Almighty God’s (YHWH) Great Gift to Mankind, The Rare Fruit Trees and Herbs

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African medlar (Vangueria infausta)

Post  Admin on Tue Apr 02, 2013 10:10 pm

Hi Everyone:

Here is a Commentary on Bountiful Trees and Vegetables God (YHWH) has provided for mankind, specifically the African medlar (Vangueria infausta) is a species of plant in the family Rubiaceae, which is native to the southern and eastern Afrotropics. The specific name infausta alludes to the misfortune believed to result from its use as firewood.[1]

The trees are low-branching[1] and mostly smallish but may reach 8 m in height. They have drooping branchlets and have pale greyish brown, flaky bark.[2] The fairly large, dull leaves have entire margins and are somewhat variable in shape. They have an opposite arrangement and conspicuous net-veining below.[2] Young leaves are boat-shaped and recurved along the central vein.[1]

Dense clusters of robust green flowers develop from pointed buds in spring. Each velvety flower is about 4 mm long and 6 mm wide, and are carried on opposite and axillary cymes.[2] The corolla is dropped early.

The initially green and glossy fruit appear in summer, and bear the remains of the calyx around their tips.[1] They develop into unevenly-shaped, glossy, tan-coloured plums, that contain soft fleshy pulp and fairly large seeds.[2]

Range
This shrub or small tree occurs in abundance in woodlands, scrub, valleys, stony kopjies, or sandy dunes throughout much of Southern and East Africa, including Madagascar. In Africa it is native to Uganda, Kenya, Tanzania, Malawi, Mozambique, Zimbabwe, Namibia, Botswana and South Africa.[2] It may be found from 350[2] to 1,330 m above sea level.[1]

Uses
The African medlar is a traditional food plant in Africa. This little-known fruit has the potential to improve nutrition, boost food security, foster rural development and support sustainable land care.[3] The fruit are consumed raw or the pulp may be dried and stored for later use, while the seeds may be roasted.[2] Goats and game browse on the leaves, while other animals may consume the fruit in the tree, or after they are shed on the ground.[1][2] The roots and leaves are used by traditional healers.[1][2]

Thin twigs are prone to being populated by spittlebugs.

References
1. ^ a b c d e f g Thomas, Val; Rina Grant; illustrations: Joan van Gogh; photographs: Jaco Adendorff (2001). Sappi tree spotting: Highlands: Highveld, Drakensberg, Eastern Cape mountains (3rd ed.). Johannesburg: Jacana. p. 264. ISBN 978-1-77009-561-8.
2. ^ a b c d e f g h i Orwa C, Mutua A , Kindt R , Jamnadass R, Simons A. (2009). "Vangueria infausta, Rubiaceae". Agroforestree Database:a tree reference and selection guide version 4.0. worldagroforestry.org. Retrieved 30 October 2012.
3. ^ National Research Council (2008-01-25). "Medlars". Lost Crops of Africa: Volume III: Fruits. Lost Crops of Africa 3. National Academies Press. ISBN 978-0-309-10596-5. Retrieved 2008-08-01. (source - retrieved from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vangueria_infausta on 4/1/2013)

This fruit is eaten fresh picked or made into jelly, wine, pies, tarts, chutney, etc. Before it can be eaten, the fruit must be bletted (ripened until very soft, but not rotten - something like persimmons) so that the acids and tannins are broken down. It has a gritty, mushy texture but a delicious flavor. Something like a spiced apple sauce with a wine overtone.
The African Medlar (Vangueria infausta) is a traditional food plant in Africa, but this little-known fruit has the potential to improve nutrition, boost food security, foster rural development and support sustainable landcare (source - retrieved from http://recipes.wikia.com/wiki/Medlar on //2013)

This species is one of South Africa's more popular veld fruits, and can be enjoyed while walking. This lovely little tree is considered to possess evil powers and not even the wood should be used for making fire. It is believed that it could cause cattle to bear only male offspring. Despite this, the plant is used extensively.

Description
This is a deciduous shrub or small tree that varies in height from 3-7 m, depending on the habitat. It can be single or multistemmed, but usually the latter. The bark is greyish to yellowish brown, smooth and peeling in irregular small strips. The branchlets are covered with short, woolly hairs, especially when young. The leaves are single, oppositely arranged, as is typical of this family. The leaves are light green in colour, covered with soft, velvety short hairs and even more so when young. The margin of the leaf is entire. The shape of the leaf is elliptic to ovate with the net veining conspicuous below. When older, the leaves often appear twisted and are rough to the touch.

