Almighty God’s (YHWH) Great Gift to Mankind, The Rare Fruit Trees and Herbs

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Re: Almighty God’s (YHWH) Great Gift to Mankind, The Rare Fruit Trees and Herbs

Post  Admin on Thu Jan 15, 2015 10:55 pm

Hi Everyone:

Here is a Commentary on Bountiful Trees and Vegetables God (YHWH) has provided for mankind, specifically the Lagenaria siceraria (synonym Lagenaria vulgaris Ser.), bottle gourd, opo squash or long melon is a vine grown for its fruit, which can either be harvested young and used as a vegetable, or harvested mature, dried, and used as a bottle, utensil, or pipe. For this reason, the calabash is widely known as the bottle gourd. The fresh fruit has a light green smooth skin and a white flesh. Rounder varieties are called calabash gourds.

They come in a variety of shapes, they can be huge and rounded, or small and bottle shaped, or slim and more than a meter long.

The calabash was one of the first cultivated plants in the world, grown not primarily for food, but for use as a water container. The bottle gourd may have been carried from Africa to Asia, Europe and the Americas in the course of human migration.[1] It shares its common name with that of the calabash tree (Crescentia cujete).

It is a commonly cultivated plant in tropical and subtropical areas of the world, now believed by some to have spread or originated from wild populations in southern Africa. Stands of Lagenaria siceraria that may be source plants, and not merely domesticated stands run wild, were reported recently in Zimbabwe.[2] This apparent domestication source plant produces thinner-walled fruit that, when dried, would not endure the rigors of use on long journeys as a water container. Today's calabash may owe its tough, waterproof wall to selection pressures over its long history of domestication.[3]

Cultivation
Calabash had been cultivated in Asia, Europe and the Americas for thousands of years before Columbus' discovery of America. Historically, in Europe,[4] Walahfrid Strabo (808–849), abbot and poet from Reichenau, advisor to the Carolingian kings, discussed it in his Latin Hortulus as one of the 23 plants of an ideal garden.[5][6]

Recent research indicates some can have an African origin and at least two unrelated domestications: one 8–9 thousand years ago, based on the analysis of archeological samples found in Asia, a second, four thousand years ago, traced from archeological discoveries in Egypt.

The mystery of the calabash – namely that this African or Eurasian species was being grown in America over 8,000 years ago[7] – came about from the difficulty in understanding how it came to be on the American continent. Genetic research on archeological samples published by the National Academy of Sciences in December 2005 suggests calabash may have been domesticated earlier than food crops and livestock and, like dogs, were brought into the New World at the end of the ice age to the native Paleo-Indians. It is supposed that bottle gourds were carried by new peoples in boats or on foot across a possible land bridge between Asia and America. Once in Florida and Mexico, bottle gourd seeds could still be viable after long periods of migration.

The rind of the domesticated calabash, unlike that of its wild counterpart, is thick and waterproof. Calabash previously was thought to have spread across oceans without human intervention, if the seeds were still able to germinate even after long periods at sea. This was the basis of the earlier, dominating theory, which proposed the calabash had drifted across the Atlantic Ocean from Africa to North and South America. The new research notes domestication had led to changes in morphology (shape) of Asian and African specimens, potentially allowing the identification of the calabash from different areas. Now, both genetic and morphological considerations show calabash found in American archaeological finds are closer to Asian calabash variants than to African ones.[8]

The English word calabash comes from Spanish calabaza with the same meaning. The origin of the Spanish word is obscure. It is possibly from Arabic qar'a yabisa "dry gourd", from Persian kharabuz, used of various large melons; or the Spanish may have come from a pre-Roman Iberian calapaccia.[9]

Toxicity
Like other members of the Cucurbitaceae family, calabashes contain cucurbitacins that are known to be cytotoxic. The tetracyclic triterpenoid cucurbitacins present in fruits and vegetables of the cucumber family, are responsible for the bitter taste, and can cause ulcers in the stomach. In extreme cases, people have died from drinking calabash juice.[10][11] [12]

Culinary uses
Calabash, cooked, no salt
Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz)
Energy
63 kJ (15 kcal)
Carbohydrates
3.69 g
- Dietary fiber
1.2 g
Fat
0.02 g
Protein
0.6 g
Thiamine (vit. B1)
0.029 mg (3%)
Riboflavin (vit. B2)
0.022 mg (2%)
Niacin (vit. B3)
0.39 mg (3%)
Pantothenic acid (B5)
0.144 mg (3%)
Vitamin B6
0.038 mg (3%)
Folate (vit. B9)
4 ?g (1%)
Vitamin C
8.5 mg (10%)
Calcium
24 mg (2%)
Iron
0.25 mg (2%)
Magnesium
11 mg (3%)
Manganese
0.066 mg (3%)
Phosphorus
13 mg (2%)
Potassium
170 mg (4%)
Sodium
2 mg (0%)
Zinc
0.7 mg (7%)
Link to USDA Database entry
Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults.
Source: USDA Nutrient Database

Upo (bottle gourd or Calabash) with sotanghon
In India, it is known as lauki dudhi or ghiya in Hindi/Urdu/Gujarati; Laau Oriya; aal in Marwari; churakka in Malayalam; jatilao in Assamese; lau in Bengali; sorakaaya or anapakaya in Telugu; dudhi-Bhopala in Marathi; sorekayi in Kannada; sajmain in Maithili and suraikkaai (colloquilly sorakkay) in Tamil. A popular north indian dish is lauki channa, (channa dal and diced gourd in a semidry gravy). In Maharashtra, the skin of the gourd is used in making a Chutney preparation. In parts of India, the dried, unpunctured gourd is used as a float (called surai-kuduvai in Tamil) to learn swimming in rural areas. Indian musical instruments, such as the tanpura, sitar and rudra veena, are constructed from dried calabash gourds, using special cultivars that were originally imported from Africa and Madagascar. They are mostly grown in Bengal and near Miraj, Maharashtra. These gourds are valuable items and they are carefully tended, sometimes they are given injections to stop worms and insects from making holes while they are drying., etc.[13]

The calabash, as a vegetable, is frequently used in southern Chinese cuisine as either a stir-fry or in a soup. The Chinese name for calabash is hulu (simplified Chinese: ??; traditional Chinese: ??; pinyin: húlu) or huzi (Chinese: ??; pinyin: húzi) in Mandarin. Two common kinds of calabash sold in Chinese stores are the "Opo" kind, which is elongated but still plump, and "Mao Gua" which is very similar to Opo, but it has hairs, as its Chinese name references, which translates to "Hairy Squash". The hairs, although small, can get embedded in the skin, but it is usually safe for adults to handle.
In Japan, the species is known as hy?tan with the former word referring particularly to the larger-fruiting variety whose fruits are used mostly for making containers or other handicrafts and the latter referring to the smaller-fruiting variety whose fruits are more edible. Names used to refer particularly to the fruit of one or another variety of this species include fukube and hisago. It is most commonly sold in the form of dried, marinated strips known as kanpy?, and is commonly used as an ingredient for making makizushi (rolled sushi).

In Korea, it is known as bak (?) or jorongbak.
In Burma, it is known as boo thee, a popular fruit; young leaves are also boiled and eaten with spicy hot, fermented fish sauce called nga peet. In the Philippines, it is known as upo. In Italian cuisine, it is known as cucuzza (plural cucuzze).
In Central America, the seeds of the calabash gourd are toasted and ground with other ingredients (including rice, cinnamon, and allspice) to make the drink horchata. Calabash is known locally as morro or jícaro. In Colombia and Venezuela, the calabash is known as a tapara or totuma.
In Pakistan, the green Calabash is known as Lauki while the yellow variety is known as kaddu in Urdu.
In Bangladesh, it is called lau (???). In Nepali, it is called lauka (????). In Arabic, it is called qara. The tender young gourd is cooked as a summer squash. In Vietnam, it is called b?u canh or b?u n?m, and is used in a variety of dishes: boiled, stir-fried, soup dishes and as a medicine.
The shoots, tendrils, and leaves of the plant may also be eaten as greens.

Cultural uses
The Caribbean
Calabash is primarily used for utensils, such as cups, bowls, and basins in rural areas. It can be used for carrying water or can be made for carrying items, such as fish, when fishing. In some Caribbean countries, it is worked, painted and decorated as shoulder bags or other items by artisans, and sold to tourists. In Jamaica, it is also a reference to the natural lifestyle of Rastafarians. As a cup, bowl, or even water-pipe or "bong", the calabash is considered consistent with the "Ital" or vital lifestyle of not using refined products such as table salt, or using modern cooking methods, such as microwaves. In Haiti, the plant is called kalbas kouran, literally "running calabash", and is used to make the sacred rattle emblematic of the Vodou priesthood, called an asson. As such, the plant is highly respected. It is also the national tree of St. Lucia.

Africa
Calabashes (nkalu in Kikongo) are used to collect and store palm wine in Bandundu Province, Democratic Republic of the Congo.
Hollowed out and dried calabashes are a very typical utensil in households across West Africa. They are used to clean rice, carry water, and as food containers. Smaller sizes are used as bowls to drink palm wine.

Calabashes are used in making the West African kora (a harp-lute), xalam/ngoni (a lute) and the goje (a traditional fiddle). They also serve as resonators underneath the balafon (West African marimba). The calabash is also used in making the shegureh (a Sierra Leonean women's rattle)[14] and balangi (a Sierra Leonean type of balafon) musical instruments. Sometimes, large calabashes are simply hollowed, dried and used as percussion instruments, especially by Fulani, Songhai, Gur-speaking and Hausa peoples. In Nigeria, the calabash has been used to avoid a law requiring the wearing of a helmet on a motorcycle.[15] In South Africa, it is commonly used as a drinking vessel by tribes such as the Zulus. Ebore tribe children in Ethiopia wear hats made from the calabash to protect them from the sun. Recently, the Soccer City stadium which hosted the FIFA World Cup has been completed and its shape takes inspiration from the calabash.

Mexico
In many rural parts of Mexico, the calabash is dried and carved hollow to create a bule or a guaje, a gourd used to carry water around like a canteen. The gourd cut in half, called jícara, gave the parallel name to a clay cup jícara.

Costa Rica
The Costa Rican town of Santa Bárbara de Santa Cruz holds a traditional annual dance of the calabashes (baile de los guacales). Since 2000, the activity has been considered of cultural interest to the community, and all participants receive a hand-painted calabash vessel to thank them for their economic contribution (which they paid in the form of an entrance ticket).[16]
Aboriginals throughout the country traditionally serve chicha in calabash vessels to the participants of special events such as the baile de los diablitos (dance of the little fiends).[17]

South America
In Peru, Brazil, Argentina, Uruguay and Paraguay, calabash gourds are dried and carved into mates, the traditional container for the popular caffeinated tea-like drink brewed from the yerba mate plant. In Brazil, this container is called cuia, porongo or cabaça. Gourds also commonly used as the resonator for the berimbau, the signature instrument of capoeira, a martial art/dance developed in Brazilian plantations by African slaves. The calabash gourd is possibly mankind's oldest instrument resonator.

In Peru, Bolivia and Ecuador, calabash gourds are known to have been used for medicinal purposes for over a thousand years by Andean cultures. The Inca culture applied folklore symbology to gourds to pass down from one generation to another, and this practice is still familiar and valued.

Bowls made of calabash were used by Indigenous Brazilians as utensils made to serve food, and the practice is still retained in some remote areas of Brazil (originally by populations of various ethnicities, origins and regions, but nowadays mainly the indigenes themselves).

Venezuela
The president of Venezuela, Hugo Chávez, has suggested Venezuelans avoid showers longer than three minutes.[18][19] Critics of Chavez have ridiculed this (reductio ad incommodum) by ironically suggesting the use of a totuma to bathe (although Chavez himself did not suggest this).[20][21] The inference is that Chavez's bathing suggestion is an unwelcome intrusion into Venezuelans' daily lives, and further, that bathing with a gourd is shamefully primitive. Compare U.S. President Jimmy Carter's speech urging Americans to conserve energy during the US 1979 energy crisis and negative reaction by his critics.[22]

China
The hulu is an ancient symbol for health.

A bottle gourd
In the old days, doctors would carry medicine inside it, so it has fabled properties for healing. The hulu is believed to absorb negative earth-based qi (energy) that would otherwise affect health, and is a traditional Chinese medicine cure. Dried calabash is also used as containers of liquids, often liquors or medicine. Calabash gourds were also grown in earthen molds to form different shapes with imprinted floral or arabesque design and dried to house pet crickets, which were kept for their song and fighting abilities. The texture of the gourd lends itself nicely to the sound of the animal, much like a musical instrument. It is a symbol of the Xian immortals.
India
Hindu ascetics (sadhu) traditionally use a dried gourd vessel called the kamandalu. The juice of bottle gourd is considered to have medicinal properties and to be very good for health. The Baul singers of Bengal have their musical instruments made out of it. The practice is also common among Buddhist and Jain sages.

Hawaii
In Hawaii, a calabash is a large serving bowl, usually made from a hardwood rather than from the calabash gourd as in Maroon cultures. It is used on a buffet table or in the middle of the dining table. The use of the calabash in Hawaii has led to terms like "calabash family" or "calabash cousins", indicating an extended family grown up around shared meals and close friendships.
This gourd is often dried when ripe and used as a percussion instrument in contemporary and ancient hula.

Other uses
Additionally, the gourd can be dried and used to smoke pipe tobacco. A typical design yielded by this squash is recognized (theatrically) as the pipe of Sherlock Holmes, but Doyle never mentioned Holmes using a calabash pipe. It was the preferred pipe for stage actors portraying Holmes, because they could balance this pipe better than other styles while delivering their lines. See, Smoking pipe (tobacco)#Calabash.

References

This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (July 2007)
1. ^ Erickson, David L.; Smith, Bruce D.; Clarke, Andrew C.; Sandweiss, Daniel H.; Tuross, Noreen (20 December 2005). "An Asian origin for a 10,000-year-old domesticated plant in the Americas". PNAS 102 (51): 18315–18320. doi:10.1073/pnas.0509279102. PMC 1311910. PMID 16352716. Retrieved 17 November 2009.
2. ^ Discovery and genetic assessment of wild bottle gourd [ Lagenaria siceraria (Mol.) Standley, Cucurbitaceae] from Zimbabwe. mbe.oxfordjournals.org – Economic Botany 58. 2004. pp. 501–508.
3. ^ Reconstructing the Origins and Dispersal of the Polynesian Bottle Gourd (Lagenaria siceraria). Proceedings of the SMBE Tri-National Young Investigators' Workshop 2004. 2005. pp. 58, 501–508.
4. ^ Gemüse des Jahres 2002: Der Flaschenkürbis (in German). Schandelah: VEN – Verein zur Erhaltung der Nutzpflanzen Vielfalt e.V. 2002.
5. ^ Strabo, Walahfrid; Näf,W.; és Gabathuler,M. (ford.) (2000). De cultura hortorum (in Latin and German). ISBN 3-7995-3504-7.
6. ^ Walahfrid Strabo (2002). De cultura hortorum sive Hortulus VII Cucurbita (in Latin). Fachhochschule Augsburg: bibliotheca Augustana.
7. ^ White, Nancy (2005). Nancy White University of South Florida – South American Archaeology: Archaic, Preceramic, Sedentism. Bloomington: Indiana University Bloomington MATRIX project.
8. ^ Erickson, David L.; Smith, Bruce D.;Clarke, Andrew C.; Sandweiss, Daniel H.; Tuross, Noreen (2005). An Asian origin for a 10,000-year-old domesticated plant in the Americas. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.
9. ^ http://www.etymonline.com/index.php?search=calabash&searchmode=none
10. ^ Adhyaru-Majithia, Priya (13 March 2010). "Not all bitter veggies are good, they can kill you: Doctors". DNA (Bhaskar Group). Archived from the original on 9 July 2010. Retrieved 9 July 2010.
11. ^ Chandra, Neetu (9 July 2010). "Toxin in lauki kills diabetic city scientist". India Today (Living Media). Archived from the original on 9 July 2010. Retrieved 9 July 2010.
12. ^ "Bitter 'lauki' juice can kill you". Times of india (Living Media). 28 June 2011. Retrieved 28 June 2010.
13. ^ Landsberg, Steven. "The History of an Indian Musical Instrument Maker".
14. ^ image at Joseph Opala, "Origin of the Gullah", yale.edu.
15. ^ "Nigeria bikers' vegetable helmets". BBC News. 6 January 2009.
16. ^ "Baile del Guacal" [Dance of the Calabash]. La Nación (in Spanish). 1 July 2010.
17. ^ Parrales, Freddy (29 January 2011). "Rey Curré se encendió con el baile de los diablitos" [Rey Curré was ignited with the dance of the little fiends]. La Nación (in Spanish).
18. ^ "No more singing in the shower: Chavez urges Venezuelans to limit their wash to three minutes amid water shortages". Daily Mail (London). 22 October 2009.
19. ^ Chavez y el comunismo on YouTube
20. ^ http://www.laureanomarquez.com/?module=articulos&i=44
21. ^ Como hacer Totuma-Ducha comunista on YouTube
22. ^ http://www.presidentprofiles.com/Kennedy-Bush/Jimmy-Carter-Energy-policy.html (source - retrieved from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Calabash on 3/31/2013)

In Genesis 1:11-13, "And God said, Let the earth put forth grass, herbs yielding seed, and fruit-trees bearing fruit after their kind, wherein is the seed thereof, upon the earth: and it was so. 12 And the earth brought forth grass, herbs yielding seed after their kind, and trees bearing fruit, wherein is the seed thereof, after their kind: and God saw that it was good. 13 And there was evening and there was morning, a third day. (American Standard Version, ASV)[for more details, go to www.jw.org].

View plant and fruit at, http://foter.com/Bottlegourd/


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Francis David said it long ago, "Neither the sword of popes...nor the image of death will halt the march of truth."Francis David, 1579, written on the wall of his prison cell." Read the book, "What Does The Bible Really Teach" and the Bible today, and go to www.jw.org!





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Re: Almighty God’s (YHWH) Great Gift to Mankind, The Rare Fruit Trees and Herbs

Post  Admin on Tue Jan 20, 2015 4:24 pm

Hi Everyone:

Here is a Commentary on Bountiful Trees and Vegetables God (YHWH) has provided for mankind, specifically the Langsat, Lansium domesticum, also known as langsat, buahluku or lanzones, is a species of tree in the family Meliaceae. The plant, which originates from western Southeast Asia, bears edible fruit. It is the provincial flower for the Indonesian province of South Sumatra.

