced one in northern Germany where neither parent species occurs –, leading botanist Alan Weakley to consider it a full species rather than a hybrid.[11] The range of the purple chokeberry is roughly that of the black chokeberry; it is found in areas (such as Michigan and Missouri) where the red chokeberry is not.[13]
Products and uses
The chokeberries are attractive ornamental plants for gardens. They are naturally understory and woodland edge plants, and grow well when planted under trees. Chokeberries are resistant to drought, insects, pollution, and disease. Several cultivars have been developed for garden planting, including A. arbutifolia 'Brilliant', selected for its striking fall leaf color. A. melanocarpa 'Viking' and 'Nero' were selected for larger fruit suitable for jam-making, and because they are self-fertile only one plant is needed to produce fruit.[14]
Juice from these berries is astringent and not sweet, but high in vitamin C and antioxidants. The berries can be used to make wine, jam, syrup, juice, soft spreads, and tea.[14] In the U.S., aronia berries are used in mass-marketed juice blends for color and marketed for their antioxidant properties. The Voruta label exports a Chokeberry wine from Lithuania. In Poland they are dried to make an herbal tea.[15] The tea is usually a blend with other more flavorful ingredients including blackcurrant.[14] Aronia is also used as a flavoring or colorant for beverages or yogurts.[14]
The red chokeberry's fruit is more palatable and can be eaten raw. It has a sweeter flavor than the black species and is used to make jam or pemmican.
Antioxidant qualities
Aronia melanocarpa (black chokeberry) has attracted scientific interest due to its deep purple, almost black pigmentation that arises from dense contents of phenolic phytochemicals, especially anthocyanins. Total anthocyanin content in chokeberries is 1480 mg per 100 g of fresh berries, and proanthocyanidin concentration is 664 mg per 100 g.[16][17] Both values are among the highest measured in plants to date.
The plant produces these pigments mainly in the skin of the berries to protect the pulp and seeds from constant exposure to ultraviolet radiation.[18] By absorbing UV rays in the blue-purple spectrum, pigments filter intense sunlight and thereby have a role assuring regeneration of the species. Brightly colorful pigmentation also attracts birds and other animals to consume the fruit and disperse the seeds in their droppings.
Anthocyanins not only contribute toward chokeberry's astringent property (that would deter pests and infections) but also give Aronia melanocarpa extraordinary antioxidant strength that combats oxidative stress in the fruit during photosynthesis.
A test tube measurement of antioxidant strength, the oxygen radical absorbance capacity or ORAC, demonstrates chokeberry with one of the highest values yet recorded—16,062 micromoles of Trolox Eq. per 100 g[19] (see this ORAC reference for antioxidant scores for 277 common foods).
There is growing appreciation for consumers to increase their intake of antioxidant-rich plant foods from colorful sources like berries, tree or citrus fruits, vegetables, grains, and spices. Accordingly, a deep blue food source such as chokeberry yields anthocyanins in high concentrations per serving, indicating potential value as a functional food or nutraceutical.
Analysis of anthocyanins in chokeberries has identified the following individual chemicals (among hundreds known to exist in the plant kingdom): cyanidin-3-galactoside, epicatechin, caffeic acid, quercetin, delphinidin, petunidin, pelargonidin, peonidin, and malvidin. All these except caffeic acid are members of the flavonoid category of antioxidant phenolics.
Efficacy in disease models
Chokeberries' rich antioxidant content may be beneficial as a dietary preventative for reducing the risk of diseases caused by oxidative stress. Among the models under evaluation where preliminary results show benefits of chokeberry anthocyanins are colorectal cancer,[20] cardiovascular disease,[21] chronic inflammation,[22] gastric mucosal disorders (peptic ulcer),[23] eye inflammation (uveitis)[24] and liver failure.[25]
References
1. ^ a b Potter, D., et al. (2007). Phylogeny and classification of Rosaceae. Plant Systematics and Evolution. 266(1–2): 5–43. [Referring to the subfamily by the name "Spiraeoideae"]
2. ^ "Aronia Medik.". Germplasm Resources Information Network. http://www.ars-grin.gov/cgi-bin/npgs/html/genus.pl?13463.
3. ^ a b "Photinia pyrifolia (Lam.) K.R. Robertson & Phipps". USDA PLANTS. http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=PHPY4.
4. ^ a b "Photinia melanocarpa (Michx.) K.R. Robertson & Phipps". USDA PLANTS. http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=PHME13.
5. ^ a b "Photinia floribunda". USDA PLANTS. http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=PHFL9.
6. ^ Voss, E.G. 1985. Michigan Flora: A guide to the identification and occurrence of the native and naturalized seed-plants of the state. Part II: Dicots (Saururaceae–Cornaceae). Cranbrook Institute of Science and University of Michigan Herbarium, Ann Arbor, Michigan, U.S.A.
7. ^ http://www.msue.msu.edu/msue/imp/modzz/00001191.html
8. ^ http://www.laspilitas.com/plants/545.htm
9. ^ Robertson, K. R., J. B. Phipps, J. R. Rohrer, and P. G. Smith. 1991. A synopsis of genera in Maloideae (Rosaceae). Systematic Botany 16:376–394.
10. ^ Kalkman, C. 2004. Rosaceae. In The families and genera of vascular plants. Edited by K. Kubitzki. Springer, Berlin. pp. 343–386, isbn=3-540-06512-1. in Google books, page 377
11. ^ a b c d Alan S. Weakley (April 2008). "Flora of the Carolinas, Virginia, and Georgia, and Surrounding Areas". http://www.herbarium.unc.edu/flora.htm.
12. ^ Campbell C. S., R. C. Evans, D. R. Morgan, T. A. Dickinson, and M. P. Arsenault (2007). "Phylogeny of subtribe Pyrinae (formerly the Maloideae, Rosaceae): Limited resolution of a complex evolutionary history". Pl. Syst. Evol. 266: 119–145. doi:10.1007/s00606-007-0545-y.
13. ^ James W. Hardin ((May - Jun., 1973)). "The Enigmatic Chokeberries (Aronia, Rosaceae)". Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club 100 (3): 178–184. doi:10.2307/2484630. JSTOR 2484630.
14. ^ a b c d Steven A. McKay (March 17, 2004). "Demand increasing for aronia and elderberry in North America". New York Berry News 3 (11). http://www.fruit.cornell.edu/Berries/specialtyfru%20pdf/aroniaeldeberry.pdf.
15. ^ http://www.malwa.net.pl/oferta.html
16. ^ Wu, X., Gu, L., Prior, R. L., & McKay, S. (2004). Characterization of anthocyanins and proanthocyanidins in some cultivars of Ribes, Aronia and Sambucus and their antioxidant capacity. J Agric Food Chem. 52 (26): 7846-7856.
17. ^ Wu, X., Beecher, G. R., Holden, J. M., Haytowitz, D. B., Gebhardt, S. E., & Prior, R. L. (2006). Concentrations of anthocyanins in common foods in the United States and estimation of normal consumption. J Agric Food Chem. 54 (1): 4069–4075.
18. ^ Simon PW. Plant pigments for color and nutrition, United States Department of Agriculture, University of Wisconsin, 1996
19. ^ Nutrient Data Laboratory, Agriculture Research Service, US Department of Agriculture, Oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) of Selected Foods - 2007.[1]
20. ^ Lala, G., Malik, M., Zhao, C., He, J., Kwon, Y., Giusti, M. M., & Magnuson, B. A. (2006). Anthocyanin-rich extracts inhibit multiple biomarkers of colon cancer in rats. Nutr. Cancer 54 (1): 84-93
21. ^ Bell, D. R., & Gochenaur, K. (2006). Direct vasoactive and vasoprotective properties of anthocyanin-rich extracts. J Appl Physiol. 100 (4): 1164-70.
22. ^ Han, G.-L., Li, C.-M., Mazza, G., & Yang, X.-G. (2005). Effect of anthocyanin rich fruit extract on PGE2 produced by endothelial cells. Wei Sheng Yan Jiu. 34 (5): 581-4.
23. ^ Valcheva-Kuzmanova, S., Marazova, K., Krasnaliev, I., Galunska, B., Borisova, P., & Belcheva, A. (2005). Effect of Aronia melanocarpa fruit juice on indomethacin-induced gastric mucosal damage and oxidative stress in rats. Exp Toxicol Pathol. 56 (6): 385-92.
24. ^ Ohgami, K., Ilieva, I., Shiratori, K., Koyama, Y., Jin, X.-H., Yoshida, K., Kase, S., Kitaichi, N., Suzuki, Y., Tanaka, T., & Ohno, S. (2005). Anti-inflammatory effects of aronia extract on rat endotoxin-induced uveitis. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 46 (1): 275-81.
25. ^ Valcheva-Kuzmanova, S., Borisova, P., Galunska, B., Krasnaliev, I., & Belcheva, A. (2004). Hepatoprotective effect of the natural fruit juice from Aronia melanocarpa on carbon tetrachloride-induced acute liver damage in rats. Exp Toxicol Pathol. 56 (3): 195-201. (source - retrieved from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aronia on 2/23/2013)
In Genesis 1:11-13, "And God said, Let the earth put forth grass, herbs yielding seed, and fruit-trees bearing fruit after their kind, wherein is the seed thereof, upon the earth: and it was so. 12 And the earth brought forth grass, herbs yielding seed after their kind, and trees bearing fruit, wherein is the seed thereof, after their kind: and God saw that it was good. 13 And there was evening and there was morning, a third day. (American Standard Version, ASV)

For pictures and more information on this plant and fruit, go to, http://www.missouribotanicalgarden.org/gardens-gardening/your-garden/plant-finder/plant-details/kc/d726/aronia-arbutifolia.aspx

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Spring is in the air, so a little deviation from rare fruit trees and vegetables.

Post  Admin on Mon Feb 25, 2013 8:59 pm

Spring is in the air, so a little deviation from rare fruit trees and vegetables.

Planting Literal Seeds and/or Seeds Of Truth Constitute A New Beginning And Blossoming

Spring is the most supportive season of all for new beginnings. Its very name and nature is just that, i.e., a rebirth. Whether we are talking away the old dry leaves and branches from our garden beds or doing the metaphorically from our minds, the same principle is operating in preparing the earthly or mental soil for new planting, we are making way for the best outcome – vibrant life and blossoming.

A seed when planted in fertile soil and well-tended produces the perfect out picturing of its potential in form. From a tomato seed, a tomato emerges. From the ‘seed’ of an intention, its full from emerges. But a seed must be sown on the right ground, be it a literal seed or the ‘seeds’ of truth as Jesus (Yeshua) Christ clearly brought out in Matthew the 13 chapter, “19 When any one heareth the word of the kingdom, and understandeth it not, then cometh the wicked one, and catcheth away that which was sown in his heart. This is he which received seed by the way side. 20 But he that received the seed into stony places, the same is he that heareth the word, and anon with joy receiveth it; 21 Yet hath he not root in himself, but dureth for a while: for when tribulation or persecution ariseth because of the word, by and by he is offended. 22 He also that received seed among the thorns is he that heareth the word; and the care of this world, and the deceitfulness of riches, choke the word, and he becometh unfruitful. 23 But he that received seed into the good ground is he that heareth the word, and understandeth it; which also beareth fruit, and bringeth forth, some an hundredfold, some sixty, some thirty.” Matther 13:19 to 23 (Authorized King James Bible: AV)

Every ‘seed’ contains within it all that it requires to be fully manifest under the right conditions. Yes, and through each stage of its development, it takes on a life of its wn., reaching out for whatever it needs to thrive.

Just as every plant seed is power packed with its full potential, and every intention is too, the same holds true for each of us. Spring offers a wonderful opportunity to re-connect with this elemental aspect of ourselves which we share with all life. The ‘soil’ is at its most fertile, having absorbed and not yet used the nutrients from the last season’s leavings. And that life potential within each of us is yet again awakening, offering up all kinds of inspiration,, dreams and ideas for ‘planting.’ So why not add some mental ‘gardening’ to our plans this spring, and let these perfect conditions support the fulfillment of our newest dreams? It is as easy as sowing seeds.

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Francis David said it long ago, "Neither the sword of popes...nor the image of death will halt the march of truth. "Francis David, 1579, written on the wall of his prison cell." Read the book, "What Does The Bible Really Teach" and the Bible today, and go to www.jw.org!

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the cashew

Post  Admin on Thu Feb 28, 2013 10:43 am


Hi Everyone:

Here is a Commentary on Bountiful Trees and Vegetables God (YHWH) has provided for mankind, specifically the cashew (k?sh`, k?sh`), tropical American tree (Anacardium occidentale) of the family Anacardiaceae (sumac sumach, common name for some members of the Anacardiaceae, a family of trees and shrubs native chiefly to the tropics but ranging into north temperate regions and characterized by resinous and often acrid, sap. family), valued chiefly for the cashew nut of commerce. The tree's acrid sap is used in making a varnish that protects woodwork and books from insects. The fruit is kidney-shaped, about an inch in length, and has a double shell. The kernel, which is sweet, oily, and nutritious, is much used for food in the tropics after being roasted to destroy the caustic juice. It yields a light-colored oil said to be the equal of olive oil and is utilized in various culinary ways. In the West Indies it is used to flavor wine, particularly Madeira, and is imported into Great Britain for this purpose. The nut grows on the end of a fleshy, pear-shaped stalk, called the cashew apple, which is white, yellow, or red, juicy and slightly acid, and is eaten or fermented to make wine. Cashews are classified in the division Magnoliophyta, class Magnoliopsida, order Sapindales, family Anacardiaceae. [adopted from http://encyclopedia2.thefreedictionary.com/cashew on 1/03/213].

cashew

Cashew apples (hypocarp) and nuts of the domesticated cashew tree (Anacardium occidentale).
(credit: W.H. Hodge)
Edible seed or nut of Anacardium occidentale, a tropical and subtropical evergreen shrub or tree in the sumac family, native to tropical Central and South America. Important chiefly for its nuts, the tree also produces wood used for shipping crates, boats, and charcoal, and a gum similar to gum arabic. Related to poison ivy and poison sumac, it must be handled with care. The two-shelled nut is shaped like a large, thick bean. A brown oil between the two shells blisters human skin and is used as a lubricant and an insecticide and in the production of plastics. The nut is rich and distinctively flavoured. [source - retrieved from http://encyclopedia2.thefreedictionary.com/cashew on 1/03/2013]

HABITANT AND GROWTH
The tree is small and evergreen, growing to 10-12m (~32 ft) tall, with a short, often irregularly shaped trunk. The leaves are spirally arranged, leathery textured, elliptic to obovate, 4 to 22 cm long and 2 to 15 cm broad, with a smooth margin. The flowers are produced in a panicle or corymb up to 26 cm long, each flower small, pale green at first then turning reddish, with five slender, acute petals 7 to 15 mm long. The largest cashew tree in the world covers an area of about 7,500 square metres (81,000 sq ft).
The fruit of the cashew tree is an accessory fruit (sometimes called a pseudocarp or false fruit). What appears to be the fruit is an oval or pear-shaped structure, a hypocarpium, that develops from the pedicel and the receptacle of the cashew flower. Called the cashew apple, better known in Central America as "marañón", it ripens into a yellow and/or red structure about 5–11 cm long. It is edible, and has a strong "sweet" smell and a sweet taste. The pulp of the cashew apple is very juicy, but the skin is fragile, making it unsuitable for transport. In Latin America, a fruit drink is made from the cashew apple pulp which has a very refreshing taste and tropical flavor that can be described as having notes of mango, raw green pepper, and just a little hint of grapefruit-like citrus.
The true fruit of the cashew tree is a kidney or boxing-glove shaped drupe that grows at the end of the cashew apple. The drupe develops first on the tree, and then the pedicel expands to become the cashew apple. Within the true fruit is a single seed, the cashew nut. Although a nut in the culinary sense, in the botanical sense the nut of the cashew is a seed. The seed is surrounded by a double shell containing an allergenic phenolic resin, anacardic acid, a potent skin irritant chemically related to the better-known allergenic oil urushiol which is also a toxin found in the related poison ivy. Properly roasting cashews destroys the toxin, but it must be done outdoors as the smoke (not unlike that from burning poison ivy) contains urushiol droplets which can cause severe, sometimes life-threatening, reactions by irritating the lungs. People who are allergic to cashew urushiols may also react to mango or pistachio which are also in the Anacardiaceae family. Some people are allergic to cashew nuts, but cashews are a less frequent allergen than nuts or peanuts.
Dispersal
While native to Northeast Brazil, the Portuguese took the cashew plant to Goa, India, between the years of 1560 and 1565. From there it spread throughout Southeast Asia and eventually Africa. It is now grown extensively in south Florida up to the Martin County line. [adapted from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cashew on 1/03/2013]
In Genesis 1:11-13, "And God said, Let the earth put forth grass, herbs yielding seed, and fruit-trees bearing fruit after their kind, wherein is the seed thereof, upon the earth: and it was so. 12 And the earth brought forth grass, herbs yielding seed after their kind, and trees bearing fruit, wherein is the seed thereof, after their kind: and God saw that it was good. 13 And there was evening and there was morning, a third day. (American Standard Version, ASV)[for more details, go to www.jw.org].