Soft, velvety, acorn-shaped buds appear either before or simultaneously with the new leaves around September to October. These open into small flowers, greenish white to yellowish in colour. They occur in clusters along the short lateral branches. The fruit is almost round, glossy dark green when young and changing to a light brown when ripe. The ripe fruit is soft and fleshy with a leathery shin that encloses 3-5 seeds embedded in soft pulp. The fruit is edible and has a pleasant sweet-sour, mealy taste. It tastes like an apple. It can be found on the plants from January to April. The remains of the old flower base can be seen on the tip of the fruit.

Distribution
This plant can be found in woodlands, scrub, on stony koppies or in sandy valleys. It is most common in open, exposed grassland. It occurs from the Eastern Cape, Free State, KwaZulu-Natal, Swaziland, Mpumalanga, Gauteng, Limpopo, the North-West to Northern Cape.

Name derivation
The generic name Vangueria was derived from the Madagascan name for Vangueria edulis: voa vanguer. The word infausta (Latin) means unlucky, referring to the magical properties it is believed to have.

Ecological value
Antelope graze the leaves. Bushbabies, monkeys, baboons, squirrels and bushpigs eat the fruit when ripe. Butterflies and flies visit the flowers. One often finds elongated, papillate galls on the leaves that are caused by insects.

Uses and economic value
The fruit is mostly eaten raw but in some parts it is stored as dried fruit to be used in time of food scarcity. It is said that mampoer, a strong alcoholic drink or brandy can be distilled from it or fermented to make beer. If mixed with a little water and sugar it produces an acceptable substitute for apple sauce. The fruit juice can also be used for flavouring purposes by squeezing it out in water, discarding the seed and skins. This is done often for flavouring porridge. According to Betsie Rood (1994) vinegar can be produced from the fruit. This plant has medicinal value as well. An infusion of the roots and leaves has been used to treat malaria, chest ailments like pneumonia, as a purgative and to treat ringworms. An infusion of the leaves is used for the relief of toothache. For the treatment of swelling of the limbs the affected parts are bathed in a decoction of the pounded leaves and small twigs, especially in children.

Growing Vangueria infausta
The wild medlar is a hardy and drought resistant plant that can withstand moderate cold. It is rarely cultivated in the trade. It can be propagated from fresh seed or cuttings. To make sure that it germinates readily, remove the outer skin and the pulp. Sow in well-drained, sandy seedling mix.

This plant is slow growing, but would make an attractive garden plant if trimmed from the start to form a specimen plant.

References
* Coates Palgrave, M. 2002. Keith Coates Palgrave Trees of southern Africa, edn 3. Struik, Cape Town.
* Fox, F.W. & Norwood Young, M.E. 1982. Food from the veld. Delta Books, Johannesburg.
* Germishuizen, G. 1982. Transvaal wild flowers. Macmillan, Johannesburg.
* Palmer, E. & Pitman, N. 1972. Trees of southern Africa, vol. 3. Balkema, Cape Town.
* Rood, B. 1994 Kos uit die veldkombuis. Tafelberg, Cape Town.
* Steel, B. & Behr, K. 1986. A small tree for rocky gardens-Vangueria infausta, wild medlar. Veld & Flora 72: 89.
* Thomas, V. & Grant, R. 1998. Highveld and the Drakensberg. SAPPI Tree Spotting Series. Jacana, Johannesburg.
* Van Wyk, B. & Malan, S. 1988. Field guide to the wild flowers of the Witwatersrand and Pretoria region. Struik, Cape Town.
* Van Wyk, B. & Van Wyk, P. 1997. Field guide to trees of southern Africa. Struik, Cape Town.
* Van Wyk, B.,Van Wyk, P. & Van Wyk, B-E. 2000. Photographic guide to the trees of southern Africa. Briza Publications, Pretoria.
* Van Wyk, P. 1984. Veldgids tot die bome van die Nasionale Krugerwildtuin. Struik, Cape Town.
* Venter, F. & Venter, J-A. 1996. Making the most of indigenous trees. Briza Publications, Pretoria.
* Watt, J.M. & Breyer-Brandwijk, M.G. 1962. Medicinal and poisonous plants of southern and eastern Africa. Livingston, London. (source - retrieved from http://www.plantzafrica.com/planttuv/vanguarinfaust.htm on 4/1/2013)


In Genesis 1:11-13, "And God said, Let the earth put forth grass, herbs yielding seed, and fruit-trees bearing fruit after their kind, wherein is the seed thereof, upon the earth: and it was so. 12 And the earth brought forth grass, herbs yielding seed after their kind, and trees bearing fruit, wherein is the seed thereof, after their kind: and God saw that it was good. 13 And there was evening and there was morning, a third day. (American Standard Version, ASV)[for more details, go to www.jw.org].