Description
The tree is average sized, reaching 30 metres (98 ft) in height and 75 centimetres (30 in) in diameter. Seedling trees 30 years old planted at 8 x 8 meter spacing can have a height of 10 meters and diameter of 25 cm. The trunk grows in an irregular manner, with its buttress roots showing above ground. The tree's bark is a greyish colour, with light and dark spots. Its resin is thick and milk coloured.

The pinnately compound leaves are odd numbered, with thin hair, and 6 to 9 buds at intervals. The buds are long and elliptical, approximately 9 to 21 centimetres (3.5 to 8.3 in) by 5 to 10 centimetres (2.0 to 3.9 in) in size. The upper edge shines, and the leaves themselves have pointed bases and tips. The stems of the buds measure 5 to 12 millimetres (0.20 to 0.47 in).

The flowers are located in inflorescences that grow and hang from large branches or the trunk; the bunches may number up to 5 in one place. They are often branched at their base, measure 10 to 30 centimetres (3.9 to 12 in) in size, and have short fur. The flowers are small, with short stems, and have two genders. The sheathe is shaped like a five lobed cup and is coloured a greenish-yellow. The corona is egg-shaped and hard, measuring 2 to 3 millimetres (0.079 to 0.12 in) by 4 to 5 millimetres (0.16 to 0.20 in). There is one stamen, measuring 2 millimetres (0.079 in) in length. The top of the stamen is round. The pistil is short and thick.

The fruit is can be elliptical, oval, or round, measuring 2 to 7 centimetres (0.79 to 2.8 in) by 1.5 to 5 centimetres (0.59 to 2.0 in) in size. Fruits look much like small potatoes and are borne in clusters similar to grapes. The larger fruits are on the variety known as duku. It is covered by thin, yellow hair giving a slightly fuzzy aspect. The skin thickness varies with the varieties, from 2 millimetres (0.079 in) to approximately 6 millimetres (0.24 in). The fruit contains 1 to 3 seeds, flat, and bitter tasting; the seeds are covered with a thick, clear-white aril that tastes sweet and sour. The taste has been likened to a combination of grape and grapefruit and is considered excellent by most. The sweet juicy flesh contains sucrose, fructose, and glucose. For consumption, cultivars with small or undeveloped seeds and thick aril are preferred.

Varieties


L. domesticum sold in a bunch in a roadside stall in West Kutai
There are numerous varieties of L. domesticum, both the plants and the fruit. Some experts consider them separate species. Overall, there are two main varieties, those named duku and those named langsat. There are also mixed duku-langsat varieties.

Those called duku (L. domesticum var. duku) generally have a large crown, thick with bright green leaves, with short bunches of few fruit. The individual fruit are large, generally round, and have somewhat thick skin that does not release sap when cooked. The seeds are small, with thick flesh, a sweet scent, and a sweet or sour alin.

Meanwhile, the variant commonly known as langsat (L. domesticum var. domesticum) generally has thinner trees, with a less dense crown consisting of dark green leaves and stiff branches. The bunches are longer, and each bunch holds between 15 and 25 large, egg-shaped fruit. The skin is thin and releases a white sap when cooked. The flesh is watery and tastes sweet and sour. Unlike duku, langsat fruit does not last long after being picked. Three days after being picked, the skin blackens; this does not affect the fruit's taste

L. domesticum cultivation in Mandi Angin, Rawas Ilir, Musi Rawas.
L. domesticum var. aquaeum is distinguished by its hairy leaves, as well as the tightly packed dark yellow fruit on its bunches. The fruit tends to be small, with thin skin and little sap; the skin is difficult to remove. To be eaten, the fruit is bitten and the flesh sucked through the hole created, or rubbed until the skin breaks and the seeds are retrieved. In Indonesia the fruit has several names, including kokosan, pisitan, pijetan, and bijitan. The seeds are relatively large, with thin, sour flesh.
Reproduction:

L. domesticum in the Philippines
The seeds of L. domesticum are polyembryonic, with one the result of budding and the rest apomixisic. The apomixisic embryos are formed from the parent's tissue and have the same genetic make up. The seeds are also recalcitrant, with quick deterioration in fertility after seven days.
L. domesticum is traditionally reproduced by spreading seedlings, either cultivated or collected from below the tree. It has been said that new seedlings require 20 to 25 years to bear fruit, with the possibility of the quality being inferior. However other sources quote 12 years to first production from seed and no variations. Production often varies from year to year, and depends to some extent on having a dry period to induce flowering. One example of ten trees in Costa Rica about twenty-five years old produced during five years the following weights of salable fruits: 2008: 50 kilos, 2009: 2000 kilos, 2010: 1000 kilos, 2011: 100 kilos, 2012: 1500 kilos. Experiments in the Philippines with grafting where two trees are planted close to each other and then grafted when one to two meters tall to leave twin root systems on a single main trunk have resulted in earlier and less erratic fruit production.

Another common method is by air layering. Although the process requires up to several months, the new rooted tree produced is itself ready to bear fruit within two years. Trees cultivated with this method have a high death rate, and the growths are less resilient.
The third common way to reproduce L. domesticum is with grafting. This results in the new trees having the same genetic characteristics as their parent, and being ready to bear fruit within 5 to 6 years. The offspring are relatively stronger than transplanted shoots. (source - retrieved from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lansium_domesticum on 1/17/2013)

See pictures at http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Lansium_domesticum

In Genesis 1:11-13, "And God said, Let the earth put forth grass, herbs yielding seed, and fruit-trees bearing fruit after their kind, wherein is the seed thereof, upon the earth: and it was so. 12 And the earth brought forth grass, herbs yielding seed after their kind, and trees bearing fruit, wherein is the seed thereof, after their kind: and God saw that it was good. 13 And there was evening and there was morning, a third day. (American Standard Version, ASV)[for more details, go to www.jw.org].

Climate
The langsat is ultra-tropical. Even in its native territory it cannot be grown at an altitude over 2,100 to 2,500 ft (650-750 m). It needs a humid atmosphere, plenty of moisture and will not tolerate long dry seasons. Some shade is beneficial especially during the early years.

Soil
The tree does best on deep, rich, well-drained, sandy loam or other soils that are slightly acid to neutral and high in organic matter. It is inclined to do poorly on clay that dries and cracks during rainless periods, and is not at all adapted to alkaline soils. It will not endure even a few days of water-logging.

Pests and Diseases
In Puerto Rico, young langsat trees have been defoliated by the sugarcane root borer, Diaprepes abbreviatus. Scale insects, especially Pseudaonidia articulatus and Pseudaulacaspis pentagona, and the red spider mite, Tetranychus bimaculatus, are sometimes found attacking the foliage, and sooty mold is apt to develop on the honeydew deposited by the scales. Rats gnaw on the branchlets and branches and the mature fruits.

Anthracnose caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides is evidenced by brown spots and other blemishes on the fruit and peduncle and leads to premature shedding of fruits.

Canker which makes the bark become rough and corky and flake off has appeared on langsats in Florida, Hawaii and Tahiti. It was believed to be caused by a fungus, Cephalosporium sp., and larvae of a member of the Tineidae have been observed feeding under the loosened bark. However, other fungi, Nectria sp. (perfect stage of Volutella sp.) and Phomopsis sp. are officially recorded as causes of stem gall canker on the langsat in Florida. (source - retrieved from http://www.hort.purdue.edu/newcrop/morton/langsat.html on 1/17/2013)

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Francis David said it long ago, "Neither the sword of popes...nor the image of death will halt the march of truth."Francis David, 1579, written on the wall of his prison cell." Read the book, "What Does The Bible Really Teach" and the Bible today, and go to www.jw.org!



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Re: Almighty God’s (YHWH) Great Gift to Mankind, The Rare Fruit Trees and Herbs

Post  Admin on Fri Jan 23, 2015 10:55 am

Hi Everyone:

Here is a Commentary on Bountiful Trees and Vegetables God (YHWH) has provided for mankind, specifically the Diospyros kaki, Tamopan Persimmon Tree – Astringent Kaki Persimmon.

Tamopan persimmon tree is one of the largest growers, often reaching 30 foot tall. Great fruiting shade tree. The fruit is has an odd shape like a flattened tomato that looks like it’s wearing a cap! Don’t let its odd shape stop you, this persimmon is tasty and excellent for cooking in puddings and breads. Mid season fruit ripens in October to November. Zones 7-9. [sourc - retrieved from http://www.justfruitsandexotics.com/JFE/product/tamopan-persimmon-tree/ on 1/22/2015]

PERSIMMON
Diospyros kaki Linn
Ebenaceae
Common Names: Persimmon, Oriental Persimmon, Japanese Persimmon, Kaki.
Related species: Black Sapote (Diospyros digyna), Mabolo, Velvet Apple (D. discolor), Date Plum (D. lotus), Texas Persimmon (D. texana), American Persimmon (D. virginiana).
Origin: The oriental persimmon is native to China, where it has been cultivated for centuries and more than two thousand different cultivars exist. It spread to Korea and Japan many years ago where additional cultivars were developed. The plant was introduced to California in the mid 1800's.

Adaptation: Persimmons do best in areas that have moderate winters and relatively mild summers--suitable for growing in USDA Hardiness Zones 7 to 10. It can tolerate temperatures of 0° F when fully dormant. However, because of its low chilling requirement (less than 100 hours), it may break dormancy during early warm spells only to be damaged by spring frosts later. The leaves are killed by 26° F when growing. Trees do not produce well in the high summer heat of desert regions, which may also sunburn the bark.

DESCRIPTION
Growth Habit: The persimmon is a multitrunked or single-stemmed deciduous tree to 25 ft. high and at least as wide. It is a handsome ornamental with drooping leaves and branches that give it a languid, rather tropical appearance. The branches are somewhat brittle and can be damaged in high winds.

Foliage: Persimmon leaves are alternate, simple, ovate and up to 7 inches long and 4 inches wide. They are often pale, slightly yellowish green in youth, turning a dark, glossy green as they age. Under mild autumn conditions the leaves often turn dramatic shades of yellow, orange and red. Tea can also be made from fresh or dried leaves.
Flowers: The inconspicuous flowers surrounded by a green calyx tube are borne in the leaf axils of new growth from one-year old wood. Female flowers are single and cream-colored while the pink-tinged male flowers are typically borne in threes. Commonly, 1 to 5 flowers per twig emerge as the new growth extends (typically March). Persimmon trees are usually either male or female, but some trees have both male and female flowers. On male plants, especially, occasional perfect (bisexual) flowers occur, producing an atypical fruit. A tree's sexual expression can vary from one year to the other. Many cultivars are parthenocarpic (setting seedless fruit without pollination), although some climates require pollination for adequate production. When plants not needing pollination are pollinated, they will produce fruits with seeds and may be larger and have a different flavor and texture than do their seedless counterparts.
Fruit: Persimmons can be classified into two general categories: those that bear astringent fruit until they are soft ripe and those that bear nonastringent fruits. Within each of these categories, there are cultivars whose fruits are influenced by pollination (pollination variant) and cultivars whose fruits are unaffected by pollination (pollination constant). Actually, it is the seeds, not pollination per se, that influences the fruit. An astringent cultivar must be jelly soft before it is fit to eat, and such cultivars are best adapted to cooler regions where persimmons can be grown. The flesh color of pollination-constant astringent cultivars is not influenced by pollination. Pollination-variant astringent cultivars have dark flesh around the seeds when pollinated. A nonastringent persimmon can be eaten when it is crisp as an apple. These cultivars need hot summers, and the fruit might retain some astringency when grown in cooler regions. Pollination-constant nonastringent (PCNA) persimmons are always edible when still firm; pollination-variant nonastringent (PVNA) fruit are edible when firm only if they have been pollinated.

The shape of the fruit varies by cultivar from spherical to acorn to flattened or squarish. The color of the fruit varies from light yellow-orange to dark orange-red. The size can be as little as a few ounces to more than a pound. The entire fruit is edible except for the seed and calyx. Alternate bearing is common. This can be partially overcome by thinning the fruit or moderately pruning after a light-crop year. Astringency can also be removed by treating with carbon dioxide or alcohol. Freezing the fruit overnight and then thawing softens the fruit and also removes the astringency. Unharvested fruit remaining on the tree after leaf fall creates a very decorative effect. It is common for many immature fruit to drop from May to September

CULTURE
Location: Full sun with some air movement is recommended for persimmon trees in inland areas, although they will tolerate some partial shade. Persimmons grown in cooler areas should have full sun with protection from cooling breezes. As an attractive ornamental the tree fits well in the landscape. It does not compete well with eucalyptus.
Soil: Persimmons can withstand a wide rage of conditions as long as the soil is not overly salty, but does best in deep, well drained loam. A pH range of 6.5 to 7.5 is preferred. The tree has a strong tap root which may mean digging a deeper hole than usual when planting (when on D. kaki stock).

Irrigation: Persimmon trees will withstand short periods of drought, but the fruit will be larger and of higher quality with regular watering. Extreme drought will cause the leaves and fruit to drop prematurely. Any fruit left on the tree will probably sunburn. Some 36 to 48 inches of water are needed annually, applied gradually in spring and tapering off in the fall. Hot inland areas may require 2 or 3 applications weekly, while coastal areas may need watering only once every 6 weeks, depending on the soil. If a drip system is used, the emitters should be moved away from the trunk as the tree matures.

Fertilization: Most trees do well with a minimum of fertilizing. Excess nitrogen can cause fruit drop. If mature leaves are not deep green and shoot growth is less than a foot per year, apply a balanced fertilizer such as a 10-10-10 at a rate of l pound per inch of trunk diameter at ground level. Spread the fertilizer evenly under the canopy in late winter or early spring.

Pruning: Prune persimmon trees to develop a strong framework of main branches while the tree is young. Otherwise the fruit, which is borne at the tips of the branches, may be too heavy and cause breakage. A regular program of removal of some new growth and heading others each year will improve structure and reduce alternate bearing. An open vase system is probably best. Even though the trees grow well on their own, persimmons can be pruned heavily as a hedge, as a screen, or to control size. They even make a nice espalier. Cut young trees back to 1/2 high (or about 3 feet) at the time of planting.

Propagation: Stratification is recommended for all persimmon seeds. The common rootstock in California is D. lotus, although it is not compatible with some cultivars, including fuyu. Other rootstock such as D. kaki seedlings are temperamental and have long tap roots. D. virginiana is inconsistent and suckers badly. Whip and cleft grafts are the ones commonly used. The trunks of young trees should be protected from sunburn and rodent damage.

Pests and Diseases: Persimmons are relatively problem-free, although mealybug and scale in association with ants can sometimes cause problems. Ant control will usually take care of these pests. Other occasional pests include white flies, thrips which can cause skin blemishes and a mite that is blamed for the "brown lace collar" near the calyx. Waterlogging can also cause root rot. Vertebrate pests such as squirrels, deer, coyotes, rats, opossums and birds are fond of the fruit and gophers will attack the roots. Other problems include blossom and young fruit shedding, especially on young trees. This is not usually a serious problem, but if the drop is excessive, it may be useful to try girdling a few branches. Over watering or over fertilization may also be responsible. Large quantities of small fruit on an otherwise healthy tree can be remedied by removing all but one or two fruit per twig in May or June.

Harvest: Harvest astringent varieties when they are hard but fully colored. They will soften on the tree and improve in quality, but you will probably lose many fruit to the birds. Astringent persimmons will ripen off the tree if stored at room temperature. Nonastringent persimmons are ready to harvest when they are fully colored, but for best flavor, allow them to soften slightly after harvest. Both kinds of persimmons should be cut from the tree with hand-held pruning shears, leaving the calyx intact Unless the fruit is to be used for drying whole, the stems should be cut as close to the fruit as possible. Even though the fruit is relatively hard when harvested, it will bruise easily, so handle with care.

Mature, hard astringent persimmons can be stored in the refrigerator for at least a month. They can also be frozen for 6 to 8 months. Nonastringent persimmons can be stored for a short period at room temperature. They will soften if kept with other fruit in the refrigerator. Persimmons also make an excellent dried fruit. They can either be peeled and dried whole or cut into slices (peeled or unpeeled) and dried that way. When firm astringent persimmons are peeled and dried whole they lose all their astringency and develop a sweet, datelike consistency.

Commercial Potential: Persimmons are found in most supermarkets during the season, but there is not a large demand outside ethnic markets. It would appear that there is a potential as a major crop if and when the market is developed.

CULTIVARS
There has been a great deal of confusion and misidentification among persimmon cultivars. The following list is subject to revision as better analysis techniques become available.
Astringent Varieties

Eureka
Medium to large oblate fruit, puckered at the calyx. Skin bright orange-red. Good quality. Ripens late. Tree small, vigorous,drought and frost resistant, precocious and heavy-bearing. One of the most satisfactory cultivars for Florida and Texas

Hachiya
Large, oblong-conical fruit Skin glossy, deep orange. Flesh dark yellow. Sweet and rich. Good for drying. Ripens midseason to late. Tree vigorous, upright-spreading. Prolific in California.

Honan Red
Small, roundish oblate fruit with thin skin. Skin and flesh ripen to a distinct orange-red. Very sweet and rich. Excellent for fresh eating and drying. Ripens midseason to late. Tall, upright, moderately vigorous tree. Bears good crop.

Saijo
Small, elongated fruit. Skin dull-yellow when mature. Flavor sweet, excellent, ranked among the best by gourmets. Mature fruits are attractive when dried. Tree medium in height, bears consistently. Cold hardy to -10° F.

Tamopan
Large, somewhat four-sided fruit, broad-oblate and indented around the middle. Skin thick, orange-red. Flesh light orange, sweet and rich when fully ripe. Ripens midseason in California
Tanenashi
Medium-sized round-conical fruits. Skin light yellow or orange, turning orange-red, thick. Flesh yellow, sweet. Ripens early. Tree vigorous, rounded, prolific. In California tends to bear in alternate years.

Triumph
Sold as Sharon Fruit after astringency has been chemically removed. Medium-sized, oblate fruits. Ripens in October.
Nonastringent Varieties

Fuyu (Fuyugaki)
Medium-large oblate fruit, faintly four-sided. Skin deep orange. Flesh light orange, sweet and mild. Ripens late. Keeps well and is an excellent packer and shipper. Tree vigorous, spreading, productive. Most popular nonastringent cultivar in Japan.

Gosho/Giant Fuyu/O'Gosho
Large, roundish-oblate fruit. Skin reddish orange, attractive. When fully ripe has one of the deepest red colors of any persimmon. Flesh quality good, sweeter than Fuyu. Ripens in late October. Tree somewhat dwarf. Bears regularly but sets a light crop in some seasons and is prone to premature shedding of fruit.