REPRODUCTION
Cashew trees reproduce sexually with seeds. The cashew flowers are pollinated by bats and many kinds of insects, but they are also capable of self-pollination because they have some monoecious flowers. After pollination, the drupe requires 6 to 8 weeks to mature, with the pseudofruit developing in the last two weeks of the ripening process. The cashew kernel, found inside the shell of the drupe, is the seed of the plant. When the drupe and pseudofruit are ripe, they fall off the tree together. If it lands in moist soil, the seed can germinate within 4 days of falling.
Commercial growers usually raise their cashew crops from seeds. They soak the seeds in water to aid germination and plant them either in a pit at their permanent location or in a planting bag to be transplanted once they have grown large enough. Two to four seeds are planted in each hole, and a month is allowed for germination and growth. The weaker seedlings are then removed, leaving only the strongest one to mature. Seedlings grown in planting bags are transplanted after two months to their permanent location, but this must be done carefully because their roots are very sensitive. Since the cashew tree does not do well when transplanted, it is usually recommended that the trees be planted in their permanent locations, spaced 10 to 12 meters apart to allow them to fully mature. For the first 3 years, the seedlings should be supported against wind, provided with adequate shade, and regularly watered to hasten growth. During this time, intercropping is often practiced with fast-growing crops such as legumes, vegetables, tobacco, chilies, cotton, or peanuts. This allows productive use of the fields until the trees begin to bear fruit in their third year. The trees reach their maximum productivity after 10 years and continue producing fruit for the next 20 years or more. A single tree can produce 200 to 300 fruits in one year.
Cashews can also reproduce asexually through vegetative propagation. If a seedling with desirable traits, such as a high percentage of monoecious flowers (allows greater self-pollination), large fruit size, resistance to pests and disease, etc., is found, vegetative propagation allows growers to produce genetic copies of the tree, ensuring that the new trees will carry on the same traits. Many methods of vegetative reproduction are successful with cashews, including side grafting, wedge grafting, softwood grafting, air and ground layering, chip-budding, top-working, and cutting. As various methods of grafting are further tested and developed, they may become more widely used by farmers and cultivators due to the benefits of being able to select plants with desirable traits as opposed to growing them from seed, which usually results in a wide variety of offspring often unlike their parent plants.
Cashew trees require little attention after their first three years. If left alone, they will grow well and continue to produce fruit. Commercial growers may prune the trees, but pruning is usually limited to clearing away the shoots and lowest branches to make harvesting easier. The fields are weeded to protect the trees, especially around the bases of young trees. Fertilizer and manure are both beneficial to cashew trees. Fertilizers should contain nitrogen and phosphate, as well as zinc if the soil is deficient. Mulching helps retain moisture in the soil and prevents weed growth near the
Cashews are native to Brazil and were spread to India by the Portuguese in the 1500s. Since then, cashews have been introduced to East Africa, South America, Central America, and the West Indies. The main cultivators of cashews are Vietnam, Nigeria, India, Brazil, and Indonesia. The primary importer of cashews is the United States [46]. Japan, Australia, Canada, Hong Kong, Singapore, and many Middle Eastern countries also purchase large quantities of cashews.
The cashew is a tropical or sub-tropical plant that grows between latitudes of 25 degrees north and south. They are most often found growing in coastal areas. They do best in warm, humid weather, and the optimum temperature is 25 degrees Celsius (77 degrees Fahrenheit). The plants are very susceptible to frost, and temperatures should not fall below 10 degrees Celsius (50 degrees Fahrenheit). However, cashews are drought tolerant because of their extensive root systems. The best range for rainfall is between 1500 to 2000 mm per year. It is also important that they go through a dry season to stimulate flower growth and fruit production .
Cashew trees grow in many kinds of soil, even those soil types that would be intolerable to other plants. They prefer deep, well-drained soil that is sandy or loamy and has a pH of 4.5 to 6.5. They cannot grow in very hard clay, rocky soil, or soil with excess undrained water because it will damage the roots and cause them to rot.
Cashews are pollinated mostly by insects. Wild birds, bats, and other animals eat the cashew apples and aid in dispersal. Since the shell of the drupe is so toxic, causing severe burns to those who try to consume it, most animals eat the apple and throw away the drupe, which allows it to germinate, often in a new location. Humans also consume cashews, either raw or as part of other dishes.
Common pests that afflict the cashew tree include the tea mosquito, the stem and root borer, the leaf and blossom webber, the leaf minor, the shoot and inflorescence tip borer, and the apple and nut borer, as well as several species of thrips (small insects that afflict fruit trees and other plants). These pests can cause severe damage to the trees, especially young ones, by destroying new growth and burrowing inside the trunk, leaves, and fruit. Most pests can be killed using chemical sprays and insecticides.
Harvesting and Uses
Once the nuts are ripe they naturally fall from the tree. Workers harvest them off the ground, usually going through the fields every day to pick up the apples before they spoil . The apples and drupes are separated and processed. Before the cashew kernels can be eaten, they must be removed from their shells without being contaminated by the caustic oil. The removal from the shell is a long process with many steps. First, the drupes are dried for 1 to 3 days, which allows them to be stored until there are enough nuts to roast. Immediately before roasting, the drupes are soaked in water to prevent the kernels from breaking while being processed. The cashews are usually roasted in pans or other devices with holes in them, allowing the oil to be collected as it drains through the holes. Once roasted, the cashews are covered in sand or sawdust to remove any oil remaining on the shells.
Next, the shelling process begins. Cashews are usually shelled manually because of the difficulty in designing machines able to crack open the irregularly-shaped shell without breaking the kernel. While machines are sometimes used, the workers usually break open the shells using wooden hammers. The cashews kernels are separated from the shells and placed on racks in an oven to dry. This causes the testa (seed coat) to become brittle so it can easily be removed by hand. Last, broken and unevenly roasted kernels are sorted out and the good-quality kernels are vacuum-packed for shipping, allowing them to be stored for up to a year.
(Important Note: When roasting, sorting, and processing cashews, gloves and long clothes should be worn to protect any exposed skin from coming in contact with the oil. Cashew nutshell oil squirts from the nuts during roasting and may remain on the shells afterwards. The oil is toxic and will cause severe burns and itching if it gets on the skin.)
Although the kernels are the main product of cashew trees, many other parts of the tree are utilized as well. The cashew apples, though not exported, are often eaten in countries where the trees are grown. Cashew apples can be eaten raw and are also made into jellies, juices, and syrups. They may be dried, candied, preserved in syrup, or fermented and used to make alcoholic beverages such as brandy, gin, and a wine called Feni that is sold in India. Both the cashew kernels and cashew apples have many health benefits. The kernels are low in fat compared to some other nuts such as walnuts or peanuts, and they have plenty of healthy fatty acids, B vitamins, protein, potassium, zinc, iron, and fiber. They are also delicious and may be eaten by themselves or used in cooking. They are frequently used in candy and in Thai, Chinese, and Indian foods. The cashew apple is high in vitamin C, with even more than is found in oranges, and is also full of vitamins and minerals. Aside from food, the apples are also used in body care products such as anti-aging cremes, lotions, and shampoos .
Other products of the cashew tree are taken from the leaves, wood, bark, and shell. The toxic oil from the shell (cashew nutshell liquid) is collected during the roasting process. It is used to manufacture brake linings, insect repellents, resins, varnishes, and paints. The wood is used to make furniture and packing crates, and the gum is made into glue. The testa is used in animal feed . The leaves, bark, and kernels may be ground up and used in medicine and insect repellent, and the bark and testa both contain tannins and are used to tan leather. An edible cashew oil is produced from the kernels. This is not the same as cashew nutshell oil; it used in cooking and is similar to olive oil.
Parts of the cashew tree are also believed to have medicinal properties. The leaves and bark are made into tea and used to treat diarrhea, dysentery, and colic and to stop bleeding. Various parts of the cashew plant are also used for diabetes, influenza, ulcers, skin disorders, bronchitis, tonsillitis, and other throat problems, and as an antibacterial agent. [source - retrieved from http://creationwiki.org/Cashew on 1/03/2013]
Bottom of Form
How this tree and other plants absorb water from the ground. Plants have developed an effective system to absorb, translocate, store, and utilize water. Plants contain a vast network of conduits, which consists of xylem and phloem tissues. These conducting tissues start in the roots and continue up through the trunks of trees, into the branches and then into every leaf. Phloem tissue is made of living elongated cells that are connected to one another and responsible for translocating nutrients and sugars (carbohydrates), which are produced by leaves for energy and growth. The xylem is also composed of elongated cells but once the cells are formed, they die. The walls of the xylem cells still remain intact and serve as an excellent peipline to transport water from the roots to the leaves.

The main driving force of water uptake and transport into a plant is transpiration of water from leaves through specialized openings called stomata. Heat from the sun causes the water to evaporate, setting this ‘water chain’ in motion. The evaporation creates a negative water vapor pressure. Water is pulled into the leaf to replace the water that has transpired from the leaf. This pulling of water, or tension, occurs in the xylem of the leaf. Since the xylem is a continuous water column that extends from the leaf to the roots, this negative water pressure extends into the roots and results in water uptake from the soil. [adapted from: http://www.scientificamerican.com/article.cfm?id=follow-up-how-do-trees-ca ]

Clearly this clever water transport system shows a superior intelligence of the Creator (YHWH).


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Francis David said it long ago, "Neither the sword of popes...nor the image of death will halt the march of truth."Francis David, 1579, written on the wall of his prison cell." Read the book, "What Does The Bible Really Teach" and the Bible today, and go to www.jw.org!









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the cattley guava, Psidium cattleianum Sabine

Post  Admin on Mon Mar 04, 2013 1:03 pm


Hi Everyone:

Here is a Commentary on Bountiful Trees and Vegetables God (YHWH) has provided for mankind, specifically the cattley guava, Psidium cattleianum Sabine (syns. P. littorale Raddi; P. chinense Hort.), is also known as the strawberry or purple guava, Chinese guava, Calcutta guava, araca da praia (Brazil), araza (Uruguay), cas dulce (Costa Rica), guayaba japonesa (Guatemala), and guayaba peruana (Venezuela). In Hawaii, the yellow-fruited is called waiawi, and the red-fruited waiawi ulaula.

Description
A fairly slow-growing shrub or small tree, the cattley guava generally ranges from 6.5 to 14 ft (2-4 m) tall but the yellow-fruited may attain 40 ft (12 m). Both have slender, smooth, brown-barked stems and branches, and alternate, evergreen, obovate, dark, smooth, glossy, somewhat leathery leaves 1 1/3 to 4 3/4 in (3.4-12 cm) long and 5/8 to 2 1/3 in (1.6-6 cm) wide. The fragrant flowers, 5/8 to 2 1/3 in(1.5-6 cm) wide are white with prominent stamens about 3/4 in (2 cm) long, and are borne singly or in 3's in the leaf axils. The fruit is round or obovoid, 1 to 1 1/2 in (2.5-4 cm) long, tipped with the protruding 4- to 5-parted calyx; thin-skinned, dark-red or purple-red or, in variety lucidum, lemon-yellow. Red-skinned fruits have white flesh more or less reddish near the skin. Yellow-skinned fruits have faintly yellowish flesh. In both types, the flesh is aromatic, about 1/8 in (3 mm) thick, surrounding the central juicy, somewhat translucent pulp filled with hard, flattened-triangular seeds 3/32 in (2.5 mm) long. Free of the muskiness of the common guava, the flavor is somewhat strawberry-like, spicy, subacid.

Origin and Distribution
The cattley guava is believed native to the lowlands of eastern Brazil, especially near the coast. It is cultivated to a limited extent in other areas of South America and Central America and in the West Indies, Bermuda, the Bahamas, southern and central Florida and southern California. A commercial planting of about 3,000 trees was established at La Mesa, California, around 1884 and the trees were still producing heavily a half century later. Today there is much more use of the cattley guava as an ornamental hedge than as a fruit tree. It is grown occasionally in subtropical Africa, and in highlands of the Philippines at elevations up to 5,000 ft (1,500 m), India, Ceylon and Malaya. It was introduced into Singapore in 1877 and at various times thereafter but failed to survive at low altitudes. In Hawaii, it has become naturalized in moist areas, forming dense, solid stands, and is subject to eradication in range lands. It is one of the major "weed trees" of Norfolk Island; has escaped into pastures and woods at elevations between 1,500 and 3,000 ft (457-914 m) in Jamaica.

Climate
The red cattley guava is hardier than the common guava and can survive temperatures as low as 22º F (-5.56º C). It can succeed wherever the orange is grown without artificial heating. The yellow is tenderer and its climatic requirements are similar to those of the lemon. Both kinds flourish in full sun.

Soil
The cattley guava does well in limestone and poor soils that would barely support other fruit trees. It is shallow-rooted but the red type is fairly drought tolerant. The yellow is able to endure flooding for short periods.
Propagation
The tree is not easily multiplied by budding or grafting because of its thin bark. It can be propagated by layering or rooting of soft tip cuttings or root cuttings, but is usually grown from seed even though seedlings of the red type vary in habit of growth, fruit size and seediness, also bearing season. The yellow comes fairly true from seed.

Culture
Cultural information is scant except that irrigation is necessary to obtain full-size fruits on poor soil, and the tree benefits from mulching when grown in limestone. Seedlings are set out 10 ft (3 m) apart in rows 10 ft (3 m) apart.

Cropping and Yield
On good soil and under irrigation, the cattley guava has yielded 30 tons from 5 acres (2 ha). In India, it bears two crops a year, one in July and August and another in January and February. Near the coast in California, fruits ripen continuously from August to March; inland the season is shorter, October to December.