View plant and fruit at, https://www.google.com/search?q=African+Medlar&hl=en&client=firefox&hs=18g&rls=com.yahoo:en-US:official&tbm=isch&tbo=u&source=univ&sa=X&ei=q5lZUYD2D6-14APcxYCAAw&ved=0CEwQsAQ&biw=1280&bih=854

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Francis David said it long ago, "Neither the sword of popes...nor the image of death will halt the march of truth."Francis David, 1579, written on the wall of his prison cell." Read the book, "What Does The Bible Really Teach" and the Bible today, and go to www.jw.org!


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Re: Almighty God’s (YHWH) Great Gift to Mankind, The Rare Fruit Trees and Herbs

Post  Admin on Fri Apr 05, 2013 7:36 pm

Hi Everyone:

Here is a Commentary on Bountiful Trees and Vegetables God (YHWH) has provided for mankind, specifically the Alma Fruit Tree Phyllanthus emblica

Amla has been regarded as a sacred tree in India. The tree was worshipped as Mother Earth and is believed to nurture humankind because the fruit are very nourishing. Kartik Mahatma and Vrat Kaumudi order the worship of this tree. The leaves are offered to the Lord of Shri Satyanarayana Vrata, Samba on Shri Shanipradosha Vrata and Shiva and Gowri on Nitya Somvara Vrata. The fruit and flowers are also used in worship. In Himachal Pradesh the tree is worshipped in Kartik as propitious and chaste. Amla tree is commonly planted in compounds of domestic and office buildings, bunds of agricultural holdings, roadside avenues, etc. Now many farmers in Haryana have taken to planting Amla on their farms as a cash crop. (source - retrieved from http://www.seedman.com/fruit.htm on 4/3/2013)

Phyllanthus emblica (syn. Emblica officinalis), the Indian gooseberry, or aamla from Sanskrit amalika, is a deciduous tree of the family Phyllanthaceae. It is known for its edible fruit of the same name.

The tree is small to medium in size, reaching 8 to 18 m in height, with a crooked trunk and spreading branches. The branchlets are glabrous or finely pubescent, 10–20 cm long, usually deciduous; the leaves are simple, subsessile and closely set along branchlets, light green, resembling pinnate leaves. The flowers are greenish-yellow. The fruit is nearly spherical, light greenish yellow, quite smooth and hard on appearance, with six vertical stripes or furrows.

Ripening in autumn, the berries are harvested by hand after climbing to upper branches bearing the fruits. The taste of Indian gooseberry is sour, bitter and astringent, and it is quite fibrous. In India, it is common to eat gooseberries steeped in salt water and turmeric to make the sour fruits palatable. It is also used to straighten hair.

Medical research



Indian gooseberry has undergone preliminary research, demonstrating in vitro antiviral and antimicrobial properties.[2] There is preliminary evidence in vitro that its extracts induce apoptosis and modify gene expression in osteoclasts involved in rheumatoid arthritis and osteoporosis.[3] It may prove to have potential activity against some cancers.[4] One recent animal study found treatment with E. of?cinalis reduced severity of acute pancreatitis (induced by L-arginine in rats). It also promoted the spontaneous repair and regeneration process of the pancreas occurring after an acute attack.[5]
Experimental preparations of leaves, bark or fruit have shown potential efficacy against laboratory models of disease, such as for inflammation, cancer, age-related renal disease, and diabetes.[6][7][8]

A human pilot study demonstrated a reduction of blood cholesterol levels in both normal and hypercholesterolemic men with treatment.[9] Another recent study with alloxan-induced diabetic rats given an aqueous amla fruit extract has shown significant decrease of the blood glucose, as well as triglyceridemic levels and an improvement of the liver function caused by a normalization of the liver-specific enzyme alanine transaminase activity.[10]