Imoto
Similar to Jiro. Reddish brown skin. Occasional male flowers and seeds. Probably a bud mutation of Jiro. Ripens late October and early November

Izu
Medium-sized fruit. Skin burnt orange. Flesh soft, with a good amount of syrup, of fine texture. Flavor very good. Not reliably nonastringent. Ripens early, from the end of September to mid-October. Tree somewhat dwarf. Bears only female flowers. Sets good crop.

Jiro
Fruit large. Resembles Fuyu, but more truncated and squarish in cross-section. Skin orange-red. Flavor and quality excellent. Ripens late October and early November, ships well. Often sold as Fuyu. Tree slightly upright. Most popular nonastringent variety in California.

Maekawajiro
Medium-sized, rounded fruit, smoother and less indented than Jiro. Rich orange in color. Sweet and of good quality. Ripens in mid-season. Tree slightly upright. Must be planted with a suitable pollinator to ensure good fruit yield. Bud mutation of Jiro.

Okugosho
Medium-sized, round fruit. Skin orange to deep red. Flesh sweet, of good texture, flavor good. Not reliably nonastringent. Ripens in early November. Tree medium-sized, vigorous, spreading. Differentiates male flowers, making it a suitable pollinator.

Suruga
Large fruit. Skin orange-red. Flesh dense, very sweet, excellent quality. Difficult to soften on tree (fruit becomes spongy rather than soft). Ripens in November, keeps well Tree almost free from alternate bearing. Recommended for warmer climates.

Pollination Variant Varieties (astringent when seedless)
Chocolate
Small to medium-sized, oblong-conical fruit. Skin reddish orange. Flesh brown-streaked when pollinated, must be soft-ripe before eating. Ripens late October to early November. Tree large, vigorous, producing many male blossoms. Recommended as a pollinator for pollination variant cultivars such as Hyakuma and Zenji Maru.

Gailey
Fruit small, roundish to conical with a rounded apex. Skin dull red, pebbled. Flesh dark, firm, juicy, of fair flavor. Tree small to medium. Bears many male flowers regularly and is an excellent cultivar to plant for cross-pollination. Has attractive autumn foliage and ornamental value.

Hyakume
Fruit large, roundish oblong to roundish oblate. Skin buff-yellow to light orange, marked with rings and veins near the apex. Flesh dark cinnamon when seeded, juicy, of firm texture, nonmelting. Flavor spicy, very good. Nonastringent even while the fruit is still hard. Ripens in midseason, stores and ships well.

Maru
Small to medium-sized fruit, rounded at the apex. Skin brilliant orange-red, attractive. Flesh dark cinnamon, juicy, sweet and rich, quality excellent. Stores and ships especially well. Tree vigorous and productive. Generally considered a group name.

Nishimura Wase
Fruit medium, round conical to oblate. Orange color. Mediocre flavor. Ripens in September. Bears male flowers.
[sourc - retrieved from http://www.crfg.org/pubs/ff/persimmon.html on 1/22/2015]

In Genesis 1:11-13, "And God said, Let the earth put forth grass, herbs yielding seed, and fruit-trees bearing fruit after their kind, wherein is the seed thereof, upon the earth: and it was so. 12 And the earth brought forth grass, herbs yielding seed after their kind, and trees bearing fruit, wherein is the seed thereof, after their kind: and God saw that it was good. 13 And there was evening and there was morning, a third day. (American Standard Version, ASV)[for more details, go to www.jw.org].

Fruit can be viewed at, https://images.search.yahoo.com/yhs/search;_ylt=A0LEVv3hn8FUGDIAjlQPxQt.;_ylu=X3oDMTB0ZjNuMHJ1BHNlYwNzYwRjb2xvA2JmMQR2dGlkA1lIUzAwM18x?_adv_prop=image&fr=yhs-comodo-com_chrome&va=Tamopan+Persimmon&hspart=comodo&hsimp=yhs-com_chrome

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To enjoy an online Bible study called “Follow the Christ” go to, http://www.network54.com/Forum/403209/thread/1417398076/last-1417398076/Digital+Book+On+18+Part+Follow+Christ+Bible+Study

Your Friend in Christ Iris89

Francis David said it long ago, "Neither the sword of popes...nor the image of death will halt the march of truth. "Francis David, 1579, written on the wall of his prison cell." Read the book, "What Does The Bible Really Teach" and the Bible today, and go to www.jw.org!


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Re: Almighty God’s (YHWH) Great Gift to Mankind, The Rare Fruit Trees and Herbs

Post  Admin on Thu Jan 29, 2015 2:57 pm

Hi Everyone:

Here is a Commentary on Bountiful Trees and Vegetables God (YHWH) has provided for mankind, specifically the Citrullus vulgaris, Tinda Squash or Cucurbit.

The tinda and plural called tinday also called Indian round gourd or apple gourd or Indian Baby Pumpkin, is a squash-like cucurbit grown for its immature fruit, a vegetable especially popular in South Asia. It is the only member of the genus Praecitrullus. "tinda" is also called "tindsi" in rajasthan. InMarathi, it is called Dhemase. In Sindhi language, it is called Meha.
The plant is, as with all cucurbits, a prolific vine, and is grown as an annual. The fruit is approximately spherical, and 5–8 cm in diameter. The seeds may also be roasted and eaten. Tinda is a famous nickname among Punjabi families in India. This unique squash-like gourd is native to India, very popular in Indian and Pakistani cooking with curry and many gourmet dishes. Green colored, apple sized fruits are flattish round in shape and 50-60 grams in weight. Plants are vigorous, productive and begin to bear fruits in 70 days after planting.

Can be confused with Tendli or Kundru due to similar sounding name from different languages and regions. Tinda in Punjabi or most North Indian Languages is "Indian Baby Pumpkin". [source - retrieved from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tinda on 1 /22/2015]

In Genesis 1:11-13, "And God said, Let the earth put forth grass, herbs yielding seed, and fruit-trees bearing fruit after their kind, wherein is the seed thereof, upon the earth: and it was so. 12 And the earth brought forth grass, herbs yielding seed after their kind, and trees bearing fruit, wherein is the seed thereof, after their kind: and God saw that it was good. 13 And there was evening and there was morning, a third day. (American Standard Version, ASV)[for more details, go to www.jw.org].

To view this squash, go to, https://images.search.yahoo.com/yhs/search;_ylt=A0LEVi31_8JUtMsAyRcPxQt.;_ylu=X3oDMTB0ZjNuMHJ1BHNlYwNzYwRjb2xvA2JmMQR2dGlkA1lIUzAwM18x?_adv_prop=image&fr=yhs-comodo-com_chrome&va=tinda+gourd&hspart=comodo&hsimp=yhs-com_chrome

TO LEARN MORE ABOUT RELIGION AND THE BIBLE, GO TO,

1) http://iris89.conforums.com/

2) http://www.network54.com/Forum/403209/

3) http://religioustruths.lefora.com/

4) http://religioustruths.boardhost.com/

5) http://religioustruths.forumsland.com/

6) http://religioustruthsbyiris.createmybb3.com/

7) http://religioustruths.forumotion.com/

To enjoy an online Bible study called “Follow the Christ” go to, http://www.network54.com/Forum/403209/thread/1417398076/last-1417398076/Digital+Book+On+18+Part+Follow+Christ+Bible+Study

Your Friend in Christ Iris89

Francis David said it long ago, "Neither the sword of popes...nor the image of death will halt the march of truth. "Francis David, 1579, written on the wall of his prison cell." Read the book, "What Does The Bible Really Teach" and the Bible today, and go to www.jw.org!

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Re: Almighty God’s (YHWH) Great Gift to Mankind, The Rare Fruit Trees and Herbs

Post  Admin on Mon Feb 02, 2015 3:32 pm

Here is a Commentary on Bountiful Trees and Vegetables God (YHWH) has provided for mankind, specifically the Lagenaria siceraria (synonym Lagenaria vulgaris Ser.), The bottle gourd, also known as opo squash, or long melon, is a vine grown for its fruit, which can either be harvested young and used as a vegetable, or harvested mature, dried, and used as a bottle, utensil, or pipe. The fresh fruit has a light green smooth skin and a white flesh. Rounder varieties are called calabash gourds. They come in a variety of shapes: they can be huge and rounded, small and bottle shaped, or slim and serpentine, more than a metre long. Gourds are often called "calabashes", but this is incorrect; calabashes (Crescentia cujete) are the fruit of the tree, while gourds (Lagenaria) grow on vines. See Sally Price, "When is a calabash not a calabash" (New West Indian Guide 56:69-82, 1982).
The gourd was one of the first cultivated plants in the world, grown not primarily for food, but for use as a water container. The bottle gourd may have been carried from Africa to Asia, Europe and the Americas in the course of human migration,[1] or by seeds floating across the oceans inside the gourd. It has been proved to be in the New World prior to the arrival of Columbus.[2]
Origin and dispersal
It is a commonly cultivated plant in tropical and subtropical areas of the world, now believed by some to have spread or originated from wild populations in southern Africa. Stands of Lagenaria siceraria, which may be source plants, and not merely domesticated stands, were reported recently in Zimbabwe.[3] This apparent domestication source plant produces thinner-walled fruit that, when dried, would not endure the rigors of use on long journeys as a water container. Today's gourd may owe its tough, waterproof wall to selection pressures over its long history ofdomestication.[4]
Cultivation
Gourds were cultivated in Asia, Europe, and the Americas for thousands of years before Columbus' discovery of America. Historically, in Europe,[5] Walahfrid Strabo(808–849), abbot and poet from Reichenau, advisor to the Carolingian kings, discussed it in his Latin Hortulus as one of the 23 plants of an ideal garden.[6][7]
Recent research indicates some can have an African origin and at least two unrelated domestications: one 8–9 thousand years ago, based on the analysis of archeological samples found in Asia, a second, four thousand years ago, traced from archeological discoveries in Egypt.
The mystery of the bottlegourd – namely that this African or Eurasian species was being grown in America over 8,000 years ago[8] – came about from the difficulty in understanding how it came to be on the American continent. The bottle gourd was originally thought to have drifted across the Atlantic Ocean from Africa to North and South America. But genetic research on archeological samples published by theNational Academy of Sciences in December 2005 suggested that it may have been domesticated earlier than food crops and livestock and, like dogs, was brought into the New World at the end of the ice age to the native Paleo-Indians. This study showed that gourds found in American archaeological finds appeared closer to Asian variants than to African ones.[9]
In February 2014, the original hypothesis was revived based on a more thorough genetic study. Researchers examined the entire genome, including the plasmidgenome and concluded that American specimens were most closely related to wild African variants and could have drifted over the ocean several or many times as long as 10,000 years ago.[10]
Nowadays bottle gourd is grown by direct sowing of seeds or transplanting 15 to 20 days old seedlings. It prefers well-drained, moist, rich soil. It requires plenty of moisture in the growing season and prefers a warm sunny position sheltered from the wind. If it is cultivated in a small place you can grow it in a pot, spread the vine on trellis or roof. In rural areas, many houses with thatched roofs are found covered with the gourd vines. Bottle gourds grow very rapidly and their stems can reach a length of 9 metres in the Summer. So they need a solid support to climb by the pole or trellis along the stem. If it is planted under a long tree the vine can grow up to the top of the tree. To get more fruits, sometimes farmers cut off the tip of the vine when it has grown 6–8 feet long. This will force the plant to produce side branches that will produce fruit much sooner and more flowers and more fruits. The plant produces white flowers. The male flowers have long peduncles and the females have short ones with an ovary of the shape of the fruit. Sometimes the female flowers drop off without growing into a gourd due to the failure of pollination if no bee activity is found in the garden area. To solve the problem, you can pollinate bottle gourd by hand. Hand Pollination When the flowers open, rub a soft brush first in the male flower and then in the female flower. Or rub softly the inside of both the flowers together. Experienced farmers can do this easily. Crops are ready for harvest within two months; yield ranges from 35–40 m tons/ha.
Occasional toxicity
Like other members of the Cucurbitaceae family, gourds contain cucurbitacins that are known to be cytotoxic at a high concentration. The tetracyclic triterpenoid cucurbitacins present in fruits and vegetables of the cucumber family, are responsible for the bitter taste, and could cause ulcers in the stomach. In extreme cases, people have died from drinking the juice of gourds.[11][12][13] The toxic cases are usually due to the gourd being used to make juice, which the drinkers attested to being unusually bitter.[14] And in the three lethal cases, the victims were all diabetics in their 50s and 60s.[14]
However, the plant is not normally toxic when eaten and is safe to consume. The excessively bitter (and toxic) gourds are due to improper storage (temperature swings or high temperature) and over-riping.[15]
To avoid poisoning, it is advised to:[14]
1. Taste a small piece of the gourd to make sure it is not unusually bitter, before making juice
2. Discard all excessively bitter gourd or juice
3. Do not mix the juice of gourds with other juices, such as that of bitter gourd, so as not to mask the taste if it has gone bad.
Culinary uses:
Calabash, cooked, no saltNutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz)Energy63 kJ (15 kcal)Carbohydrates3.69 gDietary fiber1.2 gFat0.02 gProtein0.6 gVitaminsThiamine (B1)(3%)
0.029 mgRiboflavin (B2)(2%)
0.022 mgNiacin (B3)(3%)
0.39 mgPantothenic acid (B5)(3%)
0.144 mgVitamin B6(3%)
0.038 mgFolate (B9)(1%)
4 ?gVitamin C(10%)
8.5 mgTrace metalsCalcium(2%)
24 mgIron(2%)
0.25 mgMagnesium(3%)
11 mgManganese(3%)
0.066 mgPhosphorus(2%)
13 mgPotassium(4%)
170 mgSodium(0%)
2 mgZinc(7%)
0.7 mg
Link to USDA Database entry* Units
* ?g = micrograms • mg = milligrams
* IU = International units Percentages are roughly approximated usingUS recommendations for adults.
Source: USDA Nutrient Database The calabash, as a vegetable, is frequently used in southern Chinese cuisine as either a stir-fry or in a soup. The Mandarin name for calabash is hulu(simplified Chinese: ??; traditional Chinese: ??; pinyin: húlu) or huzi(Chinese: ??; pinyin: húzi). Two common kinds of calabash sold in Chinese stores are the "Opo" kind, which is elongated but still plump, and "Mao Gua" which is very similar to Opo, but it has hairs, as its Chinese name references, which translates to "Hairy Squash". The hairs, although small, can get embedded in the skin, but it is usually safe for adults to handle.
In Japan, the species is known as hy?tan or ygao with the former word referring particularly to the larger-fruiting variety whose fruits are used mostly for making containers or other handicrafts, and the latter referring to the smaller-fruiting variety whose fruits are more edible. Names used to refer particularly to the fruit of one or another variety of this species include fukube and hisago. It is most commonly sold in the form of dried, marinated strips known as kanpy? and is commonly used as an ingredient for makingmakizushi (rolled sushi).
In Korea, it is known as bak (?) or jorongbak.
In Burma, it is known as boo thee, a popular fruit; young leaves are also boiled and eaten with spicy hot, fermented fish sauce called nga peet.
In the Philippines, it is known as upo. In Italian cuisine, it is known as cucuzza (plural cucuzze).
In Central America, the seeds of the bottle gourd are toasted and ground with other ingredients (including rice, cinnamon, and allspice) to make the drink horchata. (The calabash tree, Crescentia cujete, is known locally as morro or jícaro; that is another "calabash").
In Colombia and Venezuela, the calabash tree Crescentia cujete is known as a taparo or totumo (it is another "calabash" plant).
In Pakistan, the green Calabash is known as lauki while the yellow variety is known as kaddu in Urdu.
In Bangladesh, it is called laau or kaddu. In Nepali, it is called lauka. In Arabic, it is called qara.
In Aramaic, it is called kura. In the Talmudic period, the young fruits were boiled, whilst the mature fruits were eaten as desert. The tender young gourd is cooked as a summer squash. In Vietnam, it is called b?u canh or b?u n?m, and is used in a variety of dishes: boiled, stir-fried, soup dishes, and as a medicine.
The shoots, tendrils, and leaves of the plant may also be eaten as greens.
Cultural uses
India
Calabash is used in many string instruments in India as a resonator. Instruments that look like guitars are made of wood but they can have a calabash resonator at the end of the strings table called toomba. The sitar, the surbahar, the tanpura(south of India, tambura north of India), may have a toomba. In some cases, the toomba may not be functional, but, if the instrument is large, it keeps its place because of its balance function; that is the case of the Saraswati veena. Other instruments like Rudra Veena and vichitra veena have 2 large calabash resonators at both ends of the strings table. The Baul singers of Bengal have their musical instruments made out of calabash. The practice is also common among Buddhistand Jain sages.[16]
These toombas are made of dried calabash gourds, using special cultivars that were originally imported from Africa and Madagascar. They are mostly grown in Bengal and near Miraj, Maharashtra. These gourds are valuable items and they are carefully tended; for example, sometimes they are given injections to stop worms and insects from making holes while they are drying, etc.
Hindu ascetics (sadhu) traditionally use a dried gourd vessel called the kamandalu. The juice of bottle gourd is considered to have medicinal properties and to be very good for health.
In parts of India, the dried, unpunctured gourd is used as a float (called surai-kuduvai in Tamil) to learn swimming in rural areas.
The Caribbean
Calabash is primarily used for utensils, such as cups, bowls, and basins in rural areas. It can be used for carrying water or can be made for carrying items, such as fish, when fishing. In some Caribbean countries, it is worked, painted and decorated as shoulder bags or other items by artisans, and sold to tourists. In Jamaica, it is also a reference to the natural lifestyle ofRastafarians. As a cup, bowl, or even water-pipe or "bong", the calabash is considered consistent with the "Ital" or vital lifestyle of not using refined products such as table salt, or using modern cooking methods, such as microwaves. In Haiti, the plant is called kalbas kouran, literally, "running calabash", and is used to make the sacred rattle emblematic of the Vodou priesthood, called an asson. As such, the plant is highly respected. It is also the national tree of St. Lucia.
Africa
Hollowed out and dried calabashes are a very typical utensil in households across West Africa. They are used to clean rice, carry water, and as food containers. Smaller sizes are used as bowls to drink palm wine.
Calabashes are used in making the West African kora (a harp-lute), xalam/ngoni (a lute) and the goje (a traditional fiddle). They also serve as resonators underneath the balafon (West Africanmarimba). The calabash is also used in making the shegureh (a Sierra Leonean women's rattle)[21] and balangi (a Sierra Leonean type of balafon) musical instruments. Sometimes, large calabashes are simply hollowed, dried, and used as percussion instruments, especially by Fulani, Songhai, Gur-speaking andHausa peoples. In Nigeria, the calabash has been used to avoid a law requiring the wearing of a helmet on a motorcycle.[22] In South Africa, it is commonly used as a drinking vessel by tribes such as the Zulus. Erbore tribe children in Ethiopia wear hats made from the calabash to protect them from the sun. Recently, the Soccer City stadium which hosted the FIFA World Cup has been completed and its shape takes inspiration from the calabash.
Mexico
Note that "jícara" refers to the Crescentia cujete calabash
In many rural parts of Mexico, the calabash is dried and carved hollow to create a bule or a guaje, a gourd used to carry water around like a canteen. The gourd cut in half, called jícara, gave the parallel name to a clay cup jícara.
Costa Rica
Note that "guacal" in Costa Rica refers to Crescentia cujete tree calabash.
The Costa Rican town of Santa Bárbara de Santa Cruz holds a traditional annual dance of the calabashes (baile de los guacales). Since 2000, the activity has been considered of cultural interest to the community, and all participants receive a hand-painted calabash vessel to thank them for their economic contribution (which they paid in the form of an entrance ticket).[23]
Aboriginals throughout the country traditionally serve chicha in calabash vessels to the participants of special events such as the baile de los diablitos (dance of the little fiends).[24]
South America
In Brazil, Chile, Argentina, Uruguay and Paraguay, calabash gourds are dried and carved into mates (Quichua word, adopted in Spanish language), the traditional container for the popular caffeinated, tea-like drink brewed from the yerba mate plant (the container called cuia, porongo or cabaça in Brazil). In the same region, it is called mate as is also the calabash from which the drinking vessels are made, and, in Peru, (where the practice of drinking mate is not adopted,) it is used in a popular practice for the making of mate burilado; "burilado" is the technique adopted for decorating the matecalabashes. In Brazil, gourds also commonly used as the resonator for the berimbau, the signature instrument of capoeira, a martial art/dance developed in Brazilian plantations by African slaves. The calabash gourd is possibly mankind's oldest instrument resonator.
In the region where Incas lived (Peru, Bolivia, Ecuador), calabash gourds are known to have been used for medicinal purposes for over a thousand years by Andean cultures. The Inca culture applied folklore symbology to gourds to pass down from one generation to another, and this practice is still familiar and valued.
Bowls made of calabash were used by Indigenous Brazilians as utensils made to serve food, and the practice is still retained in some remote areas of Brazil (originally by populations of various ethnicities, origins and regions, but nowadays mainly the indigenes themselves).
Venezuela
Note that "totuma" refers to the vessel made of Crescentia cujete calabash.
Former president Hugo Chávez of Venezuela, suggested Venezuelans avoid showers longer than three minutes.[25][26]Critics of Chavez ridiculed this by reductio ad absurdum, ironically suggesting the use of a totuma to bathe (although Chavez himself did not suggest this).,[27][28] inferring that people has to bathe with "a totuma of water", the quantity of water that only one totuma can hold. It's a joke because it's exaggeratting the original words, because a totuma is a device that carries very little quantity of water, not enough for bathing (not even to get wet). This reaction is usual in all countries, compare U.S. President Jimmy Carter's speech urging Americans to conserve energy during the US 1979 energy crisis and negative reaction by his critics.[29]
China
The hulu is an ancient symbol for health.
In the old days, doctors would carry medicine inside it, so it has fabled properties for healing. The hulu is believed to absorb negative earth-based ki (energy) that would otherwise affect health, and is a traditional Chinese medicine cure. Dried calabash is also used as containers of liquids, often liquors or medicine. Calabash gourds were also grown in earthen molds to form different shapes with imprinted floral or arabesque design and dried to house pet crickets, which were kept for their song and fighting abilities. The texture of the gourd lends itself nicely to the sound of the animal, much like a musical instrument. It is a symbol of the Xian immortals.
Hulusi is a kind of flute.
Hawaii
In Hawaii, a calabash is a large serving bowl, usually made from a hardwood rather than from the calabash gourd as inMaroon cultures. It is used on a buffet table or in the middle of the dining table. The use of the calabash in Hawaii has led to terms like "calabash family" or "calabash cousins", indicating an extended family grown up around shared meals and close friendships.
This gourd is often dried when ripe and used as a percussion instrument called an ipu heke in contemporary and ancient hula.
Other uses
Additionally, the gourd can be dried and used to smoke pipe tobacco, usually constructed with a meerschaum lining holding the lit tobacco within the gourd. A typical design yielded by this squash is recognized (theatrically) as the pipe of Sherlock Holmes, but Doyle never mentioned Holmes using a calabash pipe. It was the preferred pipe for stage actors portraying Holmes, because they could balance this pipe better than other styles while delivering their lines. See, Smoking pipe (tobacco)‪#‎Calabash‬.
References
1. Jump up^ Erickson, David L.; Smith, Bruce D.; Clarke, Andrew C.; Sandweiss, Daniel H.; Tuross, Noreen. "An Asian origin for a 10,000-year-old domesticated plant in the Americas".PNAS 102 (51): 18315–18320 date = 20 December 2005.doi:10.1073/pnas.0509279102. PMC 1311910.PMID 16352716. Retrieved 17 November 2009.
2. Jump up^ "Cucurbitaceae--Fruits for Peons, Pilgrims, and Pharaohs". University of California at Los Angeles. Retrieved September 2, 2013.
3. Jump up^ Decker-Walters, D.S.; Wilkins-Ellert, M.; Chung, S.-M.; Staub, J.E. (2004). Discovery and genetic assessment of wild bottle gourd [ Lagenaria siceraria (Mol.) Standley, Cucurbitaceae] from Zimbabwe. mbe.oxfordjournals.org – Economic Botany 58. pp. 501–508.
4. Jump up^ Decker-Walters, D.S.; Wilkins-Ellert, M.; Chung, S.-M.; Staub, J.E. (2005). Reconstructing the Origins and Dispersal of the Polynesian Bottle Gourd (Lagenaria siceraria). Proceedings of the SMBE Tri-National Young Investigators' Workshop 2004. pp. 58, 501–508.
5. Jump up^ Gemüse des Jahres 2002: Der Flaschenkürbis (in German). Schandelah: VEN – Verein zur Erhaltung der Nutzpflanzen Vielfalt e.V. 2002.
6. Jump up^ Strabo, Walahfrid; Näf,W.; és Gabathuler,M. (ford.) (2000). De cultura hortorum (in Latin and German).ISBN 3-7995-3504-7.
7. Jump up^ Walahfrid Strabo (2002). De cultura hortorum sive Hortulus VII Cucurbita (in Latin). Fachhochschule Augsburg: bibliotheca Augustana.
8. Jump up^ White, Nancy (2005). Nancy White University of South Florida – South American Archaeology: Archaic, Preceramic, Sedentism. Bloomington: Indiana University Bloomington MATRIX project.
9. Jump up^ Erickson, David L.; Smith, Bruce D.; Clarke, Andrew C.; Sandweiss, Daniel H.; Tuross, Noreen (2005). An Asian origin for a 10,000-year-old domesticated plant in the Americas. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.
10. Jump up^ "Transoceanic drift and the domestication of African bottle gourds in the Americas", Kistler et al, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, February 10, 2014
11. Jump up^ Adhyaru-Majithia, Priya (13 March 2010). "Not all bitter veggies are good, they can kill you: Doctors". DNA(Bhaskar Group). Archived from the original on 9 July 2010. Retrieved 9 July 2010.
12. Jump up^ Chandra, Neetu (9 July 2010). "Toxin in lauki kills diabetic city scientist". India Today (Living Media). Archived from the original on 9 July 2010. Retrieved9 July 2010.
13. Jump up^ "Bitter 'lauki' juice can kill you". Times of india (Living Media). 28 June 2011. Retrieved 28 June 2010.
14. ^ Jump up to:a b c Indian Council of Medical Research Task Force, 2011, Gastrointestinal toxicity due to bitter bottle gourd
15. Jump up^ 2011, Evaluation of acute and subchronic toxicity of lagenaria , Indian Journal of Gastroenterology
16. Jump up^ Landsberg, Steven. "The History of an Indian Musical Instrument Maker".
17. Jump up^ India-instruments.de sitar
18. Jump up^http://www.ashokpathak.com/Ashok…/Ashok_Pathak_surbahar.html
19. ^ Jump up to:a b http://www.buckinghammusic.com/veena/veena.html
20. Jump up^ Daily Music. Tambura/tanpura.
21. Jump up^ image at Joseph Opala, "Origin of the Gullah", yale.edu.
22. Jump up^ "Nigeria bikers' vegetable helmets". BBC News. 6 January 2009.
23. Jump up^ "Baile del Guacal" [Dance of the Calabash]. La Nación(in Spanish). 1 July 2010.
24. Jump up^ Parrales, Freddy (29 January 2011). "Rey Curré se encendió con el baile de los diablitos" [Rey Curré was ignited with the dance of the little fiends]. La Nación (in Spanish).
25. Jump up^ "No more singing in the shower: Chavez urges Venezuelans to limit their wash to three minutes amid water shortages". Daily Mail (London). 22 October 2009.
26. Jump up^ Chavez y el comunismo on YouTube
27. Jump up^ La totuma endógena | Artículos Laureano Márquez. Laureanomarquez.com. Retrieved on 2013-08-16.
28. Jump up^ Como hacer Totuma-Ducha comunista on YouTube
29. Jump up^ Energy policy - Jimmy Carter - domestic, foreign. Presidentprofiles.com. Retrieved on 2013-08-16.
[sourc - retrieved from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Calabash on 1/22/2015]
In Genesis 1:11-13, "And God said, Let the earth put forth grass, herbs yielding seed, and fruit-trees bearing fruit after their kind, wherein is the seed thereof, upon the earth: and it was so. 12 And the earth brought forth grass, herbs yielding seed after their kind, and trees bearing fruit, wherein is the seed thereof, after their kind: and God saw that it was good. 13 And there was evening and there was morning, a third day. (American Standard Version, ASV)[for more details, go to www.jw.org].
See pictures at, https://images.search.yahoo.com/…/search;_ylt=A0LEVia48cJUx…
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Your Friend in Christ Iris89
Francis David said it long ago, "Neither the sword of popes...nor the image of death will halt the march of truth. "Francis David, 1579, written on the wall of his prison cell." Read the book, "What Does The Bible Really Teach" and the Bible today, and go to www.jw.org!