Keeping Quality
The fresh fruit is very perishable when fully ripe and can be kept only 3 to 4 days at room temperature. For shipping, the fruit must be picked slightly unripe, handled carefully and refrigerated during transit. Generally it is sent to local processors instead of to fresh fruit markets. Hawaiian-grown fruits, slightly underripe, were stored at 32º to 36º F (0º-2.22º C) for a month and were found shriveled and decomposed. Accordingly, much higher temperatures are recommended.

Pests and Diseases
The cattley guava is usually reported as disease- and pest-free. In California, there are occasional infestations of the greenhouse thrips (Heliothrips haemorrhoidalis). The Caribbean fruit fly attacks the fruits in southern Florida and wherever this pest abounds. In India, birds compete with humans for the ripe fruits.

Food Uses
Cattley guavas are eaten out-of-hand without preparation except the removal of the calyx. A delicious puree or tart-filling can be made by trimming and cooking 6 cups of red cattleys with 1 cup water and 2 cups granulated sugar and pressing through a sieve. The resulting 3 cups of puree will be subacid, spicy and a dull, old-rose in color. Commercial growers ship to, factories which convert the fruits into jelly, jam, butter, paste and sherbet. In Hawaii, either half-ripe or full-ripe cattleys are cut in half, boiled, and the juice strained to make ade or punch.

Food Value
Analyses of ripe fruits in the Philippines, Hawaii and Florida have shown the following constituents:

Red: seeds, 6%; water, 81.73-84.9%; ash, 0.74-1.50%; crude fiber, 6.14%; protein, 0.75-1-03%; fat, 0.55%; total sugar, 4.42-4.46%.

Yellow: seeds, 10.3%; water, 84.2%; ash, 0.63-0.75%; crude fiber, 3.87%; protein, 0.80%; fat, 0.42%; total sugar, 4.32-10.01%.
Red or Yellow: ascorbic acid, 22-50 mg/100 g. Calories per 2.2 lbs (1 kg), 268. [source - retrieved from http://www.hort.purdue.edu/newcrop/morton/cattley_guava.html on 1/03/2013]

In Genesis 1:11-13, "And God said, Let the earth put forth grass, herbs yielding seed, and fruit-trees bearing fruit after their kind, wherein is the seed thereof, upon the earth: and it was so. 12 And the earth brought forth grass, herbs yielding seed after their kind, and trees bearing fruit, wherein is the seed thereof, after their kind: and God saw that it was good. 13 And there was evening and there was morning, a third day. (American Standard Version, ASV)[for more details, go to www.jw.org].

Preventative measures:A Risk Assessment of Psidium cattleianum for Hawai‘i and other Pacific islands was prepared.The alien plant screening system is for use in Pacific islands. The result is a score of 18 and a recommendation of: “Likely to cause significant ecological or

Close up of Cattley guava (Psidium cattleianum).
economic harm in Hawai‘i and on other Pacific Islands as determined by a high WRA score, which is based on published sources describing species biology and behaviour in Hawai‘i and/or other parts of the world.”

Physical: Because of the huge quantities of seed that are dispersed by feral pigs, and other exotic invasive species, feral species management is a practical and necessary first step in strawberry guava management. Manual and mechanical control measures work reasonably well and are recommended where practical. Seedlings and saplings originating from seed can be uprooted. Uprooted plants may resprout or re-root in areas with greater than 2000mm of rain/year or drier areas after prolonged rain, especially if the plants are set on the ground. Manual and mechanical methods are less effective on root sprouts.Biological: Biological control is the only feasible long-term management strategy for strawberry guava. However, until recently, biological control has been perceived as unfeasible because common guava, grown commercially in Hawai‘i, is a congener of strawberry guava. Biological control is being reexamined. Several insects defoliate strawberry guava in its natural range, it is possible that insect biological control agents could be found that do not attack common guava. Memoranda of agreement has been concluded between the University of Hawai‘i and two Brazilian Universities to locate species attacking strawberry guava and not common guava. It is thought that highly specific insect pests can be found because common guava and strawberry guava are sympatric in their natural range. [source - retrieved from http://informedfarmers.com/cattley-guava-psidium/ on //2013]

Psidium cattleianum,[1][2] named in honour of notable English horticulturist Sir William Cattley, commonly known as Cattley guava or Peruvian guava, is a small tree (2–6 m tall), bearing small red or yellow fruit, which are somewhat sour but sometimes eaten or made into jam. The red-fruited variety is known as strawberry guava; the yellow-fruited variety is known as lemon guava, and in Hawaii as waiaw?. Native to Brazil and adjacent tropical South America, it is closely related to common guava (P. guajava), and like that species is a widespread, highly invasive species in tropical areas, especially Hawai?i. It tends to form dense, monotypic stands which prevent regrowth of native species, and is very difficult to eradicate; it also provides refuge for fruit flies which cause extensive agricultural damage.[3] As an invasive species, it is sometimes erroneously called Chinese guava. [source - retrieved from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cattley_Guava on 1/03/2013]

How this tree and other plants absorb water from the ground. Plants have developed an effective system to absorb, translocate, store, and utilize water. Plants contain a vast network of conduits, which consists of xylem and phloem tissues. These conducting tissues start in the roots and continue up through the trunks of trees, into the branches and then into every leaf. Phloem tissue is made of living elongated cells that are connected to one another and responsible for translocating nutrients and sugars (carbohydrates), which are produced by leaves for energy and growth. The xylem is also composed of elongated cells but once the cells are formed, they die. The walls of the xylem cells still remain intact and serve as an excellent peipline to transport water from the roots to the leaves.

The main driving force of water uptake and transport into a plant is transpiration of water from leaves through specialized openings called stomata. Heat from the sun causes the water to evaporate, setting this ‘water chain’ in motion. The evaporation creates a negative water vapor pressure. Water is pulled into the leaf to replace the water that has transpired from the leaf. This pulling of water, or tension, occurs in the xylem of the leaf. Since the xylem is a continuous water column that extends from the leaf to the roots, this negative water pressure extends into the roots and results in water uptake from the soil. [adapted from: http://www.scientificamerican.com/article.cfm?id=follow-up-how-do-trees-ca ]

Clearly this clever water transport system shows a superior intelligence of the Creator (YHWH).


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Amaranth

Post  Admin on Fri Mar 08, 2013 1:47 pm


Hi Everyone:

Here is a Commentary on Bountiful Trees and Vegetables God (YHWH) has provided for mankind, specifically the Amaranthus species.

Amaranthaceae
Amaranth, Achis, achita, african spinach, amarante, bledos, bondue, bush greens, choito, coimi, coyo, cuime, green leaf, buautli, Indian spinach, Joseph's-coat, kiwicha, livid amaranth, love-lies-bleeding, millmi, pale-seeded amaranth, pigweed, princess-feather, purple amaranth, quintonil, redroot, spinach-grass, Surinam spinach, wild beet, wild blite
Many species are used including:
* Amaranthus atropurpureus - Lal-nati
* A. caudatus - Pendant amaranth, Love-lies-bleeding, Tassel flower
* A. cruentus - Mexican grain amaranth, Purple amaranth, Prince's feather
* A. cruentus x A. powellii - Hopi red-dye, Komo
* A. dubius - Khada sag, Bayam bhaji
* A. graecizans - Prostrate amaranth
* A. hybridus - pigweed, wild beet
* A. hypochondriacas - Guegui, Bledo, Ramdana
* A. lividus - Purple amaranth
* A. mantegazzianus - Quinoa de Castilla
* A. paniculatus - Reuzen amaranth
* A. quitensis - Ataco, Sangorache
* A. retroflexus - Redroot pigweed
* A. spinosus - Blero Spinach, Calaloo, Calalu, Prickly amaranth
* A. tricolor - Tampala, Joseph's coat
* A. viridus - Green amaranth, Bayam hedjo

NewCROP has Amaranth information at:
Non-Shattering Grain Amaranth Populations—D.M. Brenner
Response of Grain Amaranth Production to Density and Fertilization in Tarija, Bolivia—V. Apaza-Gutierrez, A. Romero-Saravia, F.R. Guillén-Portal, and D.D. Baltensperger
Grain Amaranth—Charles S. Kauffman and Leon E. Weber
Amaranth Rediscovered—Gilbert F. Stallknecht and J.R. Schulz-Schaeffer
Amaranth Production in Mexico and Peru—Daniel K. Early
Simply Inherited Genetic Variation in Grain Amaranth (Abstract)—P.A. Kulakow
Hybridization of Grain Amaranths: Implications for Long-term Development (Abstract)—J.W Lehmann and R.L. Clark
Amaranth Intercropping Techniques of Andean Quechua Peasants (Abstract)—Daniel K. Early
Row Spacing and Population Effects on Yield of Grain Amaranth in North Dakota—T.L. Henderson, A.A. Schneiter, and N. Riveland
Amaranth: New Crop Opportunity—Robert L. Myers
Grain Amaranth Harvest Timeliness in Eastern North Dakota—S.A. Fitterer, B.L. Johnson, and A.A. Schneiter
Determining Amaranth and Canola Suitability in Missouri Through Geographic Information Systems Analysis—Robert L. Myers
Field Evaluation of Grain Amaranth in Chile—Marisol Berti, Humberto Serri, Rosemarie Wilckens, and Inés Figueroa
Variability in 'Plainsman' Grain Amaranth—F.R. Guillen-Portal, D.D. Baltensperger, L.A. Nelson, and N. D'Croz-Mason
Plant Population Influence on Yield and Agronomic Traits in 'Plainsman' Grain Amaranth—F.R. Guillen-Portal, D.D. Baltensperger, and L.A. Nelson
Amaranth: Alternative Field Crops Manual, University of Wisconson Cooperative Extension Service, University of Minnesota Extension Service, Center for Alternative Plant & Animal Products
Neglected Crops: 1492 from a Different Perspective. 1994. J.E. Hernándo Bermejo and J. León (eds.).
Amaranthus cruentus, Amaranthus hypochondriacus
Amaranthus caudatus
Vegetable amaranth
Vegetable Amaranths: Cultivar Selection for Summer Production in the South—Ramsey L. Sealy, E.L McWilhams, J. Novak, F. Fong, and C.M. Kenerley
Population Density and Soil pH Effects on Vegetable Amaranth Production—Bharat P. Singh and Wayne F. Whitehead
Management Methods for Producing Vegetable Amaranth—Bharat P. Singh and Wayne F. Whitehead
Evaluation of Tropical Leaf Vegetables in the Virgin Islands—Manuel C. Palada and Stafford M.A. Crossman
New Crops in the U.S. National Plant Germplasm System—Henry L. Shands and George A. White
Chinese Amaranth In: Magness, J.R. et al. 1971. Food and feed crops of the United States.
Blero Spinach In: Magness, J.R. et al. 1971. Food and feed crops of the United States.
Outside links to more Amaranth info:
Kiwicha can be found in Lost Crops of the Incas from National Academy Press
Amaranth Grain Production in Nebraska
All about Amaranths (Chinese Spinach) from Texas A & M University.
(source - retrieved from http://www.hort.purdue.edu/newcrop/nexus/amaranthus_spp_nex.html on 3/8/2013)

And an encyclopedia says, “"Amarantus" redirects here. For the ancient Greek writer, see Amarantus of Alexandria. For other uses, see Amaranth (disambiguation). Amaranthus, collectively known as amaranth, is a cosmopolitan genus of annual or short-lived perennial plants. Catkin-like cymes of densely packed flowers grow in summer or autumn.[1] Approximately 60 species are recognized, with inflorescences and foliage ranging from purple and red to green or gold. Members of this genus share many characteristics and uses with members of the closely related genus Celosia.

Although several species are often considered weeds, people around the world value amaranths as leaf vegetables, cereals, and ornamental plants.
"Amaranth" derives from Greek [2] (amarantos), "unfading," with the Greek word for "flower," ????? (anthos), factoring into the word's development as "amaranth." The more accurate "amarant" is an archaic variant.
Amaranthus shows a wide variety of morphological diversity among and even within certain species. Although the family (Amaranthaceae) is distinctive, the genus has few distinguishing characters among the 70 species included.[3] This complicates taxonomy and Amaranthus has generally been considered among systematists as a "difficult" genus.[4]

Formerly, Sauer (1955) classified the genus into two subgenera, differentiating only between monoecious and dioecious species: Acnida (L.) Aellen ex K.R. Robertson and Amaranthus.[4] Although this classification was widely accepted, further infrageneric classification was (and still is) needed to differentiate this widely diverse group.

Currently, Amaranthus includes three recognized subgenera and 70 species, although species numbers are questionable due to hybridization and species concepts.[5] Infrageneric classification focuses on inflorescence, flower characters and whether a species is monoecious/dioecious, as in the Sauer (1955) suggested classification.[3] A modified infrageneric classification of Amaranthus was published by Mosyakin & Robertson (1996) and includes three subgenera: Acnida, Amaranthus, and Albersia. The taxonomy is further differentiated by sections within each of the subgenera.[6]

Species
* Amaranthus acanthochiton – greenstripe
* Amaranthus acutilobus – sharp-lobe amaranth; is a synonym of Amaranthus viridis[7]
* Amaranthus albus – white pigweed, prostrate pigweed, pigweed amaranth
* Amaranthus arenicola – sandhill amaranth
* Amaranthus australis – southern amaranth
* Amaranthus bigelovii – Bigelow's amaranth
* Amaranthus blitoides – mat amaranth, prostrate amaranth, prostrate pigweed
* Amaranthus blitum – purple amaranth
* Amaranthus brownii – Brown's amaranth
* Amaranthus californicus – California amaranth, California pigweed
* Amaranthus cannabinus – tidal-marsh amaranth
* Amaranthus caudatus – love-lies-bleeding, pendant amaranth, tassel flower, quilete
* Amaranthus chihuahuensis – Chihuahuan amaranth
* Amaranthus chlorostachys
* Amaranthus crassipes – spreading amaranth
* Amaranthus crispus – crispleaf amaranth
* Amaranthus cruentus – purple amaranth, red amaranth, Mexican grain amaranth
* Amaranthus deflexus – large-fruit amaranth
* Amaranthus dubius – spleen amaranth, khada sag
* Amaranthus fimbriatus – fringed amaranth, fringed pigweed
* Amaranthus floridanus – Florida amaranth
* Amaranthus gangeticus – elephant head amaranth
* Amaranthus graecizans
* Amaranthus greggii – Gregg's amaranth
* Amaranthus hybridus – smooth amaranth, smooth pigweed, red amaranth
* Amaranthus hypochondriacus – Prince-of-Wales feather, prince's feather
* Amaranthus leucocarpus
* Amaranthus lineatus – Australian amaranth
* Amaranthus lividus
* Amaranthus mantegazzianus – quinoa de Castilla
* Amaranthus minimus
* Amaranthus muricatus – African amaranth
* Amaranthus obcordatus – Trans-Pecos amaranth
* Amaranthus oleraceous – kosala sag
* Amaranthus palmeri – Palmer's amaranth, Palmer pigweed, careless weed
* Amaranthus paniculus – Reuzen amarant
* Amaranthus polygonoides – tropical amaranth
* Amaranthus powellii – green amaranth, Powell amaranth, Powell pigweed
* Amaranthus pringlei – Pringle's amaranth
* Amaranthus pumilus – seaside amaranth
* Amaranthus quitensis – ataco, sangorache
* Amaranthus retroflexus – red-root amaranth, redroot pigweed, common amaranth
* Amaranthus rudis – tall amaranth, common waterhemp
* Amaranthus scleropoides – bone-bract amaranth
* Amaranthus spinosus – spiny amaranth, prickly amaranth, thorny amaranth
* Amaranthus standleyanus
* Amaranthus thunbergii – Thunberg's amaranth
* Amaranthus torreyi – Torrey's amaranth
* Amaranthus tricolor – Joseph's-coat
* Amaranthus tuberculatus – rough-fruit amaranth, tall waterhemp
* Amaranthus viridis – slender amaranth, green amaranth
* Amaranthus watsonii – Watson's amaranth
* Amaranthus wrightii – Wright's amaranth