Chemical research
Although these fruits are reputed to contain high amounts of ascorbic acid (vitamin C), 445 mg/100g,[11] the specific contents are disputed, and the overall antioxidant strength of amla may derive instead from its high density of ellagitannins[12] such as emblicanin A (37%), emblicanin B (33%), punigluconin (12%) and pedunculagin (14%).[13] It also contains punicafolin and phyllanemblinin A, [[phyllanemblin other polyphenols: flavonoids, kaempferol, ellagic acid and gallic acid.[12][14]

Cultural and religious significance
In the Sanskrit Buddhist tradition half an amalaka fruit was the final gift to the Buddhist sangha by the great Indian emperor Asoka. This is illustrated in the Asokavadana in the following verses: "A great donor, the lord of men, the eminent Maurya Asoka, has gone from being lord of Jambudvipa [India] to being lord of half a myrobalan." (Strong, 1983, p.99)[15] This deed became so famous that a stupa was created to mark the place of the event in modern day Patna and was known as the Amalaka stupa.

According to Hindu tradition, Adi Shankara composed and recited the Kanakadhara stotram in praise of Mahalakshmi to make a poor Brahmin lady get wealth, in return for a single amla presented to him as bhiksha on an auspicious dwadashi day.

According to a Tamil legend, Avvaiyar a female poet, ethicist and political activist of the Sangam period was gifted with one amla by King Athiyaman to give her long life.

The tree is considered sacred by Hindus as the Vishnu is believed to dwell here. The tree is worshipped on Amalaka Ekadashi.

Traditional uses
Medicinal use
In traditional Indian medicine, dried and fresh fruits of the plant are used. All parts of the plant are used in various Ayurvedic/Unani medicine (Jawarish amla) herbal preparations, including the fruit, seed, leaves, root, bark and flowers.[16] According to Ayurveda, aamla fruit is sour (amla) and astringent (kashaya) in taste (rasa), with sweet (madhura), bitter (tikta) and pungent (katu) secondary tastes (anurasas).[16] Its qualities (gunas) are light (laghu) and dry (ruksha), the postdigestive effect (vipaka) is sweet (madhura), and its energy (virya) is cooling (shita).[12]

According to Ayurveda, aamla balances all three doshas. While aamla is unusual in that it contains five out of the six tastes recognized by Ayurved, it is most important to recognize the effects of the "virya", or potency, and "vipaka", or post-digestive effect. Considered in this light, aamla is particularly helpful in reducing pitta due to its cooling energy.[16] and balances both Pitta and vata by virtue of its sweet taste. The kapha is balanced primarily due to its drying action. It may be used as a rasayana (rejuvenative) to promote longevity, and traditionally to enhance digestion (dipanapachana), treat constipation (anuloma), reduce fever (jvaraghna), purify the blood (raktaprasadana), reduce cough (kasahara), alleviate asthma (svasahara), strengthen the heart (hrdaya), benefit the eyes (chakshushya), stimulate hair growth (romasanjana), enliven the body (jivaniya), and enhance intellect (medhya).[16]

In Ayurvedic polyherbal formulations, Indian gooseberry is a common constituent, and most notably is the primary ingredient in an ancient herbal rasayana called Chyawanprash.[12] This formula, which contains 43 herbal ingredients as well as clarified butter, sesame oil, sugar cane juice, and honey, was first mentioned in the Charaka Samhita as a premier rejuvenative compound.[17][18]


In Chinese traditional therapy, this fruit is called yuganzi (???), which is used to cure throat inflammation.
Emblica officinalis tea may ameliorate diabetic neuropathy. In rats it significantly reduced blood glucose, food intake, water intake and urine output in diabetic rats compared with the non? diabetic control group.[19]

Culinary use
Particularly in South India, the fruit is pickled with salt, oil, and spices. Aamla is eaten raw or cooked into various dishes. In Andhra Pradesh, tender varieties are used to prepare dal (a lentil preparation), and amle ka murabbah, a sweet dish indigenous to the northern part of India (wherein the berries are soaked in sugar syrup for a long time till they are imparted the sweet flavor); it is traditionally consumed after meals.

Other uses
Popularly used in inks, shampoos and hair oils, the high tannin content of Indian gooseberry fruit serves as a mordant for fixing dyes in fabrics.[16] Amla shampoos and hair oil are traditionally believed to nourish the hair and scalp and prevent premature grey hair.