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Re: Almighty God’s (YHWH) Great Gift to Mankind, The Rare Fruit Trees and Herbs

Post  Admin on Wed Feb 04, 2015 12:15 pm

THE RARE FRUIT TREES AND VEGETABLES:

Here is a Commentary on Bountiful Trees and Vegetables God (YHWH) has provided for mankind, specifically the Langsat, Lansium domesticum, also known as langsat, buahluku or lanzones, is a species of tree in the family Meliaceae. The plant, which originates from western Southeast Asia, bears edible fruit. It is the provincial flower for the Indonesian province of South Sumatra.

Description
The tree is average sized, reaching 30 metres (98 ft) in height and 75 centimetres (30 in) in diameter. Seedling trees 30 years old planted at 8 x 8 meter spacing can have a height of 10 meters and diameter of 25 cm. The trunk grows in an irregular manner, with its buttress roots showing above ground. The tree's bark is a greyish colour, with light and dark spots. Its resin is thick and milk coloured.

The pinnately compound leaves are odd numbered, with thin hair, and 6 to 9 buds at intervals. The buds are long and elliptical, approximately 9 to 21 centimetres (3.5 to 8.3 in) by 5 to 10 centimetres (2.0 to 3.9 in) in size. The upper edge shines, and the leaves themselves have pointed bases and tips. The stems of the buds measure 5 to 12 millimetres (0.20 to 0.47 in).

The flowers are located in inflorescences that grow and hang from large branches or the trunk; the bunches may number up to 5 in one place. They are often branched at their base, measure 10 to 30 centimetres (3.9 to 12 in) in size, and have short fur. The flowers are small, with short stems, and have two genders. The sheathe is shaped like a five lobed cup and is coloured a greenish-yellow. The corona is egg-shaped and hard, measuring 2 to 3 millimetres (0.079 to 0.12 in) by 4 to 5 millimetres (0.16 to 0.20 in). There is one stamen, measuring 2 millimetres (0.079 in) in length. The top of the stamen is round. The pistil is short and thick.

The fruit is can be elliptical, oval, or round, measuring 2 to 7 centimetres (0.79 to 2.8 in) by 1.5 to 5 centimetres (0.59 to 2.0 in) in size. Fruits look much like small potatoes and are borne in clusters similar to grapes. The larger fruits are on the variety known as duku. It is covered by thin, yellow hair giving a slightly fuzzy aspect. The skin thickness varies with the varieties, from 2 millimetres (0.079 in) to approximately 6 millimetres (0.24 in). The fruit contains 1 to 3 seeds, flat, and bitter tasting; the seeds are covered with a thick, clear-white aril that tastes sweet and sour. The taste has been likened to a combination of grape and grapefruit and is considered excellent by most. The sweet juicy flesh contains sucrose, fructose, and glucose. For consumption, cultivars with small or undeveloped seeds and thick aril are preferred.

Varieties


L. domesticum sold in a bunch in a roadside stall in West Kutai
There are numerous varieties of L. domesticum, both the plants and the fruit. Some experts consider them separate species. Overall, there are two main varieties, those named duku and those named langsat. There are also mixed duku-langsat varieties.

Those called duku (L. domesticum var. duku) generally have a large crown, thick with bright green leaves, with short bunches of few fruit. The individual fruit are large, generally round, and have somewhat thick skin that does not release sap when cooked. The seeds are small, with thick flesh, a sweet scent, and a sweet or sour alin.

Meanwhile, the variant commonly known as langsat (L. domesticum var. domesticum) generally has thinner trees, with a less dense crown consisting of dark green leaves and stiff branches. The bunches are longer, and each bunch holds between 15 and 25 large, egg-shaped fruit. The skin is thin and releases a white sap when cooked. The flesh is watery and tastes sweet and sour. Unlike duku, langsat fruit does not last long after being picked. Three days after being picked, the skin blackens; this does not affect the fruit's taste

L. domesticum cultivation in Mandi Angin, Rawas Ilir, Musi Rawas.
L. domesticum var. aquaeum is distinguished by its hairy leaves, as well as the tightly packed dark yellow fruit on its bunches. The fruit tends to be small, with thin skin and little sap; the skin is difficult to remove. To be eaten, the fruit is bitten and the flesh sucked through the hole created, or rubbed until the skin breaks and the seeds are retrieved. In Indonesia the fruit has several names, including kokosan, pisitan, pijetan, and bijitan. The seeds are relatively large, with thin, sour flesh.
Reproduction:

L. domesticum in the Philippines
The seeds of L. domesticum are polyembryonic, with one the result of budding and the rest apomixisic. The apomixisic embryos are formed from the parent's tissue and have the same genetic make up. The seeds are also recalcitrant, with quick deterioration in fertility after seven days.
L. domesticum is traditionally reproduced by spreading seedlings, either cultivated or collected from below the tree. It has been said that new seedlings require 20 to 25 years to bear fruit, with the possibility of the quality being inferior. However other sources quote 12 years to first production from seed and no variations. Production often varies from year to year, and depends to some extent on having a dry period to induce flowering. One example of ten trees in Costa Rica about twenty-five years old produced during five years the following weights of salable fruits: 2008: 50 kilos, 2009: 2000 kilos, 2010: 1000 kilos, 2011: 100 kilos, 2012: 1500 kilos. Experiments in the Philippines with grafting where two trees are planted close to each other and then grafted when one to two meters tall to leave twin root systems on a single main trunk have resulted in earlier and less erratic fruit production.

Another common method is by air layering. Although the process requires up to several months, the new rooted tree produced is itself ready to bear fruit within two years. Trees cultivated with this method have a high death rate, and the growths are less resilient.
The third common way to reproduce L. domesticum is with grafting. This results in the new trees having the same genetic characteristics as their parent, and being ready to bear fruit within 5 to 6 years. The offspring are relatively stronger than transplanted shoots. (source - retrieved from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lansium_domesticum on 1/17/2013)

See pictures at http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Lansium_domesticum

In Genesis 1:11-13, "And God said, Let the earth put forth grass, herbs yielding seed, and fruit-trees bearing fruit after their kind, wherein is the seed thereof, upon the earth: and it was so. 12 And the earth brought forth grass, herbs yielding seed after their kind, and trees bearing fruit, wherein is the seed thereof, after their kind: and God saw that it was good. 13 And there was evening and there was morning, a third day. (American Standard Version, ASV)[for more details, go to www.jw.org].

Climate
The langsat is ultra-tropical. Even in its native territory it cannot be grown at an altitude over 2,100 to 2,500 ft (650-750 m). It needs a humid atmosphere, plenty of moisture and will not tolerate long dry seasons. Some shade is beneficial especially during the early years.

Soil
The tree does best on deep, rich, well-drained, sandy loam or other soils that are slightly acid to neutral and high in organic matter. It is inclined to do poorly on clay that dries and cracks during rainless periods, and is not at all adapted to alkaline soils. It will not endure even a few days of water-logging.

Pests and Diseases
In Puerto Rico, young langsat trees have been defoliated by the sugarcane root borer, Diaprepes abbreviatus. Scale insects, especially Pseudaonidia articulatus and Pseudaulacaspis pentagona, and the red spider mite, Tetranychus bimaculatus, are sometimes found attacking the foliage, and sooty mold is apt to develop on the honeydew deposited by the scales. Rats gnaw on the branchlets and branches and the mature fruits.

Anthracnose caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides is evidenced by brown spots and other blemishes on the fruit and peduncle and leads to premature shedding of fruits.

Canker which makes the bark become rough and corky and flake off has appeared on langsats in Florida, Hawaii and Tahiti. It was believed to be caused by a fungus, Cephalosporium sp., and larvae of a member of the Tineidae have been observed feeding under the loosened bark. However, other fungi, Nectria sp. (perfect stage of Volutella sp.) and Phomopsis sp. are officially recorded as causes of stem gall canker on the langsat in Florida. (source - retrieved from http://www.hort.purdue.edu/newcrop/morton/langsat.html on 1/17/2013)
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Francis David said it long ago, "Neither the sword of popes...nor the image of death will halt the march of truth. "Francis David, 1579, written on the wall of his prison cell." Read the book, "What Does The Bible Really Teach" and the Bible today, and go to www.jw.org!