Human uses

Amaranth seed
Several species are raised for amaranth "grain" in Asia and the Americas. This should more correctly be termed "pseudograin" (see below).
Ancient amaranth grains still used to this day include the three species, Amaranthus caudatus, Amaranthus cruentus, and Amaranthus hypochondriacus.[8] Although amaranth was cultivated on a large scale in ancient Mexico, Guatemala, and Peru, nowadays it is only cultivated on a small scale there, along with India, China, Nepal, and other tropical countries; thus, there is potential for further cultivation in those countries, as well as in the U.S. In a 1977 article in Science, amaranth was described as "the crop of the future."[9] It has been proposed as an inexpensive native crop that could be cultivated by indigenous people in rural areas for several reasons:

1. It is easily harvested.
2. Its seeds are a good source of protein. Compared to other grains, amaranth is unusually rich in the essential amino acid lysine.[10] Common grains such as wheat and corn are comparatively rich in amino acids that amaranth lacks; thus, amaranth and other grains can complement each other.[11][12][13]
3. The seeds of Amaranthus species contain about thirty percent more protein than cereals like rice, sorghum and rye.[11] In cooked and edible forms, amaranth is competitive with wheat germ and oats - higher in some nutrients, lower in others.[14]
4. It is easy to cook. As befits its weedy life history, amaranth grains grow very rapidly and their large seedheads can weigh up to 1 kilogram and contain a half-million seeds in three species of amaranth.[13]
Kiwicha, as amaranth is known today in the Andes, was one of the staple foodstuffs of the Incas. Known to the Aztecs as huautli, it is thought to have represented up to 80% of their caloric consumption before the conquest. Another important use of amaranth throughout Mesoamerica was to prepare ritual drinks and foods. To this day, amaranth grains are toasted much like popcorn and mixed with honey, molasses or chocolate to make a treat called alegría, meaning "joy" in Spanish. Diego Duran described the festivities for Huitzilopochtli, a blue hummingbird god. (Real hummingbirds feed on amaranth flowers.) The Aztec month of Panquetzaliztli (7 December to 26 December) was dedicated to Huitzilopochtli. People decorated their homes and trees with paper flags; there were ritual races, processions, dances, songs, prayers, and finally human sacrifices. This was one of the more important Aztec festivals, and the people prepared for the whole month. They fasted or ate very little; a statue of the god was made out of amaranth (huautli) seeds and honey, and at the end of the month, it was cut into small pieces so everybody could eat a little piece of the god. After the Spanish conquest, cultivation of amaranth was outlawed, while some of the festivities were subsumed into the Christmas celebration.

Because of its importance as a symbol of indigenous culture, its gluten-free palatability, easy to cook, and its protein particularly well suited to human nutritional needs, interest in grain amaranth (especially A. cruentus and A. hypochondriacus) revived in the 1970s. It was recovered in Mexico from wild varieties and is now commercially cultivated. It is a popular snack sold in Mexico, sometimes mixed with chocolate or puffed rice, and its use has spread to Europe and parts of North America. Amaranth and quinoa are called pseudograins because of their flavor and cooking similarities to grains.

Amaranth seed flour
Amaranth seed flour has been evaluated as an additive to wheat flour by food specialists. To determine palatability, different levels of amaranth grain flour were mixed with the wheat flour and baking ingredients (1% salt, 2.5% fat, 1.5% yeast, 10% sugar and 52–74% water), fermented, molded, pan-proved and baked. The baked products were evaluated for loaf volume, moisture content, color, odor, taste and texture. The amaranth containing products were then compared with bread made from 100% wheat flour. The loaf volume decreased by 40% and the moisture content increased from 22 to 42% with increase in amaranth grain flour. The study found that the sensory scores of the taste, odor color and texture decreased with increasing amounts of amaranth. Generally, above 15% amaranth grain flour, there were significant differences in the evaluated sensory qualities and the high amaranth-containing product was found to be of unacceptable palatability to the population sample that evaluated the baked products.[15]

Leaves, roots, and stems
Amaranth species are cultivated and consumed as a leaf vegetable in many parts of the world. There are four species of Amaranthus documented as cultivated vegetables in eastern Asia: Amaranthus cruentus, Amaranthus blitum, Amaranthus dubius, and Amaranthus tricolor.[16]

In Indonesia and Malaysia, leaf amaranth is called bayam, while the Tagalogs in the Philippines call the plant kilitis or "kulitis". The Ilocanos (Philippines) call it "kalunay". In the state of Uttar Pradesh and Bihar in India, it is called Chaulai and is a popular green leafy vegetable (referred to in the class of vegetable preparations called saag). It is called Chua in Kumaun area of Uttarakhand, where it is a popular red-green vegetable. In Karnataka state in India, it is called Harive It is used to prepare curries like Hulee, palya, Majjigay-hulee and so on. In the state of Kerala, it is called 'Cheera' and is consumed by stir-frying the leaves with spices and red chillies to make 'Cheera Thoran'. In Tamil Nadu State, and is regularly consumed as a favourite dish, where the greens are steamed, and mashed, with light seasoning of salt, red chillis and cumin. It is called keerai masial In Andhra Pradesh this leaf is added in preparation of a popular dal called thotakura pappu (Telugu). In Maharashtra, it is called "Shravani Maath" (literally grown in month of Shravan) and it is available in both red and white colour. In Orissa, it is called "Khada saga", it is used to prepare 'Saga Bhaja', in which the leaf is fried with chillies and onions.

The root of mature amaranth is a popular vegetable. It is white and cooked with tomatoes or tamarind gravy. It has a milky taste and is alkaline.
In China, the leaves and stems are used as a stir-fry vegetable, or in soups, and called ?? (Mandarin Pinyin: xiàncài; Cantonese Jyutping: jin6 coi3) with variations in various dialects). Amaranth greens are believed to help enhance eyesight. In Vietnam, it is called rau d?n and is used to make soup. There are two species popular as edible vegetable in Vietnam: d?n ??- amaranthus tricolor and d?n c?m or d?n tr?ng- amaranthus viridis.

A traditional food plant in Africa, amaranth has the potential to improve nutrition, boost food security, foster rural development and support sustainable land care.[17] In East Africa, amaranth leaf is known in chewa as bonongwe, and in Swahili as mchicha, as terere in Kikuyu, Meru and Embu; and as telele in Kamba. In Bantu regions of Uganda it is known as doodo.[18] It is recommended by some doctors for people having low red blood cell count. It is also known among the Kalenjin as a drought crop (chepkerta). In Lingala (spoken in the Congo), it is known as l?ngal?nga or bít?kut?ku.[19] In Nigeria, it is a common vegetable and goes with all Nigerian starch dishes. It is known in Yoruba as efo tete or arowo jeja (meaning "we have money left over for fish"). In the Caribbean, the leaves are called bhaji in Trinidad and callaloo in Jamaica, and are stewed with onions, garlic and tomatoes, or sometimes used in a soup called pepperpot soup.
In Greece, green amaranth (Amaranthus viridis) is a popular dish and is called vlita or vleeta. It is boiled, then served with olive oil and lemon like a salad, usually alongside fried fish. Greeks stop harvesting the plant (which usually grows wild) when it starts to bloom at the end of August.
In Sri Lanka, it is called "koora thampala". Sri Lankans cook it and eat it with rice. Fiji Indians call it choraiya bhaji.

Dyes
The flowers of the 'Hopi Red Dye' amaranth were used by the Hopi (a tribe in the western United States) as the source of a deep red dye. There is also a synthetic dye that has been named "amaranth" for its similarity in color to the natural amaranth pigments known as betalains. This synthetic dye is also known as Red No. 2 in North America and E123 in the European Union.[20]

Ornamentals
The genus also contains several well-known ornamental plants, such as Amaranthus caudatus (love-lies-bleeding), a native of India and a vigorous, hardy annual with dark purplish flowers crowded in handsome drooping spikes. Another Indian annual, A. hypochondriacus (prince's feather), has deeply veined lance-shaped leaves, purple on the under face, and deep crimson flowers densely packed on erect spikes.

Amaranths are recorded as food plants for some Lepidoptera (butterfly and moth) species including the nutmeg moth and various case-bearer moths of the genus Coleophora: C. amaranthella, C. enchorda (feeds exclusively on Amaranthus), C. immortalis (feeds exclusively on Amaranthus), C. lineapulvella and C. versurella (recorded on A. spinosus).

Nutritional value
Amaranth greens, also called Chau lai (Hindi) and Chu or Chua (Kumauni), Chinese spinach, hinn choy or yin tsoi (simplified Chinese: ??; traditional Chinese: ??; pinyin: xiàncài); callaloo in the Caribbean, dhantinasoppu / harive (Kannada); (Telugu); Rajgira (Marathi); (Tamil); cheera ??? (Malayalam); bayam (Indonesian); phak khom (Thai); tampala, or quelite (Oriya); Khada Saga, are a common leaf vegetable throughout the tropics and in many warm temperate regions.

Cooked amaranth leaves are a good source of vitamin A, vitamin C, and folate; they are also a complementing source of other vitamins such as thiamine, niacin, and riboflavin, plus some dietary minerals including calcium, iron, potassium, zinc, copper, and manganese. Cooked amaranth grains are a complementing source of thiamine, niacin, riboflavin, and folate, and dietary minerals including calcium, iron, magnesium, phosphorus, zinc, copper, and manganese - comparable to common grains such as wheat germ, oats and others.[14]

Amaranth seeds contain lysine, an essential amino acid, limited in other grains or plant sources.[21] Most fruits and vegetables do not contain a complete set of amino acids, and thus different sources of protein must be used. Amaranth too is limited in some essential amino acids, such as leucine and threonine.[22][23] Amaranth seeds are therefore promising complement to common grains such as wheat germ, oats, corn because these common grains are abundant sources of essential amino acids found to be limited in amaranth.[24][25]
Amaranth may be a promising source of protein to those who are gluten sensitive, because unlike the protein found in grains such as wheat and rye, its protein does not contain gluten.[26] According to a 2007 report, amaranth compares well in nutrient content with gluten-free vegetarian options such as buckwheat, corn, millet, wild rice, oats and quinoa.[27][28]

Several studies have shown that like oats, amaranth seed or oil may be of benefit for those with hypertension and cardiovascular disease; regular consumption reduces blood pressure and cholesterol levels, while improving antioxidant status and some immune parameters.[29][30][31] While the active ingredient in oats appears to be water-soluble fiber, amaranth appears to lower cholesterol via its content of plant stanols and squalene.

Amaranth remains an active area of scientific research for both human nutritional needs and foraging applications. Over 100 scientific studies suggest a somewhat conflicting picture on possible anti-nutritional and toxic factors in amaranth, more so in some particular strains of amaranth. Lehmann, in a review article, identifies some of these reported anti-nutritional factors in amaranth to be phenolics, saponins, tannins, phytic acid, oxalates, protease inhibitors, nitrates, polyphenols and phytohemagglutinins.[32] Of these, oxalates and nitrates are of more concern when amaranth grain is used in foraging applications. Some studies suggest thermal processing of amaranth, particularly in moist environment, prior to its preparation in food and human consumption may be a promising way to reduce the adverse effects of amaranth's anti-nutritional and toxic factors.

As a weed
Not all amaranth plants are cultivated. Most of the species from Amaranthus are summer annual weeds and are commonly referred to as pigweeds.[33] These species have an extended period of germination, rapid growth, and high rates of seed production,[33] and have been causing problems for farmers since the mid-1990s. This is partially due to the reduction in tillage, reduction in herbicidal use and the evolution of herbicidal resistance in several species where herbicides have been applied more often.[34] The following 9 species of Amaranthus are considered invasive and noxious weeds in the U.S and Canada: A. albus, A. blitoides, A. hybridus, A. palmeri, A. powellii, A. retroflexus, A. spinosus, A. tuberculatus, and A. viridis.[35]

A new herbicide-resistant strain of Amaranthus palmeri has appeared; it is Glyphosate-resistant and so cannot be killed by the widely used Roundup herbicide. Also, this plant can survive in tough conditions. This could be of particular concern to cotton farmers using Roundup Ready cotton.[36] The species Amaranthus palmeri (Palmer amaranth) causes the greatest reduction in soybean yields and has the potential to reduce yields by 17-68% in field experiments.[33] Palmer amaranth is among the "top five most troublesome weeds" in the southeast of the United States and has already evolved resistances to dinitroanilines and acetolactate synthase inhibitors.[37] This makes the proper identification of Amaranthus species at the seedling stage essential for agriculturalists. Proper weed control needs to be applied before the species successfully colonizes in the crop field and causes significant yield reductions.

Beneficial weed
Pigweed can be a beneficial weed, as well as a companion plant, serving as a trap for leaf miners and some other pests, as well as sheltering ground beetles (which prey upon insect pests) and breaking up hard soil for more delicate neighboring plants.

Seed saving
There are a multitude of varieties which cross with one another very easily. Even some species have been found to cross with one another e.g. Amaranthus caudatus and Amaranthus hypochondriacus. For most types, flowering occurs as the days become shorter.

Being wind-pollinated, they will cross with one another if less than 400 metres apart at flowering time. The seed heads mature gradually from bottom to top. Careful selection is needed every time a plant is chosen for seed. Inferior individuals should be rogued, or pulled out, before they can flower and pollinate better plants.

To maximise seed harvest, shake the near-mature seed heads into a paper bag or onto a canvas. If the growing area is large, it is faster to cut the heads all at once when most of the seeds are ripe. The fully ripened heads tend to drop their seeds.