Alternative names for Indian gooseberry
Names of this tree in Indian and other languages include:
amalika (???????) in Sanskrit
aamla (????) in Hindi
aamla (?????) in Gujarati
aavnlaa (awla) (or awla) in ????
aavalaa (????) (or awla) in Marathi
ambare (?????) in Garo language
avaalo (?????) in Konkani
sunhlu in Mizo
amala (????) in Nepali
amloki (?????) in Bengali
amlakhi in Assamese
amla (????) in Oriya
Aula in Punjabi
nellikka (?????????) in Malayalam
heikru in Manipuri
sohmylleng in Khasi
usiri (????? ???) (or usirikai ) in Telugu
nellikkai (????????????/ ?????? ????/ ?????? ??????) nellikkaai or nellikaayi) in Tamil and Kannada
nelli (??????) in Sinhala
mak kham bom in Lao
ma kham pom (?????????) in Thai
anmole (???) in Chinese
Kantout Prei (??????????) in Khmer
skyu ru ra (??????????) in Tibetan
melaka in Malay, A state in Malaysia, Malacca was named after this tree.
zee phyu thee (?????????) in Myanmar
Also found are the names emblic, emblic myrobalan, malacca tree and the variants in spelling aola, ammalaki, aamvala, aawallaa, dharty, nillika, and nellikya.
Gallery
*
See also

Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Phyllanthus emblica
* Emblicanin (antioxidant)
* Triphala, an Ayurvedic mixture containing Amla
References
1. ^ "Phyllanthus emblica information from NPGS/GRIN". US Department of Agriculture. Retrieved 2008-03-06.
2. ^ Saeed S, Tariq P (Jan 2007). "Antibacterial activities of Emblica officinalis and Coriandrum sativum against Gram negative urinary pathogens". Pak J Pharm Sci 20 (1): 32–5. PMID 17337425.
3. ^ Penolazzi, L.; Lampronti, I.; Borgatti, M.; Khan, M.; Zennaro, M.; Piva, R.; Gambari, R. (2008). "Induction of apoptosis of human primary osteoclasts treated with extracts from the medicinal plant Emblica officinalis". BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 8: 59. doi:10.1186/1472-6882-8-59. PMC 2587459. PMID 18973662. edit
4. ^ Ngamkitidechakul, C.; Jaijoy, K.; Hansakul, P.; Soonthornchareonnon, N.; Sireeratawong, S. (2010). "Antitumour effects of phyllanthus emblica L.: Induction of cancer cell apoptosis and Inhibition of in vivo tumour promotion and in vitro invasion of human cancer cells". Phytotherapy Research 24 (9): 1405–1413. doi:10.1002/ptr.3127. PMID 20812284. edit
5. ^ Sidhu, S.; Pandhi, P.; Malhotra, S.; Vaiphei, K.; Khanduja, K. L. (2011). "Beneficial Effects ofEmblica officinalisinl-Arginine-Induced Acute Pancreatitis in Rats". Journal of Medicinal Food 14 (1–2): 147–155. doi:10.1089/jmf.2010.1108. PMID 21138365. edit
6. ^ Ganju L, Karan D, Chanda S, Srivastava KK, Sawhney RC, Selvamurthy W (Sep 2003). "Immunomodulatory effects of agents of plant origin". Biomed Pharmacother. 57 (7): 296–300. doi:10.1016/S0753-3322(03)00095-7. PMID 14499177.
7. ^ Yokozawa T, Kim HY, Kim HJ, et al. (Sep 2007). "Amla (Emblica officinalis Gaertn.) attenuates age-related renal dysfunction by oxidative stress". J Agric Food Chem. 55 (19): 7744–52. doi:10.1021/jf072105s. PMID 17715896.
8. ^ Rao TP, Sakaguchi N, Juneja LR, Wada E, Yokozawa T (2005). "Amla (Emblica officinalis Gaertn.) extracts reduce oxidative stress in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats". J Med Food 8 (3): 362–8. doi:10.1089/jmf.2005.8.362. PMID 16176148.
9. ^ Jacob A, Pandey M, Kapoor S, Saroja R (Nov 1988). "Effect of the Indian gooseberry (amla) on serum cholesterol levels in men aged 35-55 years". Eur J Clin Nutr 42 (11): 939–44. PMID 3250870.
10. ^ Qureshi SA, Asad W, Sultana V (Jan 2009). "The Effect of Phyllantus emblica Linn on Type — II Diabetes, Triglycerides and Liver — Specific Enzyme". Pakistan Journal of Nutrition. 8 (2): 125–128. doi:10.3923/pjn.2009.125.128.
11. ^ Tarwadi K, Agte V (Aug 2007). "Antioxidant and micronutrient potential of common fruits available in the Indian subcontinent". Int J Food Sci Nutr 58 (5): 341–9. doi:10.1080/09637480701243905. PMID 17558726.
12. ^ a b c d Dharmananda S. Emblic Myrobalans: Amla, Institute of Traditional Medicine [1]
13. ^ Bhattacharya, A.; Chatterjee, A.; Ghosal, S.; Bhattacharya, S. K. (1999). "Antioxidant activity of active tannoid principles of Emblica officinalis (amla)". Indian journal of experimental biology 37 (7): 676–680. PMID 10522157. edit
14. ^ Habib-ur-Rehman, Yasin KA, Choudhary MA, et al. (Jul 2007). "Studies on the chemical constituents of Phyllanthus emblica". Nat. Prod. Res. 21 (9): 775–81. doi:10.1080/14786410601124664. PMID 17763100.
15. ^ Strong, J. S. (1983) The Legend of King Asoka, New York: Princeton University Press
16. ^ a b c d e Caldecott T. Amalaki
17. ^ Samhita C. Ed., translation by the Shree Gulabkunverba Society, Volume 4. Chikitsa Sthana, Jamnagar, India: 1949
18. ^ Indian Ministry of Health and Family Planning. The Ayurvedic Formulary of India. Part I. 1st ed. Delhi, 1978.
19. ^ Tiwari, V.; Kuhad, A.; Chopra, K. (2011). "Emblica officinalis Corrects Functional, Biochemical and Molecular Deficits in Experimental Diabetic Neuropathy by Targeting the Oxido-nitrosative Stress Mediated Inflammatory Cascade". Phytotherapy Research 25 (10): 1527–1536. doi:10.1002/ptr.3440. PMID 21394805. (source - retrieved from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Phyllanthus_emblica on 4/3/2013)