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Re: Almighty God’s (YHWH) Great Gift to Mankind, The Rare Fruit Trees and Herbs

Post  Admin on Sun Feb 08, 2015 5:18 pm

THE RARE FRUIT TREES AND VEGETABLES:
Here is a Commentary on Bountiful Trees and Vegetables God (YHWH) has provided for mankind, specifically the Leycesteria formosa (Himalayan Honeysuckle, Flowering Nutmeg, Himalaya Nutmeg or Pheasant Berry) is a deciduous shrub in the family Caprifoliaceae, native to the Himalaya and southwestern China. It is considered a noxious invasive species in Australia, New Zealand, the neighboring islands of Macaronesia, and some other places.[1][2] It is not yet considered a noxious invasive species in Canada or the United States, but many plants with the common name "Honeysuckle" are.
The plant was named by Nathaniel Wallich, director of the Calcutta Botanic Garden after his friend William Leycester, a judge in the native court in Bengal[3]
It has soft, hollow, upright green stems 1–2 m tall, which only last for 2–5 years before collapsing and being replaced by new stems from the roots. The leaves are opposite, dark green, 6–18 cm long and 4–9 cm broad, with an entire or wavy margin. The flowers are produced on 5–10 cm long pendulous racemes; each flower is small, white, subtended by a purple bract. The fruit is a soft purple-black berry 1 cm diameter, eaten by birds which disperse the seeds.
L. formosa became a popular plant in Victorian shrubberies. Attempts have been made in recent years to repopularise the species in Britain with new cultivated varieties appearing in garden centres.
Leycesteria formosa fruit
References[edit]
1. Jump up^ Silva, L., E. Ojeda Land & J.L. Rodríguez Luengo (eds.) 2008. Invasive terrestrial flora and fauna of Macaronesia. Top 100 in Azores, Madeira and Canaries. ARENA, Ponta Delgada. 546 p
2. Jump up^ First record of the top invasive plant Leycesteria formosa (Caprifoliacea) in Terceira Island, Azores LUÍS SILVA, J. MARCELINO, R. RESENDES & J. MONI
3. Jump up^ Edwards's Botanical Register 2. 1839. p. xvi. Retrieved 23 December 2011. [SOURCE - RETRIEVED FROMhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Leycesteria_formosa ON 12/16/2013]
Physical Characteristics:
Leycesteria formosa is a deciduous Shrub growing to 2.5 m (8ft) by 2.5 m (8ft) at a medium rate.
It is hardy to zone 7. It is in flower from Jun to September, and the seeds ripen from Oct to November. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Insects.It is noted for attracting wildlife.
Suitable for: light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils and can grow in nutritionally poor soil. Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. It can grow in semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade. It prefers moist soil. The plant can tolerates strong winds but not maritime exposure.
It can tolerate atmospheric pollution.
Edible Parts: Fruit.
Edible Uses:
Fruit - one unconfirmed report said that the fruit is edible. In the better forms, the fully ripe and very soft fruit is very sweet with a treacle-like flavour, though in other forms it has a very bitter taste and is not very desirable[K]. [source - retrieved from http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx…on 12/16/2013]
In Genesis 1:11-13, "And God said, Let the earth put forth grass, herbs yielding seed, and fruit-trees bearing fruit after their kind, wherein is the seed thereof, upon the earth: and it was so. 12 And the earth brought forth grass, herbs yielding seed after their kind, and trees bearing fruit, wherein is the seed thereof, after their kind: and God saw that it was good. 13 And there was evening and there was morning, a third day. (American Standard Version, ASV)[for more details, go to www.jw.org].
To view the fruit and the vine, go to, https://www.google.com/search…
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To enjoy an online Bible study called “Follow the Christ” go to, http://www.network54.com/Forum/403209/thread/1417398076/last-1417398076/Digital+Book+On+18+Part+Follow+Christ+Bible+Study
Your Friend in Christ Iris89
Francis David said it long ago, "Neither the sword of popes...nor the image of death will halt the march of truth. "Francis David, 1579, written on the wall of his prison cell." Read the book, "What Does The Bible Really Teach" and the Bible today, and go to www.jw.org!


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Re: Almighty God’s (YHWH) Great Gift to Mankind, The Rare Fruit Trees and Herbs

Post  Admin on Tue Feb 10, 2015 11:56 pm


Hi Everyone:

Here is a Commentary on Bountiful Trees and Vegetables God (YHWH) has provided for mankind, specifically the Lilium amabile var. luteum, A member of the lily family having edible parts.

This lilly having edible parts is light yellow orange downward facing 3: flowers with black spots , on stems to 3 ½ ft. and is native to Korea. It is hardy to at least USDA Zone 4. The flower buds are cooked and eaten in Korea. It germinates in 2 to 4 weeks.

An encyclopedia says, “Lilium amabile (Chinese:????) is a species of plant with flower, a marine gastropod mollusk in the family Liliaceae. It is endemic to Korea.[1]

References
1. ^ The Genus Lilium. Lilium amabile Palibin 1901 (in English). Retrieved 7/17/2010.
2.
Bibliography
* Chung, t. h. 1956. Korea Flora. Shinzisa, Seoul;
* Lee, t. b. 1979. Illustrated Flora of Korea. Hangmunsa, Seoul;
* Lee Woong-Bin. 1989. the systematic study on genus Lilium in Korea. Korea Univ. thesis; Lee, Young-No. 1996. Flora of Korea. Kyohaksa, Seoul;
* Lee, y. t. 1996. Standard Illustrations of Korean Plants. Academy Co., Seoul. (source - retrieved from http://www.microsofttranslator.com/bv.aspx?ref=SERP&br=ro&mkt=en-US&dl=en&lp=PT_EN&a=http%3a%2f%2fpt.wikipedia.org%2fwiki%2fLilium_amabile on 3/8/2013)

In Genesis 1:11-13, "And God said, Let the earth put forth grass, herbs yielding seed, and fruit-trees bearing fruit after their kind, wherein is the seed thereof, upon the earth: and it was so. 12 And the earth brought forth grass, herbs yielding seed after their kind, and trees bearing fruit, wherein is the seed thereof, after their kind: and God saw that it was good. 13 And there was evening and there was morning, a third day. (American Standard Version, ASV)[for more details, go to www.jw.org].

Pictures of this and other lilies of this genus can be viewed at http://www.bing.com/images/search?q=Lilium+amabile+var.+luteum&qpvt=Lilium+amabile+var.+luteum&FORM=IGRE

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Francis David said it long ago, "Neither the sword of popes...nor the image of death will halt the march of truth."Francis David, 1579, written on the wall of his prison cell." Read the book, "What Does The Bible Really Teach" and the Bible today, and go to www.jw.org!

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Re: Almighty God’s (YHWH) Great Gift to Mankind, The Rare Fruit Trees and Herbs

Post  Admin on Thu Feb 12, 2015 1:17 pm

SCRIPTURE OF THE DAY [Wednesday]

Take heed unto thyself, and unto the doctrine; continue in them: for in doing this thou shalt both save thyself, and them that hear thee. 1 Timothy 4:16, [authorized King James Bible; AV]

What is the difference between knowledge, understanding, and wisdom? It could be illustrated this way: Imagine you are standing in the middle of a road and a bus is coming toward you. First, you recognize that it is a bus—that is knowledge. .Next, you realize that if you remain standing there, you will be hit by the bus—that is understanding! So you jump out of the way of the bus—that is wisdom! Little wonder the Bible emphasizes the need for us to “safeguard practical wisdom.” It means our very life!—(Prov. 3:21, 22);

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Your Friend in Christ Iris89

Francis David said it long ago, "Neither the sword of popes...nor the image of death will halt the march of truth. "Francis David, 1579, written on the wall of his prison cell." Read the book, "What Does The Bible Really Teach" and the Bible today, and go to www.jw.org!
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Re: Almighty God’s (YHWH) Great Gift to Mankind, The Rare Fruit Trees and Herbs

Post  Admin on Sun Feb 15, 2015 1:40 pm

THE RARE FRUIT TREES AND VEGETABLES:
Here is a Commentary on Bountiful Trees and Vegetables God (YHWH) has provided for mankind, Limonia acidissima.
Scientific Classification Kingdom:

Plantae
(unranked):
Angiosperms
(unranked):
Eudicots
(unranked):
Rosids
Order:
Sapindales
Family:
Rutaceae
Subfamily:
Aurantioideae
Tribe:
Citreae
Genus:
Limonia
L.
Species:
L. acidissima
Binomial name
Limonia acidissima
L.
Limonia acidissima (syn. Feronia elephantum, Feronia limonia, Hesperethusa crenulata,[1] Schinus limonia) is the only species within the monotypic genus Limonia. It is native in the Indomalaya ecozone to Bangladesh, India, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, and in Indochinese ecoregion east to Java and the Malesia ecoregion. Vernacular names in English include: wood-apple, elephant-apple, monkey fruit, and curd fruit; and listed below are the variety of common names in the languages of its native habitat regions.
The common names of Limonia acidissima include:
* English: Wood Apple, Elephant Apple, Monkey Fruit or Curd Fruit
* Bengali: Bael, Koth Bael (???, ?? ???)
* Gujarati: Kothu
* Hindi: Kaitha (????), Kath Bel or Kabeet
* Javanese: Kawis or Kawista
* Khmer: Kvet (?????)
* Kannada: Belada Hannu / Byalada Hannu balulada hannu
* Malaysia : Belingai
* Malayalam: Vilam Kai
* Marathi: KavaTH (???).
* Oriya: Kaitha or Kaintha
* Sanskrit: Billa, Kapittha),[2] Dadhistha, Surabhicchada, Kapipriya, Dadhi, Pu?papahala, Dantas?tha, Phalasugandhika, Cirap?k?, Karabhith?, Kan??, Gandhapatra, Gr?hiphala, Ka??y?mlaphala.[3]
* Sinhalese: Divul.
* Tamil: Vilam Palam
Description
Tree in the Talakona forest, in Chittoor District of Andhra Pradesh, India.
Limonia acidissima is a large tree growing to 9 metres (30 ft) tall, with rough, spiny bark. The leaves are pinnate, with 5-7 leaflets, each leaflet 25–35 mm long and 10–20 mm broad, with a citrus-scent when crushed. The fruit is a berry 5–9 cm diameter, and may be sweet or sour. It has a very hard rind which can be difficult to crack open, and contains sticky brown pulp and small white seeds. The fruit looks similar in appearance to fruit of Bael (Aegle marmelos).
Uses
The rind of the fruit is so thick and hard it can be carved and used as a utensil such as a bowl or ashtray. The bark also produces an edible gum. The tree has hard wood which can be used for woodworking.
Bael fruit pulp has a soap-like action that made it a household cleaner for hundreds of years. The sticky layer around the unripe seeds is household glue that also finds use in jewellery-making. The glue, mixed with lime, waterproofs wells and cements walls. The glue also protects oil paintings when added as a coat on the canvas.
Ground limonia bark is also used as a cosmetic called thanakha in Southeast Asia. The fruit rind yields oil that is popular as a fragrance for hair; it also produces a dye used to colour silks and calico.
In India the bael leafs, which are found in the set of three leafs usually, are used for worshiping lord Shiva. During Shivaratri, bael patra is an essential pooja item along with bhaang leafs, milk, dhatura flowers.
It is a hedge plant favored for its rapid growth; especially when cuttings from a faster growing individual are grafted to a hardily rooted plant, fruit, foliage and shade can quickly be obtained.
In Tamil Nadu leaves and fruit traditionally have been used for elephant food, while the branches were used as brooms for rough work in connection with animal care.
Culinary
The fruit is eaten plain, blended into an assortment of drinks and sweets, or well-preserved as jam. The scooped-out pulp from its fruits is eaten uncooked with or without sugar, or is combined with coconut milk and palm-sugar syrup and drunk as a beverage, or frozen as an ice cream. It is also used in chutneys and for making Fruit preserves jelly and jam. A drink, Bael-panna made by blending the fruit with water and spices, is drunk during summers.
Indonesians beat the pulp of the ripe fruit with palm sugar and eat the mixture at breakfast. The sugared pulp is a foundation of sherbet in the subcontinent. Jam, pickle, marmalade, syrup, jelly, squash and toffee are some of the foods of this multipurpose fruit. Young bael leaves are a salad green in Thailand.
Indians eat the pulp of the ripe fruit with sugar or jaggery. The ripe pulp is also used to make chutney. The raw pulp is varied with yoghurt and make into raita. The raw pulp is bitter in taste, while the ripe pulp would be having a smell and taste that's a mixture of sourness and sweet.
Nutrition
A hundred gm of fruit pulp contains 31 gm of carbohydrate and two gm of protein, which adds up to nearly 140 calories. The ripe fruit is rich in beta-carotene, a precursor of Vitamin A; it also contains significant quantities of the B vitamins thiamine and riboflavin, and small amounts of Vitamin C
Genera taxonomy
A number of other species formerly included in the genus are now treated in the related genera Atalantia, Citropsis, Citrus, Glycosmis, Luvunga, Murraya, Microcitrus, Micromelum, Naringi, Pamburus, Pleiospermium, Severinia, Skimmia, Swinglea, and Triphasia.[4]
References
1. ^ Arguments for Limonia acidissima L. (Rutaceae) and against Its Rejection as a nomen ambiguum. Taxon. November 1978. JSTOR 1219924.
2. ^ Feronia elephantum on treknature
3. ^ S G Joshi, Medicinal Plants, Oxford & IBH Publishing Co. Pvt. Ltd. New Delhi, 2004, ISBN 81-204-1414-4, p.347
4. ^ John H. Wiersema (2005-02-22). "Species in GRIN for genus". Ars-grin.gov. Retrieved 2011-04-19. (source - retrieved fromhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Limonia_%28plant%29 on 3/15/2013)
In Genesis 1:11-13, "And God said, Let the earth put forth grass, herbs yielding seed, and fruit-trees bearing fruit after their kind, wherein is the seed thereof, upon the earth: and it was so. 12 And the earth brought forth grass, herbs yielding seed after their kind, and trees bearing fruit, wherein is the seed thereof, after their kind: and God saw that it was good. 13 And there was evening and there was morning, a third day. (American Standard Version, ASV)[for more details, go to www.jw.org].
To view clickable pictures of the fruit of this plant, go to,http://www.daleysfruit.com.au/forum/limonia-acidissima/
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To enjoy an online Bible study called “Follow the Christ” go to,http://www.network54.com/…/Digital+Book+On+18+Part+Follow+C…
Your Friend in Christ Iris89
Francis David said it long ago, "Neither the sword of popes...nor the image of death will halt the march of truth. "Francis David, 1579, written on the wall of his prison cell." Read the book, "What Does The Bible Really Teach" and the Bible today, and go to www.jw.org!


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Re: Almighty God’s (YHWH) Great Gift to Mankind, The Rare Fruit Trees and Herbs

Post  Admin on Wed Feb 18, 2015 1:44 pm


Hi Everyone:

Here is a Commentary on Bountiful Trees and Vegetables God (YHWH) has provided for mankind, specifically the Lingaro, Elaeagnus philippensis, is one of a great number of Elaeagnus bushes and vines, and is a genus of about 50–70 species of flowering plants in the family Elaeagnaceae.
Habitat

The vast majority of the species are native to temperate and subtropical regions of Asia. Elaeagnus triflora extends from Asia south into northeastern Australia, while E. commutata is native to North America, and Elaeagnus philippinensis is native to the Philippines. One of the Asian species, E. angustifolia, may also be native in southeasternmost Europe, though it may instead be an early human introduction there. Also, several Asiatic species of Elaeagnus have become established as introduced species in North America, with some of these species being considered invasive, or even designated as noxious, in portions of the United States. [[BEFORE EATING ANY FRUIT FROM ANY ELAEAGNUS, BE SURE IT IS FROM AN EDIBLE VARIETY.]]

Description
Elaeagnus plants are deciduous or evergreen shrubs or small trees. The alternate leaves and the shoots are usually covered with tiny silvery to brownish scales, giving the plants a whitish to grey-brown colour from a distance. The flowers are small, with a four-lobed calyx and no petals; they are often fragrant. The fruit is a fleshy drupe containing a single seed; it is edible in many species. Several species are cultivated for their fruit, including E. angustifolia, E. umbellata and E. multiflora (gumi).

Other uses
E. umbellata is reputed to have a high amount of the carotenoid antioxidant, lycopene and has been shown to display antioxidant properties effective against cancer mechanisms in vitro. E. multiflora is among the nutraceutical plants that Chinese use both for food and medicine.[citation needed] Both of these species have small but abundant tasty berries.

Ecology
Elaeagnus species are used as food plants by the larvae of some Lepidoptera species including Coleophora elaeagnisella and the gothic moths. The thorny shrubs can also provide good nesting sites for birds.

Nitrogen fixation
Many Elaeagnus species harbor nitrogen fixing organisms in their roots, and are therefore able to grow well in low-nitrogen soil. This ability results in multiple ecological consequences where these Elaeagnus species are present:

* They can become invasive in many locations where they are established as exotic species. Two species (E. pungens and E. umbellata) are currently rated as Category II exotic invasive species by the Florida Exotic Pest Plant Council.
* Because they increase fixed nitrogen levels in the soil, they can alter habitats by enabling species which require more fixed nitrogen to be more competitive, replacing other species which are themselves tolerant of soils with low levels of fixed nitrogen.
* The extra availability of fixed nitrogen in the plant makes its leaves more nutritious. (source - retrieved from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Elaeagnus on 1/19/2013)

In Genesis 1:11-13, "And God said, Let the earth put forth grass, herbs yielding seed, and fruit-trees bearing fruit after their kind, wherein is the seed thereof, upon the earth: and it was so. 12 And the earth brought forth grass, herbs yielding seed after their kind, and trees bearing fruit, wherein is the seed thereof, after their kind: and God saw that it was good. 13 And there was evening and there was morning, a third day. (American Standard Version, ASV)[for more details, go to www.jw.org].

The olive like fruit of Elaeagnus Angustifolia, L., especially in Turkey and Iran, is large, and plesant tasted, on which account it is sought after, and even occurs dried, in commerce. The fruit of the Philippine olester (Elaeagnus philippensis), has the taste of the best cherries. [adapted from: Report of the Secretary of Agriculture ... By United States. Dept. of Agriculture]

How this tree and other plants absorb water from the ground. Plants have developed an effective system to absorb, translocate, store, and utilize water. Plants contain a vast network of conduits, which consists of xylem and phloem tissues. These conducting tissues start in the roots and continue up through the trunks of trees, into the branches and then into every leaf. Phloem tissue is made of living elongated cells that are connected to one another and responsible for translocating nutrients and sugars (carbohydrates), which are produced by leaves for energy and growth. The xylem is also composed of elongated cells but once the cells are formed, they die. The walls of the xylem cells still remain intact and serve as an excellent peipline to transport water from the roots to the leaves.