Dry for a week and thresh the heads with gloved hands or feet on canvas as the chaff is somewhat prickly. The seeds may be lost when winnowing because the chaff and seeds are of similar size and the seeds are of a light weight. If you heap uncleaned seeds in a bowl and toss them, the light debris will concentrate on the top and can be blown away. Repeat this until only seeds remain.[38]

References
1. ^ RHS A-Z encyclopedia of garden plants. United Kingdom: Dorling Kindersley. 2008. pp. 1136. ISBN 1405332964.
2. ^ Liddell & Scott, A Greek-English Lexicon, s.v. ?????????
3. ^ a b Juan et al. (2007). "Electrophoretic characterization of Amaranthus L. seed proteins and its systematic implication". Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 155: 57–63. doi:10.1111/j.1095-8339.2007.00665.x.
4. ^ a b Costea M, DeMason D (2001). "Stem morphology and anatomy in Amaranthus L. (Amaranthaceae)- Taxonomic significance". Journal of the Torrey Botanical Society 128 (3): 254–281. doi:10.2307/3088717.
5. ^ Judd et al. (2008). Plant Systematics: A Phylogenetic Approach, Third Edition. Sinauer Associates, Inc. Sunderland, MA
6. ^ Mosyakin & Robertson (1996). "New infrageneric taxa and combinations in Amaranthus (Amaranthaceae)". Ann. Bot. Fennici 33: 275–281.
7. ^ The Plant List - Amaranthus acutilobus
8. ^ Costea et al. (2006). Delimitation of A. cruentus L. and A. caudatus L. using micromorphology and AFLP analysis: an application in germplasm identification. Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution 53: 1625-1633.
9. ^ Marx (1977). Speaking of Science: Amaranth: A Comeback for the Food of the Aztecs? Science 198(4312): 40.
10. ^ http://foodwiki.com/vprotein/default/chart?combo=1059
11. ^ a b De Macvean & Pöll (1997). Chapter 8: Ethnobotany. Tropical Tree Seed Manual, USDA Forest Service, edt. J.A Vozzo.
12. ^ http://foodwiki.com/vprotein/default/index?filter=all+foods&opt=maximize+efficiency&protein=25.0&q=Amaranth%2C+uncooked
13. ^ a b Tucker, J. (1986). Amaranth: the once and future crop. Bioscience 36(1): 9-13.
14. ^ a b "USDA nutrient database, search for: cooked amaranth, wheat germ, oats". http://www.nal.usda.gov/fnic/foodcomp/search/.
15. ^ Jerome Ayo (2001). "THE EFFECT OF AMARANTH GRAIN FLOUR ON THE QUALITY OF BREAD". International Journal of Food Properties 4 (2). doi:10.1081/JFP-100105198. http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1081/JFP-100105198.
16. ^ Costea (2003). Notes on Economic Plants. Economic Botany 57(4): 646-649
17. ^ "Amaranth". Lost Crops of Africa: Volume II: Vegetables. Lost Crops of Africa. 2. National Academies Press. 2006-10-27. ISBN 978-0-309-10333-6. OCLC 79635740 34344933 79635740. http://books.nap.edu/openbook.php?record_id=11763&page=35. Retrieved 2008-07-15.
18. ^ Goode,. Edible plants of Uganda. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.
19. ^ Enama, M. (1994). "Culture: The missing nexus in ecological economics perspective". Ecological Economics 10 (10): 93–95. doi:10.1016/0921-8009(94)00010-7.
20. ^ "The following color additives are not authorized for use in food products in the United States: (1) Amaranth (C.I. 16185, EEC No. E123, formerly certifiable as FD&C red No. 2);" FDA/CFSAN Food Compliance Program: Domestic Food Safety Program
21. ^ Reference Library | WholeHealthMD
22. ^ Ricardo Bressani, Luiz G. Elias and Arnoldo Garcia-Soto (1989). "Limiting amino acids in raw and processed amaranth grain protein from biological tests". Plant foods for human nutrition (Kluwer Academic Publishers) 39 (3): 223–234. doi:10.1007/BF01091933.
23. ^ Kaufmann Weber et al (1998). "Advances in New Crops". Purdue University. http://www.hort.purdue.edu/newcrop/proceedings1990/v1-TOC.html.
24. ^ "Chemical Composition of the Above-ground Biomass of Amaranthus cruentus and A. hypochondriacus". ACTA VET. BRNO 75: 133–138. 2006. http://actavet.vfu.cz/pdf/200675010133.pdf.
25. ^ "Amaranth - Alternative Field Crops Manual". University of Wisconsin & University of Minneasota. http://www.hort.purdue.edu/newcrop/afcm/amaranth.html. Retrieved September 2011.
26. ^ 10 Reasons to Use Amaranth in Your Gluten-Free Recipes, by Teri Gruss, URL accessed Oct 2009.
27. ^ "The gluten-free vegetarian". Practical Gastroenterology: 94–106. May 2007. http://www.practicalgastro.com/pdf/May07/May07PaganoArticle.pdf.
28. ^ Gallagher, E.; T. R. Gormley, E. K. Arendt. "Recent advances in the formulation of gluten-free cereal-based products". Trends in Food Science & Technology 15 (3-4): 143–152. doi:10.1016/j.tifs.2003.09.012. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0924224403002590. Retrieved 2011-06-26.
29. ^ Czerwi?ski J, Bartnikowska E, Leontowicz H, et al. (Oct 2004). "Oat (Avena sativa L.) and amaranth (Amaranthus hypochondriacus) meals positively affect plasma lipid profile in rats fed cholesterol-containing diets". J. Nutr. Biochem. 15 (10): 622–9. doi:10.1016/j.jnutbio.2004.06.002. PMID 15542354.
30. ^ Gonor KV, Pogozheva AV, Derbeneva SA, Mal'tsev GIu, Trushina EN, Mustafina OK (2006). "[The influence of a diet with including amaranth oil on antioxidant and immune status in patients with ischemic heart disease and hyperlipoproteidemia]" (in Russian). Vopr Pitan 75 (6): 30–3. PMID 17313043.
31. ^ Martirosyan DM, Miroshnichenko LA, Kulakova SN, Pogojeva AV, Zoloedov VI (2007). "Amaranth oil application for coronary heart disease and hypertension". Lipids Health Dis 6: 1. doi:10.1186/1476-511X-6-1. PMC 1779269. PMID 17207282. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1779269/.
32. ^ "Legacy - The Official Newsletter of Amaranth Institute; see pages 6-9". Amaranth Institute. 1992. http://www.ars-grin.gov/ars/MidWest/Ames/repository/oldsitearchive/Reports_New/Special_Reports/Amaranth/Legacy92.pdf.
33. ^ a b c Bensch et al. (2003). Interference of redroot pigweed (Amaranthus retroflexus), Palmer amaranth (A. palmeri), and common waterhemp (A. rudis) in soybean. Weed Science 51: 37-43.
34. ^ Wetzel et al. (1999). Use of PCR-based molecular markers to identify weedy Amaranthus species. Weed Science 47: 518-523.
35. ^ USDA Plant Database. Plants Profile- Amaranthus L
36. ^ Herbicide Resistant Weeds Causing Problems for US Cotton Growers
37. ^ Culpepper et al. (2006). Glyphosate-resistant Palmer amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri) confirmed in Georgia. Weed Science 54: 620-626.
38. ^ Fanton M., Fanton J. (1993). Seed Savers' Handbook. pp. 53-54.
39. ^ Aesopica site
40. ^ http://www.bartleby.com/126/35.html (source - retrieved from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Amaranth on 3/8/2013)
In Genesis 1:11-13, "And God said, Let the earth put forth grass, herbs yielding seed, and fruit-trees bearing fruit after their kind, wherein is the seed thereof, upon the earth: and it was so. 12 And the earth brought forth grass, herbs yielding seed after their kind, and trees bearing fruit, wherein is the seed thereof, after their kind: and God saw that it was good. 13 And there was evening and there was morning, a third day. (American Standard Version, ASV)[for more details, go to www.jw.org].

Personally, I prefer Chinese Giant Orange Amaranth over all other varieties. Its leaves when picked before they grow old taste very much lick spinach, and the grain heads produce much grain. I use the grain in soups, casseroles, stews, salads, and other items.

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the Broccoli

Post  Admin on Sun Mar 10, 2013 5:46 pm

Hi Everyone:

Here is a Commentary on Bountiful Trees and Vegetables God (YHWH) has provided for mankind, specifically the Broccoli is a plant in the cabbage family, whose large flower head is used as a vegetable. The word broccoli, from the Italian plural of broccolo, refers to "the flowering top of a cabbage".[3] Broccoli is usually boiled or steamed but may be eaten raw and has become popular as a raw vegetable in hors d'œuvre trays. The leaves may also be eaten.[4]
Broccoli is classified in the Italica cultivar group of the species Brassica oleracea. Broccoli has large flower heads, usually green in color, arranged in a tree-like structure on branches sprouting from a thick, edible stalk. The mass of flower heads is surrounded by leaves. Broccoli most closely resembles cauliflower, which is a different cultivar group of the same species.
Broccoli was derived from cultivated leafy cole crops in the Northern Mediterranean in about the 6th century BCE.[5] Since the Roman Empire, broccoli has been considered a uniquely valuable food among Italians.[6] Broccoli was brought to England from Antwerp in the mid-18th century by Peter Scheemakers.[7] Broccoli was first introduced to the United States by Italian immigrants but did not become widely known there until the 1920s.[8]
Although this vegetable is NOT rare, I am dealing with detailing it due to its important anti-carcinogenic properties that all need to know about.

In Genesis 1:11-13, "And God said, Let the earth put forth grass, herbs yielding seed, and fruit-trees bearing fruit after their kind, wherein is the seed thereof, upon the earth: and it was so. 12 And the earth brought forth grass, herbs yielding seed after their kind, and trees bearing fruit, wherein is the seed thereof, after their kind: and God saw that it was good. 13 And there was evening and there was morning, a third day. (American Standard Version, ASV)[for more details, go to www.jw.org].

Broccoli is high in vitamin C, as well as dietary fiber; it also contains multiple nutrients with potent anti-cancer properties, such as diindolylmethane and small amounts of selenium.[9] A single serving provides more than 30 mg of vitamin C and a half-cup provides 52 mg of vitamin C.[10] The 3,3'-Diindolylmethane found in broccoli is a potent modulator of the innate immune response system with anti-viral, anti-bacterial and anti-cancer activity.[11][12] Broccoli also contains the compound glucoraphanin, which can be processed into an anti-cancer compound sulforaphane, though the benefits of broccoli are greatly reduced if the vegetable is boiled.[13] Broccoli is also an excellent source of indole-3-carbinol, a chemical which boosts DNA repair in cells and appears to block the growth of cancer cells.[14][15]
Boiling broccoli reduces the levels of suspected anti-carcinogenic compounds, such as sulforaphane, with losses of 20–30% after five minutes, 40–50% after ten minutes, and 77% after thirty minutes.[13] However, other preparation methods such as steaming,[16] microwaving, and stir frying had no significant effect on the compounds.[13]
Broccoli has the highest levels of carotenoids in the brassica family.[17] It is particularly rich in lutein and also provides a modest amount of beta-carotene.[17]
A high intake of broccoli has been found to reduce the risk of aggressive prostate cancer.[18] Broccoli consumption may also help prevent heart disease.[19]
Broccoli sprouts are often suggested for their health benefits.[citation needed]
Varieties
There are three commonly grown types of broccoli. The most familiar is Calabrese broccoli, often referred to simply as "broccoli", named after Calabria in Italy. It has large (10 to 20 cm) green heads and thick stalks. It is a cool season annual crop. Sprouting broccoli has a larger number of heads with many thin stalks. Purple cauliflower is a type of broccoli sold in southern Italy, Spain, and the United Kingdom. It has a head shaped like cauliflower, but consisting of tiny flower buds. It sometimes, but not always, has a purple cast to the tips of the flower buds.
Other cultivar groups of Brassica oleracea include cabbage (Capitata Group), cauliflower and Romanesco broccoli (Botrytis Group), kale and collard greens (Acephala Group), kohlrabi (Gongylodes Group), and Brussels sprouts (Gemmifera Group). Chinese broccoli (Alboglabra Group) is also a cultivar group of Brassica oleracea.[20] Rapini, sometimes called "broccoli rabe" among other names, forms similar but smaller heads, and is actually a type of turnip (Brassica rapa). Broccolini or "Tender Stem Broccoli" is a cross between broccoli and Chinese broccoli.
Cultivation
Broccoli is a cool-weather crop that does poorly in hot summer weather. Broccoli grows best when exposed to an average daily temperature between 18 and 23 °C (64 and 73 °F).[21] When the cluster of flowers, also referred to as a "head" of broccoli, appear in the center of the plant, the cluster is green. Garden pruners or shears are used to cut the head about an inch from the tip. Broccoli should be harvested before the flowers on the head bloom bright yellow.[22]
References
1. ^ Buck, P. A (1956). "Origin and taxonomy of broccoli". Economic Botany 10 (3): 250–253. Retrieved 2012-04-24.
2. ^ Stephens, James. "Broccoli—Brassica oleracea L. (Italica group)". University of Florida. p. 1. Retrieved 2009-05-14.
3. ^ "broccoli". Merriam-Webster's Collegiate Dictionary (11th ed.). p. 156. ISBN 978-0-87779-809-5. Retrieved 24 August 2009.
4. ^ "Broccoli Leaves Are Edible". Retrieved 12 October 2012.
5. ^ Maggioni, Lorenzo; von Bothmer., R., Poulesen, G., Branca, F. (2010). "Origin and Domestication of Cole Crops (Brassica oleracea L.): Linguistic and Literary Considerations". Economic Botany 64 (2): 109–123.
6. ^ Nonnecke, Ib (November 1989). Vegetable Production. Springer-Verlag New York, LLC. p. 394. ISBN 978-0-442-26721-6.
7. ^ Smith,J.T. Nollekins and His Times, 1829 vol. 2:101: "Scheemakers, on his way to England, visited his birth-place, bringing with him several roots [sic] of brocoli, a dish till then little known in perfection at our tables."
8. ^ Denker, Joel (2003). The world on a plate. U of Nebraska Press. p. 8. ISBN 978-0-8032-6014-6. Retrieved 24 April 2012.
9. ^ "WHFoods: Broccoli". George Mateljan Foundation. Retrieved 2009-05-11.
10. ^ Understanding Nutrition, Eleanor N. Whitney and Eva M. N. Hamilton, Table H, supplement, page 373 Table 1, ISBN 0-8299-0419-0
11. ^ "Diindolylmethane Information Resource Center at the University of California, Berkeley". Retrieved 2007-06-10.
12. ^ "Diindolylmethane Immune Activation Data Center". Retrieved 2007-06-10.
13. ^ a b c Warwick Medical School, University of Warwick (15 May 2007). "Research Says Boiling Broccoli Ruins Its Anti Cancer Properties.".
14. ^ "Broccoli chemical's cancer check". BBC News. 7 February 2006. Retrieved 5 September 2010.
15. ^ "How Dietary Supplement May Block Cancer Cells". Science Daily. 30 June 2010. Retrieved 5 September 2010.
16. ^ "Maximizing The Anti-Cancer Power of Broccoli". Science Daily. 5 April 2005.
17. ^ a b "Breeding Better Broccoli: Research Points To Pumped Up Lutein Levels In Broccoli". Science Daily. 8 November 2009. Retrieved 5 September 2010.
18. ^ Kirsh, VA; Peters U, Mayne ST, Subar AF, Chatterjee N, Johnson CC, Hayes RB (2007). "Prospective study of fruit and vegetable intake and risk of prostate cancer". Journal of the National Cancer Institute 99 (15): 1200–9. doi:10.1093/jnci/djm065. PMID 17652276.
19. ^ Clout, Laura (5 September 2009). "Broccoli beats heart disease". Daily Express. Retrieved 5 September 2009.
20. ^ Dixon, G.R. (2007). Vegetable brassicas and related crucifers. Wallingford: CABI. ISBN 978-0-85199-395-9.
21. ^ Smith, Powell (June 1999). "HGIC 1301 Broccoli". Clemson University. Retrieved 25 August 2009.
22. ^ Liptay, Albert (source - retrieved from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Broccoli on 3/7/2013)
Note: Per reference #4, the leaves of Broccoli are edible as one would suspect since it is a member of the cabbage family of plants. This is important since the leaves can be used in place of cabbage in soups and other dishes.
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the Annona scleroderma

Post  Admin on Thu Mar 14, 2013 11:13 am

Hi Everyone:

Here is a Commentary on Bountiful Trees and Vegetables God (YHWH) has provided for mankind, specifically the Annona scleroderma, Family: Annonaceae, common names Posh-te, Cawesh, Poshte, Origin: Honduras, Guatemala

A. scleroderma is a tall tree which reaches 15 to 20 m and has tough, lanceolate leaves measuring 10 to 25 x 5 to 8 cm. They are shiny on the upper side, slightly pubescent on the underside and have fragile, 3 cm long petioles. The flowers are greenish yellow, the outer petals have a longitudinal prominence which arises in the small branches or in groups in the old part of the thick branches. The cream-colored flesh has a creamy banana-pineapple like flavor and a soft texture. Said to be one of the most flavorful and refreshing Annona's, but the poshe-te is still elusive outside its native range. This round fruit, relatively little known has a rich aromatic and delicious flavor. The fruit is the size of an orange and has a dull green surface with perfectly textured pulp. Unlike some other Annonas, the pulp is not fibrous. The tough skin allows it to be handled easily and makes it resistant to insect attack. The trees should be pruned so that a wide crown remains to facilitate fruit harvesting. This also reduces exposure to wind and bird damage.
[source - retrieved from http://toptropicals.com/catalog/uid/Annona_scleroderma.htm on 1/03/2013]

This Annona, the Cawesh, is extremely rare and is very little known, but has one of the finest flavors of any fruit in the world.

To see a picture of the fruit which resembles a sugar apple, go to http://eol.org/pages/1054874/overview

In Genesis 1:11-13, "And God said, Let the earth put forth grass, herbs yielding seed, and fruit-trees bearing fruit after their kind, wherein is the seed thereof, upon the earth: and it was so. 12 And the earth brought forth grass, herbs yielding seed after their kind, and trees bearing fruit, wherein is the seed thereof, after their kind: and God saw that it was good. 13 And there was evening and there was morning, a third day. (American Standard Version, ASV)[for more details, go to www.jw.org].

More on the Annona liebmanniana, more widely known under the synonym Annona scleroderma, is a species in the Annonaceae family, with an edible fruit the size of an orange. Common names include cawesh and posh-té (also spelled poshte or poshe-te). Related species include cherimoya (A. cherimola) and sugar-apple (A. squamosa); paw paw (Asimina triloba) is also in the family. The species is native to the Atlantic coast of Central America, from Mexico and Guatemala to Honduras, where it grows at altitudes under 1,230 meters (4,000 feet) and is locally important, but not widely cultivated outside of Guatemala, although it is sometimes grafted onto root stock from other species and grown in Australia (FAO 1994). Seeds are available through various tropical fruit specialty catalogs in Hawaii and elsewhere. Cawesh trees grow to a larger size than other annonas, up to 20 m (65 feet), which makes fruit harder to harvest than in the other species (FAO 1994, Popenoe 1920), although the trees are more productive. The evergreen or semi-deciduous leaves are large, thick, and leathery, up to 25 cm (10 inches) long and 8 cm (3 inches) wide. The fruit, which is produced starting when the tree reaches four years of age, is oblong, roughly 7 cm (3 inches) in diameter, with a relatively thin but tough exocarp, or skin (0.6 cm, or ¼ inch), which makes the fruit relatively insect resistant and easy to handle without bruising. The fruit’s cream-colored flesh has a pleasant aroma creamy banana-pineapple flavor, and a soft texture. It is generally eaten fresh or pulp can be used to make beverages (FAO 1994, Mansfield 2011) [source - retrieved from http://eol.org/pages/1054874/overview on 1/03/2013] .

How this tree and other plants absorb water from the ground. Plants have developed an effective system to absorb, translocate, store, and utilize water. Plants contain a vast network of conduits, which consists of xylem and phloem tissues. These conducting tissues start in the roots and continue up through the trunks of trees, into the branches and then into every leaf. Phloem tissue is made of living elongated cells that are connected to one another and responsible for translocating nutrients and sugars (carbohydrates), which are produced by leaves for energy and growth. The xylem is also composed of elongated cells but once the cells are formed, they die. The walls of the xylem cells still remain intact and serve as an excellent peipline to transport water from the roots to the leaves.

The main driving force of water uptake and transport into a plant is transpiration of water from leaves through specialized openings called stomata. Heat from the sun causes the water to evaporate, setting this ‘water chain’ in motion. The evaporation creates a negative water vapor pressure. Water is pulled into the leaf to replace the water that has transpired from the leaf. This pulling of water, or tension, occurs in the xylem of the leaf. Since the xylem is a continuous water column that extends from the leaf to the roots, this negative water pressure extends into the roots and results in water uptake from the soil. [adapted from: http://www.scientificamerican.com/article.cfm?id=follow-up-how-do-trees-ca ]

Clearly this clever water transport system shows a superior intelligence of the Creator (YHWH).


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Cecropia peltata

Post  Admin on Sun Mar 17, 2013 6:10 pm


Hi Everyone:

Here is a Commentary on Bountiful Trees and Vegetables God (YHWH) has provided for mankind, specifically the Cecropia peltata and its closely related species. Cecropia is a genus of about 25 species of trees in the nettle family (Urticaceae). They are native to the tropical Americas, where they form one of the most recognisable components of the rainforest. The genus is named after Cecrops I, the mythical first king of Athens. A common local name is yarumo or yagrumo, or more specifically yagrumo hembra ("female yagrumo") to distinguish them from the similar-looking but unrelated Schefflera (which are called yagrumo macho, "male yagrumo"). In English, these trees are occasionally called pumpwoods (though this may also refer to C. schreberiana specifically) or simply cecropias.

In the past, they were commonly placed in a distinct family Cecropiaceae or in the mulberry family (Moraceae), but the modern Angiosperm Phylogeny Group system places the "cecropiacean" group in the Urticaceae.

The genus is easily identified by the large, circular, palmately lobed leaves, about 30–40 cm in diameter and deeply divided into 7-11 lobes.
Ecology and uses

These tree are a characteristic feature of many American tropical rainforest ecosystems and may be among the dominant tree species in some places. Being aggressive, rapid growth trees, whose succulent fruits are readily sought by various animals, they tend to be among the first pioneer species to occupy former forest areas cleared for pasture or altered by human activity[1].Cecropia hololeuca, known in Brazil as "silver cecropia", has broad, silver-hue leaves that make it to be used as an ornamental plant for landscaping projects, as is the case also with the similar species C. pachystachya.

Cecropia species are used as food plants by the larvae of some Lepidoptera species, including the arctiid moth Hypercompe icasia; the Cecropia Moth (Hyalophora cecropia) is a North American species however, and thus allopatric with the plant genus. The leaves and buds are also eaten by sloths. as their main source of food. But many herbivores avoid these plants: most Cecropia are myrmecophytes, housing dolichoderine ants of the genus Azteca, which will vigorously defend their hostplant against getting eaten. This symbiosis has been studied extensively by biologists such as Daniel Janzen.

Cecropia fruit, known as snake fingers, are a popular food of diverse animals however, including bats like the Common Fruit Bat (Artibeus jamaicensis) or Carollia species, the Central American Squirrel Monkey (Saimiri oerstedii), and birds like the Green Aracari (Pteroglossus viridis), the Keel-billed Toucan (Ramphastos sulfuratus), the Peach-fronted Conure (Aratinga Aurea), the Bare-throated Bellbird (Procnias nudicollis)[4] and particularly nine-primaried oscines[5]. The seeds are not normally digested and thus these animals are important in distributing the trees. Some birds – e.g. the Lesser Potoo (Nyctibius griseus) – nest in Cecropia trees. The Elfin-woods Warbler (Dendroica angelae) is notable for using Cecropia leaves as nesting material, which no other New World warbler (family Parulidae) seems to do.

Red Cecropia (C. glaziovii) shows antidepressant-like activity in rats[6]. Native peoples use Cecropia for food, firewood, and in herbalism; some species also have cultural significance. On Trinidad and Tobago, Shield-leaved Pumpwood (C. peltata) root is chewed and given to dogs that have been bitten by poisonous snakes as an emergency remedy. Cecropia leaves can be used as a substitute for sandpaper. In western South America, Cecropia leaf ash is used in the traditional preparation of ypadu, a mild coca-based stimulant. Cecropia bark can be used in rope making as well as in tannery. Cecropia wood is used in the manufacture of boxes, toys, aeromodelling models and rafts. [source - retrieved from http://www.thefullwiki.org/Cecropia on 1/03/2013]

In Genesis 1:11-13, "And God said, Let the earth put forth grass, herbs yielding seed, and fruit-trees bearing fruit after their kind, wherein is the seed thereof, upon the earth: and it was so. 12 And the earth brought forth grass, herbs yielding seed after their kind, and trees bearing fruit, wherein is the seed thereof, after their kind: and God saw that it was good. 13 And there was evening and there was morning, a third day. (American Standard Version, ASV)[for more details, go to www.jw.org].

Description
Trumpet tree is an awkwardly branched, open-crowned tree with alternate leaves about a foot (30 cm) wide clustered at tips of inwardly curving stems. It can grow to 70 ft (21 m) tall, but most trees are much smaller. The leaves have 7-11 palmate lobes and are borne on long petioles which attach near the center of the leaf. Leaves are rough-textured and dark green above and felty white underneath. The smooth gray bark on young trees is ringed with leaf scars. The flowers are small inconspicuous yellow catkins. They are followed by numerous small seeds embedded in 3 in (7.5 cm) long soft-fleshed fruiting stems. Prop roots sometimes develop at the base of the tree. Cecropia peltata is often confused with C. palmata, which has leaves divided almost to the base (as opposed to a third of the way in) and longer fruits. C. peltata may also be mistaken for Didymopanax morototoni, an unrelated lookalike tree.

Culture
These are fast growing, short-lived trees. Young specimens can put on 2-3 in (5-8 cm) diameter per year. They need fertile soil to grow well and dislike competition from lawn grasses.

Light: Trumpet tree does best in full sun.

Moisture: These trees grow best on well drained soils with ample moisture.
Hardiness: USDA Zones 10 - 11. This is a very frost sensitive tree that throws a dramatic tantrum and flings big brown leaves all around when it gets chilled.

Propagation: Trumpet tree can be propagated from seed, but the seeds germinate slowly. In the wild, the seeds are dispersed by bats and birds.

Usage
Cecropias are widely planted for tropical landscape effects. The young buds may be eaten as a cooked vegetable. The corrosive and astringent latex is used against warts, calluses, herpes, ulcers, dysentery, and venereal diseases. The leaves of both Cecropia peltata and C. palmata are used in herbal medicine under the name "embauba leaf." A tea made from the leaves is widely employed as a cure for asthma and thought to be useful in treating a wide variety of other ailments including liver disease, cardiovascular problems, Parkinson's disease, and snakebite. It also is used to ease childbirth and menstrual complaints. The trumpet tree's main trunk is solid and composed of a soft, weak, brittle, lightweight wood. It is combined with cement to make insulation board and made into excelsior, matchsticks, crates, toys, partitions, and paper pulp. The wood ignites readily from friction and makes good tinder. A latex rubber is made from the milky sap and the inner bark yields a coarse fiber. The leaves are sometimes used as sandpaper. The hollow stems have been fashioned into musical instruments, fishing floats, life preservers, water troughs, gutters, and bottle "corks." The dead leaves dry dark mahogany brown above and white beneath, and curl into interesting sculptural forms which can be used in dried arrangements.

Features
In addition to providing quick (though patchy) shade and tropical atmosphere, the trumpet tree makes a fine ecological conversation piece. In the tree's native habitat biting ants live in the hollow stems. In a mutually beneficial relationship, the small but fierce ants clean the tree of debris and protect it from leaf-cutter ants and other herbivores, while the tree provides the ants with shelter and food in the form of special food-bodies produced along the undersides of the leaf stems. [source - retrieved from http://www.floridata.com/ref/c/cecr_pel.cfm on 1/03/2013]

Seed Production and Dissemination
Although as many as 15,000 flowers may be produced per inflorescence, the number of seeds that mature fully may be as low as 18 percent, or 2,725 viable seeds per inflorescence. Seed production by a mature tree during one reproductive year has been estimated to be as high as I million (13,26). Seed production is size or age specific, however, and increases throughout the lifetime of the tree. In an estimated life span of 30 years, as many as 6 to 7 million seeds may be produced by a single tree. Reproductive maturity is reached at an earlier age, 3 or 4 years by pistillate than by staminate trees, which mature at 4 to 5 years. Reproductive age may depend upon need for allocation of resources to rapid initial height growth and therefore the height and proximity to surrounding vegetation. Roadside trees, in a more open environment, reached reproductive maturity sooner (3 to 4 years) than forest gap trees (5 to 6 years) (26). Seed production probably decreases as a tree approaches the senescent state. In this stage there appears to be an increase in branch loss.

Seeds are dispersed primarily by bats and birds (3,7,11,18,24); seeds pass through the digestive tracts unharmed (24). In Puerto Rico, 15 species of birds and bats have been reported to feed on mature yagrumo hembra fruit. Some of the more common species include the Jamaican fruit eating bat, the banana quit, the pearly-eyed thrasher, the red-legged thrush, and the reina mora (18,26).
These species frequent both open and forested areas, so that seeds are dispersed widely and are available in forest soil in the event of a disturbance (12). As many as 398 seeds per square meter (37/ft²) have been reported to be present in undisturbed lower montane rain forest soil (2,26). Blum (3) reported that yagrumo hembra seedlings grew in 4 to 10 soil samples taken from mature forests in Panama. Other secondary species such as yagrumo macho, cachimbo comun (Psychotria berteriana), and guano were also present in these soils.
Seeds may also be dispersed when the entire fruit cluster falls to the ground upon ripening, but these seeds show a reduced viability as the embryos are damaged by fungi and insects of the family Nitidulidae. Laboratory- stored seeds retained viability for a minimum of 6 months, whereas seeds stored on the forest floor retained viability for only 2 to 3 months. This reduced viability under natural conditions indicates that a constant addition of seeds to the seed bank of the forest floor is necessary for rapid and successful colonization of a forest gap.

Seedling Development-
Seeds require full sunlight for successful germination. Thus, seeds present on the floor of closed forests germinate only when some type of canopy gap occurs. Given full light conditions, germination may be as high as 80 to 90 percent (3,16,26). Germination is epigeal and in an open field was shown to be reduced by the presence of a layer of leaf litter. Other factors that may interact with increased light intensity in promoting germination include higher surface soil temperatures, fluctuations in air temperature, and changes in soil moisture. With the decreased light intensity beneath the closed forest canopy, spectral composition (an increased proportion of infrared light) may also become critical to germination (26). A decreased ratio of infrared to red light has been shown to inhibit germination of successional species. In open fields there was less yagrumo hembra seed germination than was observed in light gaps. This may result from the extremely high and fluctuating surface soil temperatures or to fluctuating but frequently low soil moisture, or both [source - retrieved from http://www.na.fs.fed.us/spfo/pubs/silvics_manual/volume_2/cecropia/peltata.htm on 1/03/2013]

How this tree and other plants absorb water from the ground. Plants have developed an effective system to absorb, translocate, store, and utilize water. Plants contain a vast network of conduits, which consists of xylem and phloem tissues. These conducting tissues start in the roots and continue up through the trunks of trees, into the branches and then into every leaf. Phloem tissue is made of living elongated cells that are connected to one another and responsible for translocating nutrients and sugars (carbohydrates), which are produced by leaves for energy and growth. The xylem is also composed of elongated cells but once the cells are formed, they die. The walls of the xylem cells still remain intact and serve as an excellent peipline to transport water from the roots to the leaves.