The main driving force of water uptake and transport into a plant is transpiration of water from leaves through specialized openings called stomata. Heat from the sun causes the water to evaporate, setting this ‘water chain’ in motion. The evaporation creates a negative water vapor pressure. Water is pulled into the leaf to replace the water that has transpired from the leaf. This pulling of water, or tension, occurs in the xylem of the leaf. Since the xylem is a continuous water column that extends from the leaf to the roots, this negative water pressure extends into the roots and results in water uptake from the soil. [adapted from: http://www.scientificamerican.com/article.cfm?id=follow-up-how-do-trees-ca ]

Clearly this clever water transport system shows a superior intelligence of the Creator (YHWH).


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To enjoy an online Bible study called “Follow the Christ” go to, http://www.network54.com/Forum/403209/thread/1417398076/last-1417398076/Digital+Book+On+18+Part+Follow+Christ+Bible+Study

Your Friend in Christ Iris89

Francis David said it long ago, "Neither the sword of popes...nor the image of death will halt the march of truth. "Francis David, 1579, written on the wall of his prison cell." Read the book, "What Does The Bible Really Teach" and the Bible today, and go to www.jw.org!

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Re: Almighty God’s (YHWH) Great Gift to Mankind, The Rare Fruit Trees and Herbs

Post  Admin on Sun Feb 22, 2015 11:44 am

Hi Everyone:

Here is a Commentary on Bountiful Trees and Vegetables God (YHWH) has provided for mankind, specifically the Lilium amabile var. luteum, A member of the lily family having edible parts.

This lilly having edible parts is light yellow orange downward facing 3: flowers with black spots , on stems to 3 ½ ft. and is native to Korea. It is hardy to at least USDA Zone 4. The flower buds are cooked and eaten in Korea. It germinates in 2 to 4 weeks.

An encyclopedia says, “Lilium amabile (Chinese:????) is a species of plant with flower, a marine gastropod mollusk in the family Liliaceae. It is endemic to Korea.[1]

References
1. ^ The Genus Lilium. Lilium amabile Palibin 1901 (in English). Retrieved 7/17/2010.

Bibliography
* Chung, t. h. 1956. Korea Flora. Shinzisa, Seoul;
* Lee, t. b. 1979. Illustrated Flora of Korea. Hangmunsa, Seoul;
* Lee Woong-Bin. 1989. the systematic study on genus Lilium in Korea. Korea Univ. thesis; Lee, Young-No. 1996. Flora of Korea. Kyohaksa, Seoul;
* Lee, y. t. 1996. Standard Illustrations of Korean Plants. Academy Co., Seoul. (source - retrieved from http://www.microsofttranslator.com/bv.aspx?ref=SERP&br=ro&mkt=en-US&dl=en&lp=PT_EN&a=http%3a%2f%2fpt.wikipedia.org%2fwiki%2fLilium_amabile on 3/8/2013)

In Genesis 1:11-13, "And God said, Let the earth put forth grass, herbs yielding seed, and fruit-trees bearing fruit after their kind, wherein is the seed thereof, upon the earth: and it was so. 12 And the earth brought forth grass, herbs yielding seed after their kind, and trees bearing fruit, wherein is the seed thereof, after their kind: and God saw that it was good. 13 And there was evening and there was morning, a third day. (American Standard Version, ASV)[for more details, go to www.jw.org].

Pictures of this and other lilies of this genus can be viewed at http://www.bing.com/images/search?q=Lilium+amabile+var.+luteum&qpvt=Lilium+amabile+var.+luteum&FORM=IGRE

Now to know the truth, go to:

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7) http://religioustruths.forumotion.com/


Your Friend in Christ Iris89

Francis David said it long ago, "Neither the sword of popes...nor the image of death will halt the march of truth."Francis David, 1579, written on the wall of his prison cell." Read the book, "What Does The Bible Really Teach" and the Bible today, and go to www.jw.org!




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Re: Almighty God’s (YHWH) Great Gift to Mankind, The Rare Fruit Trees and Herbs

Post  Admin on Wed Feb 25, 2015 10:07 am

Hi Everyone:

Here is a Commentary on Bountiful Trees and Vegetables God (YHWH) has provided for mankind, specifically the Lime Berry, Triphasia trifolia is a species of Triphasia in the family Rutaceae, native to tropical southeastern Asia in Malaysia, the Philippines and possibly elsewhere. Triphasias are very close relatives of citrus.

Triphasia trifolia (syn. Limonia trifolia Burm. f., Triphasia aurantiola Lour.; also called limeberry, lime berry, or limoncitong kastila) is a species of Triphasia in the family Rutaceae, native to tropical southeastern Asia in Malaysia, the Philippines and possibly elsewhere. Triphasias are very close relatives of citrus.

It is a spiny evergreen shrub (rarely a small tree) growing to 3 m tall. The leaves are trifoliate, glossy dark green, each leaflet 2–4 cm long and 1.5–2 cm broad. The flowers are white, with three petals 10–13 mm long and 4 mm broad. The fruit is a red, edible hesperidium 10–15 mm diameter, similar to a small Citrus fruit. The fruit flesh is pulpy, with a flavor reminiscent of a slightly sweet lime.

Cultivation and uses
It is grown for its edible fruit, and has been widely introduced to other subtropical to tropical regions of the world; it has become naturalized on a number of islands in the tropical Pacific Ocean. It has also been noted as a potential invasive in several Indian Ocean archipelagos, and along the United States Gulf Coast from Florida to Texas. The Limeberry has gained some popularity as a bonsai plant. More tropical than true citrus, it must be kept in greenhouses even in many locations where true citrus thrive. In true tropical locations, limeberry may have some promise as a potential commercial fruit crop. (source - retrieved from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Triphasia_trifolia on 1/19/2013)

To view pictures of this tree, go to, http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Category:Triphasia_trifolia

In Genesis 1:11-13, "And God said, Let the earth put forth grass, herbs yielding seed, and fruit-trees bearing fruit after their kind, wherein is the seed thereof, upon the earth: and it was so. 12 And the earth brought forth grass, herbs yielding seed after their kind, and trees bearing fruit, wherein is the seed thereof, after their kind: and God saw that it was good. 13 And there was evening and there was morning, a third day. (American Standard Version, ASV)[for more details, go to www.jw.org].

Edible Uses:

Fruit - raw or cooked[2, 105, 177, 183]. Red and fleshy[1], the fully ripe fruit has an agreeable sweet taste[1, 2]. Aromatic, juicy and somewhat mucilaginous, the fruit can also be pickled or made into jams etc[183]. The fruit is about 15mm in diameter[200].

Cultivation Details:

Prefers a moderately heavy loam with a generous amount of compost and sand added and a very sunny position[200]. Prefers a pH between 5 and 6[200]. Intolerant of water logging[200], strongly disliking winter wet[1]. Most reports say that this species is not hardy in Britain, requiring greenhouse protection[1, 200], but one report says that a plant outdoors at Boslewick in Cornwall produces fruit[59]. Plants are sometimes cultivated for their edible fruit[183]. All parts of the plant are aromatic. The white flowers have a scent of orange blossom[245]. The leaves are covered in pellucid dots and release a resinous scent when bruised[245]. The fruits are lemon-scented[245].
[[Note, 245 refers to pages in a book, The Leaflet Collection: All 57 Plants For A Future leaflets in one convenient PDF eBook with 291 pages]]

Propagation:

Seed - we have no information for this species but suggest sowing the seed in a warm greenhouse as soon as it is ripe if this is possible. Otherwise sow the seed in early spring in a warm greenhouse. When they are large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and grow them on in the greenhouse for at least their first two winters. Plant them out into their permanent positions in late spring or early summer, after the last expected frosts. Consider giving them some protection from the cold for at least their first winter outdoors (source - retrieved from http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Triphasia+trifolia on 1/19/2013)

How this bush and other plants absorb water from the ground. Plants have developed an effective system to absorb, translocate, store, and utilize water. Plants contain a vast network of conduits, which consists of xylem and phloem tissues. These conducting tissues start in the roots and continue up through the trunks of trees, into the branches and then into every leaf. Phloem tissue is made of living elongated cells that are connected to one another and responsible for translocating nutrients and sugars (carbohydrates), which are produced by leaves for energy and growth. The xylem is also composed of elongated cells but once the cells are formed, they die. The walls of the xylem cells still remain intact and serve as an excellent peipline to transport water from the roots to the leaves.

The main driving force of water uptake and transport into a plant is transpiration of water from leaves through specialized openings called stomata. Heat from the sun causes the water to evaporate, setting this ‘water chain’ in motion. The evaporation creates a negative water vapor pressure. Water is pulled into the leaf to replace the water that has transpired from the leaf. This pulling of water, or tension, occurs in the xylem of the leaf. Since the xylem is a continuous water column that extends from the leaf to the roots, this negative water pressure extends into the roots and results in water uptake from the soil. [adapted from: http://www.scientificamerican.com/article.cfm?id=follow-up-how-do-trees-ca ]

Clearly this clever water transport system shows a superior intelligence of the Creator (YHWH).


Now to know the truth, go to:

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2) http://www.network54.com/Forum/403209/

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Your Friend in Christ Iris89

Francis David said it long ago, "Neither the sword of popes...nor the image of death will halt the march of truth."Francis David, 1579, written on the wall of his prison cell." Read the book, "What Does The Bible Really Teach" and the Bible today, and go to www.jw.org!







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Re: Almighty God’s (YHWH) Great Gift to Mankind, The Rare Fruit Trees and Herbs

Post  Admin on Sun Mar 01, 2015 4:48 pm

Hi Everyone:

Here is a Commentary on Bountiful Trees and Vegetables God (YHWH) has provided for mankind, specifically the Longan, Dimocarpus longan, it is a tropical tree that produces edible fruit. It is one of the better known tropical members of the soapberry family. It is native to the Indomalaya ecozone defined by South Asia and Southeast Asia. Description
The Dimocarpus longan tree can grow up to 6 to 7 meters in height, and the plant is very sensitive to frost. Longan trees require sandy soil and temperatures that do not typically go below 4.5 degrees Celsius (40.1 degrees Fahrenheit). Longans and lychees bear fruit at around the same time of the year.
The longan (lóng y?n, lit. "dragon eye"), is so named because it resembles an eyeball when its fruit is shelled (the black seed shows through the translucent flesh like a pupil/iris). The seed is small, round and hard, and of an enamel-like, lacquered black. The fully ripened, freshly harvested shell is bark-like, thin, and firm, making the fruit easy to shell by squeezing the fruit out as if one is "cracking" a sunflower seed. When the shell has more moisture content and is more tender, the fruit becomes less convenient to shell. The tenderness of the shell varies due to either premature harvest, variety, weather conditions, or transport/storage conditions.
A relative of the longan fruit is Lansium domesticum, better known as the langsat fruit, found in and around South East Asia.
Culinary uses
The fruit is sweet, juicy and succulent in superior agricultural varieties and, apart from being eaten fresh, is also often used in East Asian soups, snacks, desserts, and sweet-and-sour foods, either fresh or dried, sometimes canned with syrup in supermarkets. The taste is different from lychees; while longan have a drier sweetness, lychees are often messily juicy with a more tropical, sour sweetness.
The seed and the shell are not consumed.
Dried longan, called guìyuán in Chinese, are often used in Chinese cuisine and Chinese sweet dessert soups. In Chinese food therapy and herbal medicine, it is believed to have an effect on relaxation. In contrast with the fresh fruit, which is juicy and white, the flesh of dried longans is dark brown to almost black. In Chinese medicine, the longan, much like the lychee, is thought to give internal "heat" Cultivation
Potassium chlorate has been found to cause the longan tree to blossom. However, this causes stress on the tree if it is used excessively, and eventually kills it. (source - retrieved from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Longan on 1/19/2013)
In Genesis 1:11-13, "And God said, Let the earth put forth grass, herbs yielding seed, and fruit-trees bearing fruit after their kind, wherein is the seed thereof, upon the earth: and it was so. 12 And the earth brought forth grass, herbs yielding seed after their kind, and trees bearing fruit, wherein is the seed thereof, after their kind: and God saw that it was good. 13 And there was evening and there was morning, a third day. (American Standard Version, ASV)[for more details, go to www.jw.org].

Closely allied to the glamorous lychee, in the family Sapindaceae, the longan, or lungan, also known as dragon's eye or eyeball, and as mamoncillo chino in Cuba, has been referred to as the "little brother of the lychee", or li-chihnu, "slave of the lychee". Botanically, it is placed in a separate genus, and is currently designated Dimocarpus longan Lour. (syns. Euphoria longan Steud.; E. longana Lam.; Nephelium longana Cambess.). According to the esteemed scholar, Prof. G. Weidman Groff, the longan is less important to the Chinese as an edible fruit, more widely used than the lychee in Oriental medicine.
Description
The longan tree is handsome, erect, to 30 or 40 ft (9-12 m) in height and to 45 ft (14 m) in width, with rough-barked trunk to 2 1/2 ft (76.2 cm) thick and long, spreading, slightly drooping, heavily foliaged branches. The evergreen, alternate, paripinnate leaves have 4 to 10 opposite leaflets, elliptic, ovate-oblong or lanceolate, blunt-tipped; 4 to 8 in (10-20 cm) long and 1 3/8 to 2 in (3.5-5 cm) wide; leathery, wavy, glossy-green on the upper surface, minutely hairy and grayish-green beneath. New growth is wine-colored and showy. The pale-yellow, 5- to 6-petalled, hairy-stalked flowers, larger than those of the lychee, are borne in upright terminal panicles, male and female mingled. The fruits, in drooping clusters, are globose, 1/2 to 1 in (1.25-2.5 cm) in diameter, with thin, brittle, yellow-brown to light reddish-brown rind, more or less rough (pebbled), the protuberances much less prominent than those of the lychee. The flesh (aril) is mucilaginous, whitish, translucent, somewhat musky, sweet, but not as sweet as that of the lychee and with less "bouquet". The seed is round, jet-black, shining, with a circular white spot at the base, giving it the aspect of an eye. (source - retrieved from http://www.hort.purdue.edu/newcrop/morton/longan.html on 1/19/2013)
I like certain varieties of this fruit a lot slightly cooled from being in a refrigerator for awhile, and eat them same as I do lychee. Also, the City Of West Palm Beach, FL, uses some of the trees as trees to line a few streets and they are pretty.
How this tree and other plants absorb water from the ground. Plants have developed an effective system to absorb, translocate, store, and utilize water. Plants contain a vast network of conduits, which consists of xylem and phloem tissues. These conducting tissues start in the roots and continue up through the trunks of trees, into the branches and then into every leaf. Phloem tissue is made of living elongated cells that are connected to one another and responsible for translocating nutrients and sugars (carbohydrates), which are produced by leaves for energy and growth. The xylem is also composed of elongated cells but once the cells are formed, they die. The walls of the xylem cells still remain intact and serve as an excellent peipline to transport water from the roots to the leaves.

The main driving force of water uptake and transport into a plant is transpiration of water from leaves through specialized openings called stomata. Heat from the sun causes the water to evaporate, setting this ‘water chain’ in motion. The evaporation creates a negative water vapor pressure. Water is pulled into the leaf to replace the water that has transpired from the leaf. This pulling of water, or tension, occurs in the xylem of the leaf. Since the xylem is a continuous water column that extends from the leaf to the roots, this negative water pressure extends into the roots and results in water uptake from the soil. [adapted from: http://www.scientificamerican.com/article.cfm?id=follow-up-how-do-trees-ca ]

Clearly this clever water transport system shows a superior intelligence of the Creator (YHWH).


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Re: Almighty God’s (YHWH) Great Gift to Mankind, The Rare Fruit Trees and Herbs

Post  Admin on Wed Mar 04, 2015 6:59 pm

Hi Everyone:

Here is a Commentary on Bountiful Trees and Vegetables God (YHWH) has provided for mankind, specifically the Lowveld milkberry Manilkara mochisia

Grows to be a 30 feet tall tree. Rough blackish bark, simple leaves crowded at ends of thickened spurs, small profuse green-yellow flowers, fleshy fruit, food plant. Sow Spring. Zone 10 (source - retrieved from http://www.seedman.com/fruit.htm on //2013)

Bole: Small/medium. Bark: Brownish grey/blackish with longitudinal fissures. Slash: NR. Leaf: Simple. Alternate. Terminal rosettes on short shoots. Petiole: 0.2 - 1.2 cm. Lamina: Small. 2 - 7 × 0.3 - 3 cm. Elliptic-obovate/obovate. Cuneate. Obtuse/emarginate. Entire. Glabrous/hairy on lower surface. Domatia: Absent. Glands: Absent. Stipules: Present. Thorns & Spines: Thorns and spines: Absent. Flower: Axillary. White to pale yellow. Fruit: Yellow. Red edible pulp when mature. (source - retrieved from http://eol.org/pages/1154579/details on 4/3/2013)

An African native sapote with small, yellow, reportedly edible fruits. Very little information is available about this species and it is uncommon outside of its native range. Tree, growing to 25-35 feet. Has ornamental leaves, furry, and arranged in distinct rosettes. Likely not freeze hardy. (source - retrieved from http://www.tradewindsfruitstore.com/servlet/the-2365/Manilkara-mochisia--dsh--Lowveld/Detail on 4/3/2013)

In Genesis 1:11-13, "And God said, Let the earth put forth grass, herbs yielding seed, and fruit-trees bearing fruit after their kind, wherein is the seed thereof, upon the earth: and it was so. 12 And the earth brought forth grass, herbs yielding seed after their kind, and trees bearing fruit, wherein is the seed thereof, after their kind: and God saw that it was good. 13 And there was evening and there was morning, a third day. (American Standard Version, ASV)[for more details, go to www.jw.org].