The main driving force of water uptake and transport into a plant is transpiration of water from leaves through specialized openings called stomata. Heat from the sun causes the water to evaporate, setting this ‘water chain’ in motion. The evaporation creates a negative water vapor pressure. Water is pulled into the leaf to replace the water that has transpired from the leaf. This pulling of water, or tension, occurs in the xylem of the leaf. Since the xylem is a continuous water column that extends from the leaf to the roots, this negative water pressure extends into the roots and results in water uptake from the soil. [adapted from: http://www.scientificamerican.com/article.cfm?id=follow-up-how-do-trees-ca ]

Clearly this clever water transport system shows a superior intelligence of the Creator (YHWH).


Now to know the truth, go to:

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2) http://www.network54.com/Forum/403209/

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5) http://religious-truths.forums.com/

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Your Friend in Christ Iris89

Francis David said it long ago, "Neither the sword of popes...nor the image of death will halt the march of truth."Francis David, 1579, written on the wall of his prison cell." Read the book, "What Does The Bible Really Teach" and the Bible today, and go to www.jw.org!







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Dovyalis hebecarpa, commonly known as Ceylon gooseberry

Post  Admin on Fri Mar 22, 2013 8:48 am

Hi Everyone:

Here is a Commentary on Bountiful Trees and Vegetables God (YHWH) has provided for mankind, specifically the Dovyalis hebecarpa, commonly known as Ceylon gooseberry, Kitembilla or Ketembilla, is a plant in the genus Dovyalis, native to Sri Lanka and southern India.

It is a shrub or small tree growing to 6 m tall, with sharp, 3–6 cm long stem spines in the leaf axils. The leaves are alternately arranged, simple broad lanceolate, 5–10 cm long and 1–3 cm broad, with an entire or finely toothed margin.

The flowers are inconspicuous, solitary or clustered, with no petals. It is dioecious, with male and female flowers on separate plants, though some female plants are parthenogenetic.

The fruit is an edible dark purple globose berry 2–3 cm diameter, very juicy with an acidic flavour, and containing several small seeds. Kitembilla fruit, which taste similar to a gooseberry (they are sometimes called "Ceylon Gooseberry"), are often eaten fresh, or made into jam. Some cultivars have been selected for being thornless (making harvesting easier) and larger fruit. [source - retrieved from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ceylon_gooseberry on 1/04/2013]

Ceylon Gooseberry
Dovyalis. Flacourtiaceae. Fifteen species of dioecious shrubs or small trees, sometimes with axillary spines. Leaves alternate, simple, pinnately veined, usually 3-nerved at the base, with a short petiole and small deciduous stipules. Male flowers many, clustered in the axils, with 4-7 hairy sepals, no petals, and numerous stamens and glands bourne on a fleshy disc; female flowers solitary or a few together, with 5-9 peristent hairy sepals and no petals; ovary 2-8-celled. Fruit an indehiscent berry. Africa, India, Sri Lanka.

Cultivation
Dovyalis caffra, from warm coastal habitats, is a vigorous, drought-resistant species once established. It is grown for its aromatic fruits, which have a flavour similar to apricots, eaten bletted or in jam. The dense, spiny shoots make an impenetrable barrier, and it is well suited for hedging in zones that are frost-free or almost so. In climates with hot summers, where wood becomes well-ripened, Dovyalis caffra, with tolerate temperatures to between -5ºC and -7ºC. Dovyalis hebecarpa and Dovyalis abyssinica (the latter possibly the most ornamental of the genus) occur naturally in warm, humid and subtropical climates and in temperate zones are grown in the warm glasshouse, with a winter minimum of 7-10ºC. Plant in fertile, humus-rich, well-drained soils in full sun. Space Dovyalis caffra at 1-1.5m for hedging, 4-5m for fruit trees; a ratio of 1:30 male to female plants is adequate to ensure pollination. Propagate from seed; plants will fruit at 4-5 years of age. Also by layering. Graft or shield-bud desirbale varieties on to seedling rootstocks. [source - retrieved from http://growfruit.tripod.com/ceylon.htm on 1/04/2013]

In Genesis 1:11-13, "And God said, Let the earth put forth grass, herbs yielding seed, and fruit-trees bearing fruit after their kind, wherein is the seed thereof, upon the earth: and it was so. 12 And the earth brought forth grass, herbs yielding seed after their kind, and trees bearing fruit, wherein is the seed thereof, after their kind: and God saw that it was good. 13 And there was evening and there was morning, a third day. (American Standard Version, ASV)[for more details, go to www.jw.org].

More on the Ceylon Gooseberry:
* Ceylon gooseberry: meaning and definitions - Ceylon gooseberry: Definition and Pronunciation
* umkokola - umkokola umkokola, small, thorny S and E African tree (Dovyalis caffra, also called kei-apple), ...
* Suggestions for spelling of encyclopedia/ceylon gooseberry - The Infoplease spelling checker combines spelling help with our dictionary and thesaurus
* kitembilla: meaning and definitions - kitembilla: Definition and Pronunciation
* Dictionary Index - Dictionary Index Césaire Cesarean cesarevitch Cesca chair Cesena cesium cesium 137 ... [source - retrieved from http://www.infoplease.com/encyclopedia/science/ceylon-gooseberry.html on 1 04//2013]

Utilization: The fruits are consumed fresh, either as a flavoring for beverages, or in preserves. Fruits can also be eaten out of hand but are usually not as the pulp is too acidic. In Florida, Ceylon gooseberry fruits are used primarily for jelly. In Hawaii, these are being used for juice, spiced jelly, ketimbilla-papaya jam, ketimbilla-guava jelly, and ketimbilla-apple butter. In Israel, the fruit is valued mainly as a source of jelly for export [source - retrieved from http://www.fruitipedia.com/ceylon_gooseberry.htm on 1/04/2013]

To see a picture of this tree and its fruit, go to http://www.fruitipedia.com/ceylon_gooseberry.htm

How this tree and other plants absorb water from the ground. Plants have developed an effective system to absorb, translocate, store, and utilize water. Plants contain a vast network of conduits, which consists of xylem and phloem tissues. These conducting tissues start in the roots and continue up through the trunks of trees, into the branches and then into every leaf. Phloem tissue is made of living elongated cells that are connected to one another and responsible for translocating nutrients and sugars (carbohydrates), which are produced by leaves for energy and growth. The xylem is also composed of elongated cells but once the cells are formed, they die. The walls of the xylem cells still remain intact and serve as an excellent peipline to transport water from the roots to the leaves.

The main driving force of water uptake and transport into a plant is transpiration of water from leaves through specialized openings called stomata. Heat from the sun causes the water to evaporate, setting this ‘water chain’ in motion. The evaporation creates a negative water vapor pressure. Water is pulled into the leaf to replace the water that has transpired from the leaf. This pulling of water, or tension, occurs in the xylem of the leaf. Since the xylem is a continuous water column that extends from the leaf to the roots, this negative water pressure extends into the roots and results in water uptake from the soil. [adapted from: http://www.scientificamerican.com/article.cfm?id=follow-up-how-do-trees-ca ]

Clearly this clever water transport system shows a superior intelligence of the Creator (YHWH).


Now to know the truth, go to:

1) http://religioustruths.forumsland.com/

2) http://www.network54.com/Forum/403209/

3) http://religioustruths.lefora.com/

4) http://religioustruths.boardhost.com/

5) http://religious-truths.forums.com/

6) http://religioustruthsbyiris.createmybb3.com/

7) http://religioustruths.forumotion.com/


Your Friend in Christ Iris89

Francis David said it long ago, "Neither the sword of popes...nor the image of death will halt the march of truth."Francis David, 1579, written on the wall of his prison cell." Read the book, "What Does The Bible Really Teach" and the Bible today, and go to www.jw.org!









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Charichuela, Rheedia Macrophylla,

Post  Admin on Sun Mar 24, 2013 5:27 pm

Hi Everyone:

Here is a Commentary on Bountiful Trees and Vegetables God (YHWH) has provided for mankind, specifically the Charichuela, Rheedia Macrophylla, a small tree never growing over 25 feet, and having a 2 to 3” wide fruit with creamy white flesh of good flavor. It likes full sun, and propagation from seed takes 7 to 10 years for fruit in plants started from seed. It is an understory tree native to the Amazon river lowlands.

Little is known about this tree other than the work done by Bill Whitman was a founder of the Rare Fruit Council International. Bill was the first president of the Rare Fruit Council, from 1955 to 1960. Truly one of the real "rare fruit" pioneers who started the rare fruit movement. He was the only person who grew and successfully fruited Mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana) in the continental United States as well as many other rare fruits including Rambutan (Nephelium lappaceum), Charichuela (Garcinia madruno) and many other truly rare fruits. I, Eric Bronson, visited his estate in 2005 with members of our group, he was super friendly. He gave us a tour of his rare fruit orchard, allowing us to sample several fruits. The Charichuela was my favorite and Bill encouraged us to keep the seeds so we could propagate this rare species ourselves! I also recieved cuttings of two species of Dragon Fruit (Hylocereus spp.) and slips from his "Eleuthera" Pineapple (Ananas comosus). William Francis Whitman Jr. was born in 1914 in Chicago, a son of William Sr. and Leona Whitman. His father owned a printing company in Chicago and added to his fortune by developing real estate in Miami. Bill and his brothers helped pioneer surfing in Florida, and he was inducted into the East Coast Surfing Hall of Fame in 1998. A book collecting his articles, “Five Decades with Tropical Fruit,” was published in 2001. I was sad to hear of his passing but his legacy lives on in all of the plants that are in our gardens thanks to him. [source - retrieved from on //2013]
Growth Rate: Slow to moderate. Grows "exponentially;" the bigger it is, the faster it grows.
Mature Height/Spread: Small understory tree, to 20'
Flowering/Pollination: Self-fertile flowers are born in clusters on wood that is at least 2 years old.
Tolerance: No salt tolerance. Moderate drought tolerance.
Soil/Nutrition: Tree is adaptable to many soil types, but on neutral, deficient, or alkaline soils, like many American garcinia species it may suffer from iron defiency. Micronutrient supplements both in the soil and as a foliar spray are highly recommended to keep all garcinias growing happily and constantly, under cultivation.
Light: Part shade to full sun. Can grow in full shade, but fruiting will be limited.
Wind: Small, sturdy tree.
Temperature: Tropical, to warm subtropics. Will survve brief frosts; mature trees survive short 27-28 F degree drops without much harm. Young trees will be killed by temperatures below freezing, requiring juvenile protection from cold.
Dangers: None.
Diseases Prone:
Bearing Age: 5-7 years from seed. Trees are not as prolific as other closely related garcinia species, with mature trees bearing perhaps 200 fruit in a good year.
Fruit: The fruit wall is firm, about 1/4" inch thick, and inedible, containing a stick yellow latex. Inside are seeded segments surrounded, edible whitish flesh of an agreeable sub-acid to sour flavor. Fruits occur twice a year, in the spring and fall.
History/Origin: Native throughout the Amazon basin in South America.
Species Observations:
Propogation: Exclusively by seeds, which must be planted soon after harvest and not allowed to dry out. Seeds can be slow to germinate, sometimes taking 3 weeks.
Container Culture: Like many garcinia species of small stature, it is possible to grow this species in 15 to 25 gallon containers.
Medicinal Uses:
Nutritional Information:
Preparation / Food: Fruits are eaten fresh. Rind is scored around the equator, with care to to get the bitter sap on the edible portion, and the segmented flesh is eaten. [source - retrieved from http://www.tropicalplantbook.com/garden_plants/treesfruit/pages_new_3/garcinia_magnifolia.htm on 1/04/2013]
In Genesis 1:11-13, "And God said, Let the earth put forth grass, herbs yielding seed, and fruit-trees bearing fruit after their kind, wherein is the seed thereof, upon the earth: and it was so. 12 And the earth brought forth grass, herbs yielding seed after their kind, and trees bearing fruit, wherein is the seed thereof, after their kind: and God saw that it was good. 13 And there was evening and there was morning, a third day. (American Standard Version, ASV)[for more details, go to www.jw.org].

More on Bill Whitman’s work, “Bill Whitman in North Miami Beach successfully fruited garcinia madruno and the tree fruits prolifically.
The female tree is self fertile but the addition of a male tree as Bill Whitman had planted right beside it increased fruit production immensely.
Fruit is like lemony cotton candy and widely liked.
Erica Lynne has a fruiting potted specimen beside her pool in Naples, Florida.
chlorosis & fungal prevention = handled by 1 tablespoon sequestrian 138 chelated iron + 1 teaspoon ridomil + 1 teaspoon superthrive in a 5 gallon bucket of water, stirred up well and poured at the base of each tree. 3 servings per bucket. [source - retrieved from http://rarefruit.pbworks.com/w/page/6859077/Charichuela on 1/04/2013]
How this tree and other plants absorb water from the ground. Plants have developed an effective system to absorb, translocate, store, and utilize water. Plants contain a vast network of conduits, which consists of xylem and phloem tissues. These conducting tissues start in the roots and continue up through the trunks of trees, into the branches and then into every leaf. Phloem tissue is made of living elongated cells that are connected to one another and responsible for translocating nutrients and sugars (carbohydrates), which are produced by leaves for energy and growth. The xylem is also composed of elongated cells but once the cells are formed, they die. The walls of the xylem cells still remain intact and serve as an excellent peipline to transport water from the roots to the leaves.

The main driving force of water uptake and transport into a plant is transpiration of water from leaves through specialized openings called stomata. Heat from the sun causes the water to evaporate, setting this ‘water chain’ in motion. The evaporation creates a negative water vapor pressure. Water is pulled into the leaf to replace the water that has transpired from the leaf. This pulling of water, or tension, occurs in the xylem of the leaf. Since the xylem is a continuous water column that extends from the leaf to the roots, this negative water pressure extends into the roots and results in water uptake from the soil. [adapted from: http://www.scientificamerican.com/article.cfm?id=follow-up-how-do-trees-ca ]

Clearly this clever water transport system shows a superior intelligence of the Creator (YHWH).


Now to know the truth, go to:

1) http://religioustruths.forumsland.com/

2) http://www.network54.com/Forum/403209/

3) http://religioustruths.lefora.com/

4) http://religioustruths.boardhost.com/

5) http://religious-truths.forums.com/

6) http://religioustruthsbyiris.createmybb3.com/

7) http://religioustruths.forumotion.com/


Your Friend in Christ Iris89

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Re: Almighty God’s (YHWH) Great Gift to Mankind, The Rare Fruit Trees and Herbs

Post  Admin on Wed Mar 27, 2013 9:47 am


Hi Everyone:

Here is a Commentary on Bountiful Trees and Vegetables God (YHWH) has provided for mankind, specifically the The Chayote (Sechium edule), known as Chocho in Belize but also known as christophene, vegetable pear, starprecianté, citrayota or citrayote and pear squash is an edible plant that belongs to the gourd family Cucurbitaceae along with melons, cucumbers and squash. The chayote fruit is used in both raw and cooked forms. When cooked, chayote is usually handled like summer squash, it is generally lightly cooked to retain the crisp flavor. Raw chayote may be added to salads or salsas, and it is often marinated with lemon or lime juice. It can also be eaten straight, although the bland flavor makes this a dubious endeavor. Whether raw or cooked, chayote is a good source of amino acids and vitamin C. [source - retrieved from http://www.belizedestinations.com/fruits/chayote.html on 1/04/2013]

The chayote[1] (Sechium edule), also known as christophene or christophine,[1] cho-cho,[1] mirliton[2] or merleton (Creole/Cajun), chuchu (Brazil), pear squash, vegetable pear,[1] chouchoute, choko, pipinola, güisquil (El Salvador)[3] is an edible plant belonging to the gourd family Cucurbitaceae, along with melons, cucumbers and squash.
Chayote is originally native to Mexico or Central America where it grows abundantly and has little commercial value, and it has been introduced as a crop all over Latin America, and worldwide. The main growing regions are Brazil, Costa Rica and Veracruz, Mexico. Costa Rican chayotes are predominantly exported to the European Union, whereas Veracruz is the main exporter of chayotes to the United States.