View plant and fruit and see comparison to other fruits at, https://www.google.com/search?q=Lowveld+milkberry+Manilkara+mochisia&hl=en&client=firefox&hs=lDp&sa=N&rls=com.yahoo:en-US:official&tbm=isch&tbo=u&source=univ&ei=kX9cUZ6iB4e_0QG-44HYDg&ved=0CHcQsAQ4Cg&biw=1280&bih=854

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Re: Almighty God’s (YHWH) Great Gift to Mankind, The Rare Fruit Trees and Herbs

Post  Admin on Sat Mar 07, 2015 11:17 pm

Hi Everyone:

Here is a Commentary on Bountiful Trees and Vegetables God (YHWH) has provided for mankind, specifically the Lovage, Levisticum officinale, is a tall perennial plant, the sole species in the genus Levisticum, in the family Apiaceae, subfamily Apioideae, tribe Apieae.[1][2]

Distribution
The exact native range is disputed; some sources cite it as native to much of Europe and southwestern Asia,[3] others from only the eastern Mediterranean region in southeastern Europe and southwestern Asia,[4] and yet others only to southwestern Asia in Iran and Afghanistan, citing European populations as naturalised.[5][6] It has been long cultivated in Europe, the leaves being used as a herb, the roots as a vegetable, and the seeds as a spice, especially in southern European cuisine.[4]
Lovage is an erect, herbaceous, perennial plant growing to 1.8–2.5 m tall, with a basal rosette of leaves and stems with further leaves, the flowers being produced in umbels at the top of the stems. The stems and leaves are shiny glabrous green to yellow-green. The larger basal leaves are up to 70 cm long, tripinnate, with broad triangular to rhomboidal, acutely pointed leaflets with a few marginal teeth; the stem leaves are smaller, and less divided with few leaflets. The flowers are yellow to greenish-yellow, 2–3 mm diameter, produced in globose umbels up to 10–15 cm diameter; flowering is in late spring. The fruit is a dry two-parted schizocarp 4–7 mm long, mature in autumn.[4][5][7]

Uses
The leaves can be used in salads, or to make soup or season broths, and the roots can be eaten as a vegetable or grated for use in salads. Its flavor and smell is somewhat similar to celery. Lovage tea can be applied to wounds as an antiseptic, or drunk to stimulate digestion. The seeds can be used as a spice, similar to fennel seeds.[4] In the UK, an alcoholic lovage cordial is traditionally mixed with brandy in the ratio of 2:1 as a winter drink.[8] In Romania, the leaves are the preferred seasoning for the various local broths, much more so than parsley or dill. Lovage is third in its quercetin content, behind tea and capers.[9]
The roots, which contain a heavy, volatile oil, are used as a mild aquaretic. Lovage root contains furanocoumarins which can lead to photosensitivity.[citation needed]

Lovage plant
The name 'lovage' is from "love-ache", ache being a medieval name for parsley; this is a folk-etymological corruption of the older French name levesche, from late Latin levisticum, in turn thought to be a corruption of the earlier Latin ligusticum, "of Liguria" (northwest Italy), where the herb was grown extensively.[10] In modern botanical usage, both Latin forms are now used for different (but closely related) genera, with Levisticum for (culinary) lovage, and Ligusticum for Scots lovage, a similar species from northern Europe, and for related species.[10][5] In Germany and Holland, one of the common names of lovage is Maggikraut (German) or Maggiplant (Dutch) because the plant's taste is reminiscent of Maggi soup seasoning [citation needed]. Italian levistico or sedano di monte, French livèche, Romanian leu?tean, Hungarian lestyán, Russian ???????? lyubistok, etc. In Bulgaria, it is known as ??????? deveseel. The Czech name is libe?ek, and the Polish name is lubczyk, both meaning 'love herb'. The name in Swedish is libbsticka. The official German name is Liebstöckel, literally 'love sticklet'.[11] The Croatian name for this plant is ljup?ac or vegeta (named after a well known Croatian meal seasoning similar to Maggi); the Finnish name is "Liperi" or "Lipstikka", the former meaning preachers collar, because in old ages the plant was cultivated in monasteries or in rectories, while the latter is from Swedish, which is the second language spoken in Finland.

References
1. ^ Pimenov, M. G., & Leonov, M. V. (1993). The Genera of the Umbelliferae. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. ISBN 0-947643-58-3
2. ^ Downie, S. R., Plunkett, G. M., Watson, M. F., Spalik, K., Katz-Downie, D. S., Valiejo-Roman, C. M., Terentieva, E. I., Troitsky, A. V., Lee, B.-Y., Lahham, J., & El-Oqlah, A. (2001). Tribes and clades within Apiaceae subfamily Apioideae: the contribution of molecular data. Edinburgh Journal of Botany 58: 301-330.
3. ^ Den virtuella floran: Levisticum officinale (Swedish), with map
4. ^ a b c d Huxley, A., ed. (1992). New RHS Dictionary of Gardening 3: 60. Macmillan ISBN 0-333-47494-5.
5. ^ a b c Blamey, M. & Grey-Wilson, C. (1989). Illustrated Flora of Britain and Northern Europe. ISBN 0-340-40170-2
6. ^ Germplasm Resources Information Network: Levisticum officinale
7. ^ Interactive Flora of NW Europe: Levisticum officinale (Lovage)
8. ^ http://www.farehamwinecellar.co.uk/0/4c7a5def1b38652380256a73004609dc.html Information on Lovage Cordial
9. ^ USDA Database for the Flavonoid Content of Selected Foods nal.usda.gov, March 2003
10. ^ a b Oxford English Dictionary
11. ^ Source: http://www.dict.cc/?s=Liebst%C3%B6ckel See also German wikipedia article [source - retrieved from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lovage on 6/5/2013]
Grow in average, medium moisture, well-drained soil in full sun to part shade. Prefers moist, loamy soil in full sun. Periodic hard cut-back of some stems during the growing season will encourage production of a continuing supply of fresh, new leaves. Easily self-seeds if seeds are not harvested or otherwise removed. Propagate by root division or from seed.

Noteworthy Characteristics
Lovage is a culinary herb that is often grown in herb gardens for the celery-like flavor of its leaves, stems, roots and seeds. A somewhat imposing plant that can reach 6' in height. Small umbels of tiny, greenish-yellow flowers appear in spring. Ternately compound, deeply divided, dark green leaves resemble flattened parsley or celery leaves. Leaves are used in flavoring salads, soups, sauces, stews and vegetables. Seeds are used in meat dishes, casseroles and soups. Roots can be grated for use in salads or used to make tea. Although lovage is primarily considered an herb, the stems can be blanched and used as a vegetable. Oil was formerly used in Europe in the preparation of a love potion. Has escaped cultivation and naturalized in many parts of the U.S.
Problems
Potential insect pests include tarnished plant bug, celery worm and leaf miner. Potential disease problems include early blight, late blight and leaf spots.

Garden Uses
Herb garden. Also has ornamental value and good height for a back corner of the border or for naturalized areas or wild gardens. [source - retrieved from http://www.missouribotanicalgarden.org/gardens-gardening/your-garden/plant-finder/plant-details/kc/k850/levisticum-officinale.aspx on 6/5/2013]

In Genesis 1:11-13, "And God said, Let the earth put forth grass, herbs yielding seed, and fruit-trees bearing fruit after their kind, wherein is the seed thereof, upon the earth: and it was so. 12 And the earth brought forth grass, herbs yielding seed after their kind, and trees bearing fruit, wherein is the seed thereof, after their kind: and God saw that it was good. 13 And there was evening and there was morning, a third day. (American Standard Version, ASV)[for more details, go to www.jw.org].

To view this plant, go to, https://www.google.com/search?q=levisticum+officinale+-+lovage&client=firefox-a&hs=u7d&sa=N&rls=org.mozilla:en-US:official&tbm=isch&tbo=u&source=univ&ei=inyvUbyBAtSt4AOv9IBA&ved=0CCwQsAQ4Cg&biw=1280&bih=807

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Re: Almighty God’s (YHWH) Great Gift to Mankind, The Rare Fruit Trees and Herbs

Post  Admin on Wed Mar 11, 2015 8:38 pm


Hi Everyone:

Here is a Commentary on Bountiful Trees and Vegetables God (YHWH) has provided for mankind, specifically the Lovi Lovi, Flacourtia inermis (Batoko Plum) Plant.

The fruit is a shinny brilliant red berry crowned with a black top.

The tree is cultivated in South Eastern Asia for its fruit which varies greatly in taste whitish-pinkish flesh. Most fruits are too acidic to be eaten raw, but they are often made into chutneys, puddings, and preserves – WITH THE SEED REMOVED.

The tree is often used as a decorative or shade tree. Unfortunately there is very little literature on this tree.

In Genesis 1:11-13, "And God said, Let the earth put forth grass, herbs yielding seed, and fruit-trees bearing fruit after their kind, wherein is the seed thereof, upon the earth: and it was so. 12 And the earth brought forth grass, herbs yielding seed after their kind, and trees bearing fruit, wherein is the seed thereof, after their kind: and God saw that it was good. 13 And there was evening and there was morning, a third day. (American Standard Version, ASV)[for more details, go to www.jw.org].

To see pictures of this tree and its fruit, go to:

1 - http://fruitwarehouse.blogspot.com/2012/02/lobi-lobi-flacourtia-inermis.html

2 - http://es.wikipedia.org/wiki/Archivo:Lovi-lovi_Flacourtia_inermis.jpg

3 - https://www.google.com/search?q=flacourtia+inermis&hl=en&client=firefox-a&sa=N&tbo=u&rls=org.mozilla:en-US:official&tbm=isch&source=univ&ei=gOn6UK-gPKq10QHdh4HgDA&ved=0CDAQsAQ&biw=1152&bih=720

How this tree and other plants absorb water from the ground. Plants have developed an effective system to absorb, translocate, store, and utilize water. Plants contain a vast network of conduits, which consists of xylem and phloem tissues. These conducting tissues start in the roots and continue up through the trunks of trees, into the branches and then into every leaf. Phloem tissue is made of living elongated cells that are connected to one another and responsible for translocating nutrients and sugars (carbohydrates), which are produced by leaves for energy and growth. The xylem is also composed of elongated cells but once the cells are formed, they die. The walls of the xylem cells still remain intact and serve as an excellent peipline to transport water from the roots to the leaves.

The main driving force of water uptake and transport into a plant is transpiration of water from leaves through specialized openings called stomata. Heat from the sun causes the water to evaporate, setting this ‘water chain’ in motion. The evaporation creates a negative water vapor pressure. Water is pulled into the leaf to replace the water that has transpired from the leaf. This pulling of water, or tension, occurs in the xylem of the leaf. Since the xylem is a continuous water column that extends from the leaf to the roots, this negative water pressure extends into the roots and results in water uptake from the soil. [adapted from: http://www.scientificamerican.com/article.cfm?id=follow-up-how-do-trees-ca ]

Clearly this clever water transport system shows a superior intelligence of the Creator (YHWH).


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Re: Almighty God’s (YHWH) Great Gift to Mankind, The Rare Fruit Trees and Herbs

Post  Admin on Mon Mar 16, 2015 2:02 pm

Hi Everyone:

Here is a Commentary on Bountiful Trees and Vegetables God (YHWH) has provided for mankind, specifically the Amaranthus spp., Amaranth.

Abundance: common
What: young leaves, seeds
How: Young leaves raw or cooked, seeds eaten raw, roasted or ground into flour
Where: sunny fields, disturbed areas
When: summer
Nutritional Value: Grains supply protein, calories, and minerals. Leaves vitamins A & C along with minerals calcium, iron, and phosphorous, and also fiber.


A variety of amaranth species can be found across Texas and the South. Shapes range from prostrate, creeping vine-like weeds to striking, tall, cultivated forms. The most distinctive feature of all amaranths is their spikes of tiny, clustered flowers which are the same color as the rest of the plant. Amaranths are most commonly found in sunny, disturbed areas and wastelands such as abandoned lots and roadsides. Bright red versions are often included in landscaping.

Amaranth leaves can be eaten raw or used as a spinach substitute in any dish. The leaves are high in vitamin A & C, assorted necessary minerals and also fiber. The youngest leaves have the best flavor and texture, but even the large, old leaves can be chopped up and included in any food needing a vegetable.

Amaranth seeds are very rich in carbohydrates and up to 16% protein by weight. Better still, the seeds contain the amino acid lysine which is very rare for plants but vital for human health. A single plant can produce as many as 100,000 of these wonderful, slightly nutty-tasting seeds. They can be eaten raw but toasting and then grinding into flour releases the most nutrition. The ornamental varieties are just as productive as the wild one but are more attractive. Amaranth seeds have even been used to make a gluten-free beer. [source - retrieved from http://www.foragingtexas.com/2008/08/amarath_20.html on 3/15/2015]

In Genesis 1:11-13, "And God said, Let the earth put forth grass, herbs yielding seed, and fruit-trees bearing fruit after their kind, wherein is the seed thereof, upon the earth: and it was so. 12 And the earth brought forth grass, herbs yielding seed after their kind, and trees bearing fruit, wherein is the seed thereof, after their kind: and God saw that it was good. 13 And there was evening and there was morning, a third day. (American Standard Version, ASV)[for more details, go to www.jw.org].

Can be viewed at http://www.foragingtexas.com/2008/08/amarath_20.html

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Francis David said it long ago, "Neither the sword of popes...nor the image of death will halt the march of truth. "Francis David, 1579, written on the wall of his prison cell." Read the book, "What Does The Bible Really Teach" and the Bible today, and go to www.jw.org!


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Re: Almighty God’s (YHWH) Great Gift to Mankind, The Rare Fruit Trees and Herbs

Post  Admin on Mon Mar 23, 2015 7:12 pm

Hi Everyone:

Here is a Commentary on Bountiful Trees and Vegetables God (YHWH) has provided for mankind, specifically the Castanea pumila, Allegheny Chinkapin.

Abundance: rare
What: nuts
How: raw or roasted
Where: sandy, shaded areas near water
When: fall
Nutritional Value: calories, protein
Dangers: nut husks are very prickly

To stumble upon a stand of Allegheny Chinkapins is to stumble upon treasure. These large, usually multi-trunked bushes/small trees suffered from Chestnut Blight leading to reduced numbers across much of North America. A rare stand can still be found growing under larger trees in the sandy soil of tall banks overlooking water. The sandy soil gives them the drainage they need to avoid root-rot while the larger trees partially protects them from the fierce Texas sun. The long, narrow, sharply-toothed leaves, deep green on top and pale underneath, are arranged in an alternate pattern along the branches. In the spring long clusters of small, tan-yellow flowers hang from the tree. By fall these clusters have been replaced with sharp, spikey pods, each containing what looks like a small acorn.

Harvesting these nuts takes some work as they cling to the tree and are protected by the sharp, spiny remains of their outer husks. One usually has to carefully pick nuts off the shrub/tree one by one. You are likely to find some of the nuts have already germinated while still attached to the tree. Don't eat these but instead carefully plant them nearby.

Allegheny Chinkapin nuts lack tannins or other bitter compounds and so have a sweet, nutty flavor when eaten raw. Being so rare, limit yourself to just a nut or three. Take a few more to plant in similar locations so as to try and bring back this amazingly delicious treat. Animals love these nuts so getting them before squirrels, raccoons, possums and the such is tricky.

Like chestnuts, Allegheny Chinkapin nuts can be roasted to give almost a chocolatey sort of flavor. Place the uncracked nuts on a cookie sheet in an oven at 350F. After five minutes pull out a nut, crack it open and taste it. The roasting time is a personal preference but if the nuts' shells begin cracking it's definitely time to pull them out.

If you do over-roast the nuts they can still be used to make a caffeine-free coffee substitute. Grind the shelled nuts in a coffee grinder then either use them as is or combine them with real coffee to make a pot of brown, somewhat bitter fluid. [source - retrieved from http://www.foragingtexas.com/2012/11/allegheny-chinkapin.html on 3/15/2015]

In Genesis 1:11-13, "And God said, Let the earth put forth grass, herbs yielding seed, and fruit-trees bearing fruit after their kind, wherein is the seed thereof, upon the earth: and it was so. 12 And the earth brought forth grass, herbs yielding seed after their kind, and trees bearing fruit, wherein is the seed thereof, after their kind: and God saw that it was good. 13 And there was evening and there was morning, a third day. (American Standard Version, ASV)[for more details, go to www.jw.org].

View at http://www.foragingtexas.com/2012/11/allegheny-chinkapin.html

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Francis David said it long ago, "Neither the sword of popes...nor the image of death will halt the march of truth. "Francis David, 1579, written on the wall of his prison cell." Read the book, "What Does The Bible Really Teach" and the Bible today, and go to www.jw.org!




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Re: Almighty God’s (YHWH) Great Gift to Mankind, The Rare Fruit Trees and Herbs

Post  Admin on Thu Mar 26, 2015 7:58 pm


Hi Everyone:

Here is a Commentary on Bountiful Trees and Vegetables God (YHWH) has provided for mankind, specifically Acer negundo, Box Elder

Scientific Name: Acer negundo
Abundance: common
What: sap, seeds, young sprout, inner bark
How: sap is boiled to syrup; young sprouts raw or cooked; inner bark boiled; seeds are roasted
Where: lowland & moist areas; often along water; windbreaks
When: spring, summer, fall, winter
Nutritional Value: carbohydrates, protein, fiber
Dangers: none, though young seedlings may look like Poison Ivy

A large part of my childhood was spent up among the branches of the giant Box Elder tree in our backyard. Well, it seemed like a giant tree when I was a kid. These amazingly fast-growing trees max out around 70 feet tall and 30 feet wide. The wood is weak and any big winds will cause branches to drop including those greater than one foot in diameter. Never park under a Box Elder in a storm! These damaged areas quickly lead to the inner heartwood rotting away, making it popular with assorted birds, mammals, and bugs. They do not handle the full Texas sun well, preferring to grow in the partial shade of other trees. They fairly common in East Texas, much less common in the Hill Country and North Texas, and rare to non-existent in West Texas

Box Elders have thick, coarse bark when mature and compound leaves. Both these features hide the fact that they are in the maple (Acer) family. Being maples, they can be tapped for sugary sap in the late winter. Complete directions for tapping maples for syrup can be found here: Making Maple Syrup & Sugar.

Come the warmth of spring, many Box Elder seedlings will sprout up. These are tasty treats to deer, rabbits, and humans! Get them when they are still tender and under eight inches tall. It will have a green, smooth bark and three-part leaves. Actually, the young seedlings look a bit like Poison Ivy to the untrained eye so make sure you know what you are eating. The first set of side leaves of Box Elder are symmetrical whereas Poison Ivy side leaves are asymmetrical with "thumbs" pointing away from the center leaf. The second set of Box Elder leaves will have asymmetrical "thumbs", similar to Poison Ivy.

The inner bark of these trees, like other maples, are edible and contain a fair amount of carbohydrates. Finely chop this inner bark then boil it. Be sure to drink the water to get all the calories. This boiled bark will be a bit sweeter than most other non-maple barks but a flavoring agent will help improve its taste. This inner bark is available all year long though its sugar-content will be highest in the later winter when the sap is flowing.