The word chayote is a Spanish derivative of the Nahuatl word chayohtli (pronounced [t??a?jo?t??i]). Chayote was one of the many foods introduced to Europe by early explorers, who brought back a wide assortment of botanical samples. The Age of Conquest also spread the plant south from Mexico, ultimately causing it to be integrated into the cuisine of many other Latin American nations.

The chayote fruit is used in mostly cooked forms. When cooked, chayote is usually handled like summer squash, it is generally lightly cooked to retain the crisp flavor. Though rare and often regarded as especially unpalatable and tough in texture, raw chayote may be added to salads or salsas, most often marinated with lemon or lime juice. Whether raw or cooked, chayote is a good source of amino acids and vitamin C.

Although most people are familiar only with the fruit as being edible, the root, stem, seeds and leaves are as well. The tubers of the plant are eaten like potatoes and other root vegetables, while the shoots and leaves are often consumed in salads and stir fries, especially in Asia. Like other members of the gourd family, such as cucumbers, melons, and squash, chayote has a sprawling habit, and it should only be planted if there is plenty of room in the garden. The roots are also highly susceptible to rot, especially in containers, and the plant in general is finicky to grow. However, in Australia and New Zealand, it is an easily grown yard or garden plant, set on a chicken wire support or strung against a fence.

In the most common variety, the fruit is roughly pear-shaped, somewhat flattened and with coarse wrinkles, ranging from 10 to 20 cm in length. It looks like a green pear, and it has a thin, green skin fused with the green to white flesh, and a single, large, flattened pit. The flesh has a fairly bland taste, and a texture is described as a cross between a potato and a cucumber. Although generally discarded, the seed has a nutty flavor and may be eaten as part of the fruit.

The chayote vine can be grown on the ground, but as a climbing plant, it will grow onto anything, and can easily rise as high as 12 meters when support is provided. It has heart-shaped leaves, 10–25 cm wide and tendrils on the stem. The plant bears male flowers in clusters and solitary female flowers. The plant’s fruit is light green and elongated with deep ridges lengthwise.
The fruit does not need to be peeled to be cooked or fried in slices. Most people regard it as having a very mild flavor by itself (though some find it unpalatable). It is commonly served with seasonings (e.g. salt, butter and pepper in Australia) or in a dish with other vegetables and/or flavorings. It can also be boiled, stuffed, mashed, baked, fried, or pickled in escabeche sauce. Both fruit and seed are rich in amino acids and vitamin C.[6] Fresh green fruit are firm and without brown spots or signs of sprouting. Smaller ones are more tender.

The tuberous part of the root is starchy and eaten like a yam (can be fried). It can be used as pig or cattle fodder, as well.

The leaves and fruit have diuretic, cardiovascular and anti-inflammatory properties, and a tea made from the leaves has been used in the treatment of arteriosclerosis and hypertension, and to dissolve kidney stones.[6]
In Louisiana Creole and Cajun cuisine, the fruit, known as mirliton (pronounced IPA: [?m??l?t?n])[7] also spelled mirletons or merletons (plural -- the r is often silent, e.g. Cajun me-lay-taw or urban Creole mi?l-uh-t??ns)[2] is a popular seasonal dish for the holidays, especially around Thanksgiving, in a variety of recipes.

Chayote is an important part of traditional diets across Mesoamerica, and can be found in a variety of dishes.

In the Philippines, the plant is known as "Sayote" and is grown mostly on Mountainous part of the country such as Baguio City and parts of Cordillera Administrative Region. Chayote is used in many kinds of dishes such as soup, stir-fried vegetables and chop suey.

In Indonesia, chayotes are called labu siam and widely planted for their shoots and fruit. It's generally used in Sundanese food as "lalap" and one of ingredients for Sundanese cuisine called "sayur asem".

In Taiwan, chayotes are widely planted for their shoots, known as lóng xü cài (???, literally "dragon-whisker vegetable"). Along with the young leaves, the shoot is a commonly consumed vegetable in the region.

In Thai cuisine, the plant is known as sayongte (Thai: ????????) or fak maeo (Thai: ???????, literally meaning "Miao melon"). It grows mainly in the mountains of northern Thailand. The young shoots and greens are often eaten stir-fried or in certain soups.

In Brazil and other Latin American countries, it is breaded and fried, or used cooked in salads, soups and soufflés.

In Nepal, the plant and fruit is called iskus (?????? in Nepali), probably derived from the word squash. Its shoots, fruit and roots are widely used for different varieties of curries.
Chayote is also popular in South Indian cuisine. It is popularly referred to as 'Bangalore brinjal' and is used in vegetable stews. [source - retrieved from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Christophine on 1/04/2013]

In Genesis 1:11-13, "And God said, Let the earth put forth grass, herbs yielding seed, and fruit-trees bearing fruit after their kind, wherein is the seed thereof, upon the earth: and it was so. 12 And the earth brought forth grass, herbs yielding seed after their kind, and trees bearing fruit, wherein is the seed thereof, after their kind: and God saw that it was good. 13 And there was evening and there was morning, a third day. (American Standard Version, ASV)[for more details, go to www.jw.org].

Did you know that chayote is good for the heart and may also help prevent cancer? Discover the surprising health giving goodness of this cucumber relative.

Although chayote (Sechium edule) is typically prepared as a vegetable, it is in fact a fruit. It’s quite crunchy flesh can be eaten both raw and cooked. Around the world it is known by various names including merliton, christophene and chowchow. It is a member of the squash family and is referred to as a “vegetable pear” or chocho.

1. Good for the heart (Folate)
Chayote is an excellent source of folate, a B vitamin which helps prevent homocystein build-up. Studies have shown that too much of this amino acid in the blood is linked to a higher risk of coronary heart disease and stroke.
2. Helps prevent cancer (Vitamin C)
Vitamin C is known as one of the powerful antioxidants, substances that may protect cells from damage caused by free radicals. Studies suggest that antioxidants may slow or possibly prevent cancer development. Chayote is a very good source of vitamin C, providing 17% of the RDI.
3. Helps the body produce energy (Manganese)
Start your day with a breakfast of chayote omelet. Its manganese content helps the body convert protein and fat to energy.
4. Helps prevent constipation (Fiber)
To promote bowel regularity, add fiber to your diet with the help of this vegetable.
5. Keeps thyroid healthy (Copper)
It helps iodine in keeping the thyroid healthy by providing copper, a mineral linked in thyroid metabolism, especially in hormone production and absorption.
6. Helps prevent acne (Zinc)
It is a good source of zinc, a mineral which has shown to influence hormones which controls the production of oil in the skin.
7. Helps prevent bone loss (Vitamin K)
Tell grandma to eat chayote for a natural supply of vitamin K. Studies revealed a connection between vitamin K and osteoporosis.
8. Helps reduce blood pressure (Potassium)
Chayote can add to your DV of potassium, the mineral which helps lower blood pressure levels.
9. Good for the brain (Vitamin B6)
It can provide vitamin B6. Study participants have shown that vitamin B6 helps improve memory performance in some age groups.
10. Helps prevent leg cramps (Magnesium)
Chayote also contains magnesium, an electrolyte and a mineral which helps prevent muscle cramps.
Nutrient data source: USDA [source - retrieved from http://healthmad.com/nutrition/10-surprising-health-benefits-of-chayote/ on 1/04/2013]

How this vine and other plants absorb water from the ground. Plants have developed an effective system to absorb, translocate, store, and utilize water. Plants contain a vast network of conduits, which consists of xylem and phloem tissues. These conducting tissues start in the roots and continue up through the trunks of trees, into the branches and then into every leaf. Phloem tissue is made of living elongated cells that are connected to one another and responsible for translocating nutrients and sugars (carbohydrates), which are produced by leaves for energy and growth. The xylem is also composed of elongated cells but once the cells are formed, they die. The walls of the xylem cells still remain intact and serve as an excellent peipline to transport water from the roots to the leaves.

The main driving force of water uptake and transport into a plant is transpiration of water from leaves through specialized openings called stomata. Heat from the sun causes the water to evaporate, setting this ‘water chain’ in motion. The evaporation creates a negative water vapor pressure. Water is pulled into the leaf to replace the water that has transpired from the leaf. This pulling of water, or tension, occurs in the xylem of the leaf. Since the xylem is a continuous water column that extends from the leaf to the roots, this negative water pressure extends into the roots and results in water uptake from the soil. [adapted from: http://www.scientificamerican.com/article.cfm?id=follow-up-how-do-trees-ca ]

Clearly this clever water transport system shows a superior intelligence of the Creator (YHWH).


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Francis David said it long ago, "Neither the sword of popes...nor the image of death will halt the march of truth."Francis David, 1579, written on the wall of his prison cell." Read the book, "What Does The Bible Really Teach" and the Bible today, and go to www.jw.org!






How this tree and other plants absorb water from the ground. Plants have developed an effective system to absorb, translocate, store, and utilize water. Plants contain a vast network of conduits, which consists of xylem and phloem tissues. These conducting tissues start in the roots and continue up through the trunks of trees, into the branches and then into every leaf. Phloem tissue is made of living elongated cells that are connected to one another and responsible for translocating nutrients and sugars (carbohydrates), which are produced by leaves for energy and growth. The xylem is also composed of elongated cells but once the cells are formed, they die. The walls of the xylem cells still remain intact and serve as an excellent peipline to transport water from the roots to the leaves.

The main driving force of water uptake and transport into a plant is transpiration of water from leaves through specialized openings called stomata. Heat from the sun causes the water to evaporate, setting this ‘water chain’ in motion. The evaporation creates a negative water vapor pressure. Water is pulled into the leaf to replace the water that has transpired from the leaf. This pulling of water, or tension, occurs in the xylem of the leaf. Since the xylem is a continuous water column that extends from the leaf to the roots, this negative water pressure extends into the roots and results in water uptake from the soil. [adapted from: http://www.scientificamerican.com/article.cfm?id=follow-up-how-do-trees-ca ]

Clearly this clever water transport system shows a superior intelligence of the Creator (YHWH).


Now to know the truth, go to:

1) http://religioustruths.forumsland.com/

2) http://www.network54.com/Forum/403209/

3) http://religioustruths.lefora.com/

4) http://religioustruths.boardhost.com/

5) http://religious-truths.forums.com/

6) http://religioustruthsbyiris.createmybb3.com/

7) http://religioustruths.forumotion.com/


Your Friend in Christ Iris89

Francis David said it long ago, "Neither the sword of popes...nor the image of death will halt the march of truth."Francis David, 1579, written on the wall of his prison cell." Read the book, "What Does The Bible Really Teach" and the Bible today, and go to www.jw.org!







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Acrocomia aculeata (Macauba)

Post  Admin on Sun Mar 31, 2013 9:01 am

Hi Everyone:

Here is a Commentary on Bountiful Trees and Vegetables God (YHWH) has provided for mankind, specifically the Acrocomia aculeata (Macauba)

Macauba palm is somewhat similar to the Astrocaryum aculeatum (Tucuma) palm in that its fruit have a large amount of both pulp and kernel oil and together with several very similar species, is widespread throughout central and Latin America often on poor soils. Its apparent tolerance to drought, makes it an attractive species for producing oil in regions that are too dry for the African oil palm and coconuts. The very high yield predictions of 6 t/ha (Wandeck and Justo 1982) have not been confirmed yet because of difficulties in breaking dormancy and slow early growth. Rapid hydrolysis of the mesocarp oil and difficulty in separating oil from the moist, fibrous and mucilaginous pulp, are among the other problems that still have to be faced (FAO 1986, Arkcoll 1988). (source - retrieved from http://www.hort.purdue.edu/newcrop/proceedings1990/v1-367.html on 3/29/2013)

Acrocomia aculeata is a species of palm native to tropical regions of the Americas, from southern Mexico and the Caribbean south to Paraguay and northern Argentina. Common names include Grugru Palm, Macaúba Palm, Coyol Palm, and Macaw Palm; synonyms include A. lasiospatha, A. sclerocarpa, A. totai, and A. vinifera.

Fruit of Acrocomia aculeata

Composition of fruit by layers
It grows up to 15-20 m tall, with a trunk up to 50 cm in diameter, characterized by numerous slender, black, viciously sharp 10 cm long spines jutting out from the trunk. The leaves are pinnate, 3-4 m long, with numerous slender, 50-100 cm long leaflets. Petioles of the leaves are also covered with spines. The flowers are small, produced on a large branched inflorescence 1.5 m long. The fruit is a yellowish-green drupe 2.5-5 cm in diameter. The inner fruit shell, also called endocarp, is very tough to break and contains usually one single, dark brown, nut-like seed 1-2 cm in diameter. The inside of the seed, also called endosperm, is a dry white filling that has a vaguely sweet taste like coconut when eaten.

Ecology
The tree was noted by the English naturalist Henry Walter Bates in his 1863 book The Naturalist on the River Amazons, where he wrote that
[The Hyacinthine Macaw] flies in pairs, and feeds on the hard nuts of several palms, but especially of the Mucuja (Acrocomia lasiospatha). These nuts, which are so hard as to be difficult to break with a heavy hammer, are crushed to a pulp by the powerful beak of this macaw.
—Bates[2]
Uses
The plants inhabit a wide variety of climates and situations; in Paraguay, for example, where it is ubiquitous, it is called the coco paraguayo (Paraguayan coconut), as it is much less common in the rest of the world. It has been suggested that grugru nuts, which come in mass numbers from each tree, can be used in the manufacture of biodiesel. The grugru nut, while very hard, can be sliced into thin circles to be sanded and worn as rings. The trunk of the palm can also be 'milked' to yield a fermented alcoholic beverage known as coyol wine.

References
1. ^ Martius, Historia Naturalis Palmarum 2:66. 1824
2. ^ Bates, H. W. (1864). The naturalist on the River Amazons. London: J. Murray. Pages 79–80. (1st (long) ed. 1863 (source - retrieved from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Acrocomia_aculeata on 3/29/2013)

In Genesis 1:11-13, "And God said, Let the earth put forth grass, herbs yielding seed, and fruit-trees bearing fruit after their kind, wherein is the seed thereof, upon the earth: and it was so. 12 And the earth brought forth grass, herbs yielding seed after their kind, and trees bearing fruit, wherein is the seed thereof, after their kind: and God saw that it was good. 13 And there was evening and there was morning, a third day. (American Standard Version, ASV)[for more details, go to www.jw.org].

View pictures of plant and fruit at, http://www.bing.com/images/search?q=Acrocomia+aculeata+%28Macauba%29+&qpvt=Acrocomia+aculeata+%28Macauba%29+&FORM=IGRE

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Your Friend in Christ Iris89

Francis David said it long ago, "Neither the sword of popes...nor the image of death will halt the march of truth."Francis David, 1579, written on the wall of his prison cell." Read the book, "What Does The Bible Really Teach" and the Bible today, and go to www.jw.org!

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Re: Almighty God’s (YHWH) Great Gift to Mankind, The Rare Fruit Trees and Herbs

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