Box Elder seeds are, in my opinion, the best part of the tree. They grow in "helicopter" shells with two joined together at the stem. Come fall, the ripe shells will break apart and fall spinning to the ground. This fluttering motion will send them a small distance from the mother tree. Treat these seeds like pumpkin seeds except they must be freed from their helicopter shell before boiling them for ten minutes in salt water then salting and roasting them at 400F for 10-20 minutes. Cooking time depends on how crisp you want the final product.
Labels: Borders, Calories, Common, Fall, Fields, Marshes, Shade, Spring,Summer, Tree, Water, Winter
,[source - retrived http://www.foragingtexas.com/2012/09/box-elder.html on 3/23/2015]

In Genesis 1:11-13, "And God said, Let the earth put forth grass, herbs yielding seed, and fruit-trees bearing fruit after their kind, wherein is the seed thereof, upon the earth: and it was so. 12 And the earth brought forth grass, herbs yielding seed after their kind, and trees bearing fruit, wherein is the seed thereof, after their kind: and God saw that it was good. 13 And there was evening and there was morning, a third day. (American Standard Version, ASV)[for more details, go to www.jw.org].

Picture and other information can be viewed at http://www.foragingtexas.com/2012/09/box-elder.html

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To enjoy an online Bible study called “Follow the Christ” go to, http://www.network54.com/Forum/403209/thread/1417398076/last-1417398076/Digital+Book+On+18+Part+Follow+Christ+Bible+Study

Your Friend in Christ Iris89

Francis David said it long ago, "Neither the sword of popes...nor the image of death will halt the march of truth. "Francis David, 1579, written on the wall of his prison cell." Read the book, "What Does The Bible Really Teach" and the Bible today, and go to www.jw.org!


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Re: Almighty God’s (YHWH) Great Gift to Mankind, The Rare Fruit Trees and Herbs

Post  Admin on Mon Mar 30, 2015 10:18 am


Hi Everyone:

Here is a Commentary on Bountiful Trees and Vegetables God (YHWH) has provided for mankind, specifically Arctium minus, Arctium lappa, Burdock

Scientific name: Arctium minus, Arctium lappa
Abundance: rare
What: young leaves, flower stalks, 1st year root
How: young leaves raw, as tea, stir-fried, or boiled in 2-3 changes of water; peel green skin of plant stalks to reveal inner white core which is eaten raw or cooked; root of 1st-year plants less than 1" in diameter and must be peeled then boiled in two changes of water until tender; roasted roots for coffee
Where: open fields, sunny areas, woods
When: leaves in spring, flower stalks in summer, roots summer and fall
Nutritional Value: Roots contain some minerals, vitamins C & B6, and some calories. Leaves contain many vitamins and phytochemicals
Other uses: you can stick a bunch of the burrs together to make a crown, but that usually ends badly
Dangers: burrs are clingy, do not confuse with toxic Cocklebur (Xanthium pennsylvanicum)


Burdocks prefer moist areas such as along stream banks and shady, wooded areas that stay wet. These biennial (live two years) plants produces large leaves the first year followed by flower stalks, flowers, smaller leaves, and clingy burs the second year. Both the Common Burdock (Arctium minus) and the Great Burdock (Arctium lappa) are edible. The outer rind of both the roots and plant stalks is very bitter and must be removed. If the root still has some bitterness boiling with changes of water will remove it. I find the peeled roots have a delicious sweet/savory flavor and a texture similar to bamboo shoots.

The peeled roots can also be used to make a caffeine-free coffee substitute. Dice the roots then roast them to your preferred level of darkness in an oven at 400F. Grind these roasted roots in a coffee grinder than either use as-is or mix with regular coffee grounds.

The roots are also excellent when pickled using the Ball Book of Canning recipe for pickling okra.

Cocklebur (Xanthium pennsylvanicum), which are toxic, also produce clingy burs. However, the burs of Cocklebur are much more oblong/cigar shaped than Burdock burs. Also, Cocklebur leaves are sharply toothed whereas the Burdock leaves have a wavy edge.
,[source - retrived http://www.foragingtexas.com/2007/11/burdock.html on 3/23/2015]

In Genesis 1:11-13, "And God said, Let the earth put forth grass, herbs yielding seed, and fruit-trees bearing fruit after their kind, wherein is the seed thereof, upon the earth: and it was so. 12 And the earth brought forth grass, herbs yielding seed after their kind, and trees bearing fruit, wherein is the seed thereof, after their kind: and God saw that it was good. 13 And there was evening and there was morning, a third day. (American Standard Version, ASV)[for more details, go to www.jw.org].

Picture and other information can be viewed at http://www.foragingtexas.com/2007/11/burdock.html

TO LEARN MORE ABOUT RELIGION AND THE BIBLE, GO TO,

1) http://iris89.conforums.com/

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7) http://religioustruths.forumotion.com/

To enjoy an online Bible study called “Follow the Christ” go to, http://www.network54.com/Forum/403209/thread/1417398076/last-1417398076/Digital+Book+On+18+Part+Follow+Christ+Bible+Study

Your Friend in Christ Iris89

Francis David said it long ago, "Neither the sword of popes...nor the image of death will halt the march of truth. "Francis David, 1579, written on the wall of his prison cell." Read the book, "What Does The Bible Really Teach" and the Bible today, and go to www.jw.org!


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Re: Almighty God’s (YHWH) Great Gift to Mankind, The Rare Fruit Trees and Herbs

Post  Admin on Thu Apr 02, 2015 11:27 am

Hi Everyone:

Here is a Commentary on Bountiful Trees and Vegetables God (YHWH) has provided for mankind, specifically the Arundinaria gigantean, Bamboo/River Cane

Scientific name: Arundinaria gigantea
Abundance: uncommon
What: seeds, young shoots
How: cooked/steamed
Where: river banks above high-water level
When: early spring through summer
Nutritional Value: small amounts of carbohydrates, protein, and vitamin C
Other uses: fishing poles, lattice structures, blow guns
Dangers: beware of deadly purple Ergot fungus.

Once thick canebrakes used to be found along many Texas streams where they formed their own distinctive ecosystems. Over-grazing by cattle, who love the leaves, along with other habitat destruction has greatly reduced these canebrakes, leading to the loss of certain species of warblers which nested exclusively in the safety of these bamboo stands. Their scientific name suggests that this bamboo can grow to gigantic sizes but in truth they rarely get over ¾” thick and more than 9’ tall.

Tender river cane shoots of any size can be eaten raw or used in stir-fries and other Asian-style dishes. Firmly grab the top of the cane and pull. Usually whatever comes off is tender enough to eat but nibble the bottom end to make sure it isn’t too hard or fibrous. I like the tiniest shoots, less than three inches tall growing from what looks like clumps of grass.

River cane makes excellent fishing poles. They were also used by Native Americans to make baskets, arrows and blowguns.

River cane is slightly susceptible to ergot fungal infections. Closely examine any river cane for signs of a purple powdery substance before harvesting, especially during rainy summers following very cold winters. Ergot poisoning can lead to hallucinations followed by death. I have yet to find any river cane infected with ergot, but I still keep an eye out for this fungus. [source - retrieved from http://www.foragingtexas.com/2008/08/bambooriver-cane_20.html on 3/23/2015]
In Genesis 1:11-13, "And God said, Let the earth put forth grass, herbs yielding seed, and fruit-trees bearing fruit after their kind, wherein is the seed thereof, upon the earth: and it was so. 12 And the earth brought forth grass, herbs yielding seed after their kind, and trees bearing fruit, wherein is the seed thereof, after their kind: and God saw that it was good. 13 And there was evening and there was morning, a third day. (American Standard Version, ASV)[for more details, go to www.jw.org].

Picture and other information can be viewed at http://www.foragingtexas.com/2008/08/bambooriver-cane_20.html

TO LEARN MORE ABOUT RELIGION AND THE BIBLE, GO TO,

1) http://iris89.conforums.com/

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3) http://religioustruths.lefora.com/

4) http://religioustruths.boardhost.com/

5) http://religioustruths.forumsland.com/

6) http://religioustruthsbyiris.createmybb3.com/

7) http://religioustruths.forumotion.com/

To enjoy an online Bible study called “Follow the Christ” go to, http://www.network54.com/Forum/403209/thread/1417398076/last-1417398076/Digital+Book+On+18+Part+Follow+Christ+Bible+Study

Your Friend in Christ Iris89

Francis David said it long ago, "Neither the sword of popes...nor the image of death will halt the march of truth. "Francis David, 1579, written on the wall of his prison cell." Read the book, "What Does The Bible Really Teach" and the Bible today, and go to www.jw.org!


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Re: Almighty God’s (YHWH) Great Gift to Mankind, The Rare Fruit Trees and Herbs

Post  Admin on Sun Apr 05, 2015 3:32 pm


Hi Everyone:

Here is a Commentary on Bountiful Trees and Vegetables God (YHWH) has provided for mankind, specifically the Callicarpa americana, Callicarpa japonica, American Beautyberry

Scientific name: Callicarpa americana, Callicarpa japonica
Abundance: Plentiful
What: ripe berries
How: raw, preserves
Where: woods
When: late summer, fall
Nutritional Value: minor amounts of vitamins and carbohydrates
Other uses: Recent studies indicate beauty berry leaves contain several very strong mosquito repellent molecules. Toxicity of these molecules still needs to be determined.
Dangers: Some people have reported stomach upset after eating beauty berries. Limit yourself to small servings until you know how your body will react.

As late summer turns to fall the bright magenta berries of American beautyberry capture the eye. These shrubs average 3’ to 5’ tall and wide but exceptional ones can grow over 9’ tall. They are understory plants found in most wooded areas, especially if moist soil. American beautyberry shrubs lose their leaves in the winter but the clusters of dried berries often remain on its long, drooping branches. Leaves appear in late spring, often after many other plants. The clusters of purple/pink flowers appear in early summer and quickly become small, white-pink berries.

American beautyberry berries become edible upon reaching full ripeness which usually occurs in late summer to early fall. They should be a dark purple/magenta color but not turning wrinkled and dry. These berries can be eaten raw and have a mild, slight medicinal flavor. To truly maximize the potential of these berries it is best to make jelly out of them. Combine 1.5 qts of berries with 1 qt. water, boil for 20 minutes and then strain out the solids. Add 4.5 cups of sugar and one envelop of Sure Jell to the liquid. Bring the liquid back up to boil for two minutes, skimming off any foam. Pour the hot jelly into sterilized jars and seal. The resulting jelly has a unique flavor which reminds me of rose petals and champagne.

These berries can also be used to make wine. Being low in sugars it is best to combine American beautyberry fruit with something sweeter such as grapes or bananas, otherwise the resulting wine will be a bit weak and have an uncomplex flavor.

Some people have reported stomach upset after eating beauty berries. Limit yourself to small servings until you know how your body will react

Three different molecules having mosquito repellent properties have been found in the leaves. Testing by the US army shows these compounds are similar to DEET in their ability to repel mosquitoes but human toxicity has not been determined. I recommend rubbing crushed leaves on your clothing rather than directly onto bare skin.
Labels: Bug Repellent, Bush, Fall, Late Summer, Plentiful, Purple Flower, Purple Fruit, Raw, Shade, White Flower, White Fruit, Woods
,[source - retrived from http://www.foragingtexas.com/2008/09/beautyberry.html on 3/23/2015]

In Genesis 1:11-13, "And God said, Let the earth put forth grass, herbs yielding seed, and fruit-trees bearing fruit after their kind, wherein is the seed thereof, upon the earth: and it was so. 12 And the earth brought forth grass, herbs yielding seed after their kind, and trees bearing fruit, wherein is the seed thereof, after their kind: and God saw that it was good. 13 And there was evening and there was morning, a third day. (American Standard Version, ASV)[for more details, go to www.jw.org].

Picture and other information can be viewed at http://www.foragingtexas.com/2008/09/beautyberry.html

TO LEARN MORE ABOUT RELIGION AND THE BIBLE, GO TO,

1) http://iris89.conforums.com/

2) http://www.network54.com/Forum/403209/

3) http://religioustruths.lefora.com/

4) http://religioustruths.boardhost.com/

5) http://religioustruths.forumsland.com/

6) http://religioustruthsbyiris.createmybb3.com/

7) http://religioustruths.forumotion.com/

To enjoy an online Bible study called “Follow the Christ” go to, http://www.network54.com/Forum/403209/thread/1417398076/last-1417398076/Digital+Book+On+18+Part+Follow+Christ+Bible+Study

Your Friend in Christ Iris89

Francis David said it long ago, "Neither the sword of popes...nor the image of death will halt the march of truth. "Francis David, 1579, written on the wall of his prison cell." Read the book, "What Does The Bible Really Teach" and the Bible today, and go to www.jw.org!


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Re: Almighty God’s (YHWH) Great Gift to Mankind, The Rare Fruit Trees and Herbs

Post  Admin on Wed Apr 08, 2015 3:52 pm


Hi Everyone:

Here is a Commentary on Bountiful Trees and Vegetables God (YHWH) has provided for mankind, specifically Callistemon spp., Bottlebrush Tree

Scientific Name(s): Callistemon spp.
Abundance: common
What: leaves, flowers
How: tea, seasoning
Where: dry sunny yards, landscaping
When: all year
Nutritional Value: flavanoids


Used often as a decorative landscaping tree, the striking red blossoms of the bottlebrush tree offer more than visual beauty. Their aroma is invigorating, somewhat minty or menthol in nature. The trees are small, rarely more than 15' tall and equally as wide. The leaves are evergreen and the blossoms also last can be found on the tree almost all year round. These flowers really explode vigorously in mid-spring and are often swarmed with bees who know a good thing when they smell it!

Both the flowers and leaves can be used to make an aromatic tea. The fresh blossoms do give a sweeter flavor than leaves. Aging the harvested leaves for two weeks helps as this breaks down the cell walls, allowing more of the flavorful compounds to escape into the tea. Flowers, being more delicate, do not benefit any from being aged and ideally are used fresh off the tree.

You can also use the leaves and flowers of the bottlebrush tree similar in manner to bay or rosemary leaves. Add several to a sauce, stew, or roasting meat to add an exotic flavor.

Mashed bottlebrush leaves rubbed on the skin is reported to keep away insects. This property may also be used to keep clothes, bedding, and houses bug free by laying sprigs of the leaves around whatever you want protected.
,[source - retrived from http://www.foragingtexas.com/2006/12/bottlebrush-tree.html on 3/23/2015]

In Genesis 1:11-13, "And God said, Let the earth put forth grass, herbs yielding seed, and fruit-trees bearing fruit after their kind, wherein is the seed thereof, upon the earth: and it was so. 12 And the earth brought forth grass, herbs yielding seed after their kind, and trees bearing fruit, wherein is the seed thereof, after their kind: and God saw that it was good. 13 And there was evening and there was morning, a third day. (American Standard Version, ASV)[for more details, go to www.jw.org].

Picture and other information can be viewed at http://www.foragingtexas.com/2006/12/bottlebrush-tree.html

TO LEARN MORE ABOUT RELIGION AND THE BIBLE, GO TO,

1) http://iris89.conforums.com/

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5) http://religioustruths.forumsland.com/

6) http://religioustruthsbyiris.createmybb3.com/

7) http://religioustruths.forumotion.com/

To enjoy an online Bible study called “Follow the Christ” go to, http://www.network54.com/Forum/403209/thread/1417398076/last-1417398076/Digital+Book+On+18+Part+Follow+Christ+Bible+Study

Your Friend in Christ Iris89

Francis David said it long ago, "Neither the sword of popes...nor the image of death will halt the march of truth. "Francis David, 1579, written on the wall of his prison cell." Read the book, "What Does The Bible Really Teach" and the Bible today, and go to www.jw.org!

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Re: Almighty God’s (YHWH) Great Gift to Mankind, The Rare Fruit Trees and Herbs

Post  Admin on Sun Apr 12, 2015 6:00 pm


Hi Everyone:

Here is a Commentary on Bountiful Trees and Vegetables God (YHWH) has provided for mankind, specifically the Cardamine spp., Bittercress

Scientific Name(s): Cardamine spp.
Abundance: common
What: leaves
How: raw when young, cooked when older
Where: moist shaded yards, borders, and woods
When: fall, winter (in Houston), spring
Nutritional Value: Vitamins A,Bs,C,K and minerals

Bittercress pops up when most everything else is brown. Look for it yards, flowerbeds and assorted border areas where low growing plants aren't swallowed up by taller stuff. It comes up with a rosette of deeply lobed leaves and small, white flowers which twist up the stem like a spiral staircase. After the flowers come long, thin seedpods which explode open on touch once they've matured and turned brown.

Bittercress has a wonderful horseradish flavor that is great for spicing up sandwiches and salads. The young leaves can be eaten raw while older, larger leaves can be cooked like traditional mustard greens. The seeds are too small to be ground into a mustard-style condiment but the tender, young seedpods are as good or better than the young leaves for a raw blast of flavor.

The leaves and seedpods must be chewed for a bit for the full, powerful flavor to develop. Their taste doesn't come from chemicals found in the plant but rather from the product of these chemicals as they undergo a reaction initiated by chewing. Chewing smashes the cell walls, releasing the compounds so they can react with the oxygen and water in your mouth, resulting in the excellent horseradishy punch.
Labels: Common, Fall, Green Fruit, Raw, Salad, Shade, Spring, Weed,White Flower, Winter, Woods, Yards
,[source - retrived from http://www.foragingtexas.com/2006/12/bittercress.html 3/23/2015]

In Genesis 1:11-13, "And God said, Let the earth put forth grass, herbs yielding seed, and fruit-trees bearing fruit after their kind, wherein is the seed thereof, upon the earth: and it was so. 12 And the earth brought forth grass, herbs yielding seed after their kind, and trees bearing fruit, wherein is the seed thereof, after their kind: and God saw that it was good. 13 And there was evening and there was morning, a third day. (American Standard Version, ASV)[for more details, go to www.jw.org].

Picture and other information can be viewed at http://www.foragingtexas.com/2006/12/bittercress.html

TO LEARN MORE ABOUT RELIGION AND THE BIBLE, GO TO,

1) http://iris89.conforums.com/

2) http://www.network54.com/Forum/403209/

3) http://religioustruths.lefora.com/

4) http://religioustruths.boardhost.com/

5) http://religioustruths.forumsland.com/

6) http://religioustruthsbyiris.createmybb3.com/

7) http://religioustruths.forumotion.com/

To enjoy an online Bible study called “Follow the Christ” go to, http://www.network54.com/Forum/403209/thread/1417398076/last-1417398076/Digital+Book+On+18+Part+Follow+Christ+Bible+Study

Your Friend in Christ Iris89

Francis David said it long ago, "Neither the sword of popes...nor the image of death will halt the march of truth. "Francis David, 1579, written on the wall of his prison cell." Read the book, "What Does The Bible Really Teach" and the Bible today, and go to www.jw.org!


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