In Genesis 1:11-13, "And God said, Let the earth put forth grass, herbs yielding seed, and fruit-trees bearing fruit after their kind, wherein is the seed thereof, upon the earth: and it was so. 12 And the earth brought forth grass, herbs yielding seed after their kind, and trees bearing fruit, wherein is the seed thereof, after their kind: and God saw that it was good. 13 And there was evening and there was morning, a third day. (American Standard Version, ASV)[for more details, go to www.jw.org].

View movie on tree and its fruit at, http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PB75UpTp6pE&noredirect=1


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Your Friend in Christ Iris89

Francis David said it long ago, "Neither the sword of popes...nor the image of death will halt the march of truth."Francis David, 1579, written on the wall of his prison cell." Read the book, "What Does The Bible Really Teach" and the Bible today, and go to www.jw.org!




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Ambarella, Spondias dulcis Forst. Spondias cytherea Sonn.

Post  Admin on Tue Apr 09, 2013 11:27 pm

Hi Everyone:

Here is a Commentary on Bountiful Trees and Vegetables God (YHWH) has provided for mankind, specifically the Ambarella, Spondias dulcis Forst. Spondias cytherea Sonn.

An under-appreciated member of the Anacardiaceae, but deserving of improvement, is the ambarella, Spondias dulcis Forst. (syn. S. cytherea Sonn.). Among various colloquial names are Otaheite apple, Tahitian quince, Polynesian plum, Jew plum and golden apple. In Malaya it is called great hog plum or kedondong; in Indonesia, kedongdong; in Thailand, ma-kok-farang; in Cambodia, mokak; in Vietnam, coc, pomme cythere or Pommier de cythere. In Costa Rica, it is known as juplón; in Colombia, hobo de racimos; in Venezuela, jobo de la India, jobo de Indio, or mango jobo; in Ecuador, manzana de oro; in Brazil, caja-manga.


The tree is rapid-growing, attaining a height of 60 ft (18 m) in its homeland; generally not more than 30 or 40 ft (9-12 m) in other areas. Upright and rather rigid and symmetrical, it is a stately ornamental with deciduous, handsome, pinnate leaves, 8 to 24 in (20-60 cm) in length, composed of 9 to 25 glossy, elliptic or obovate-oblong leaflets 2 1/2 to 4 in (6.25-10 cm) long, finely toothed toward the apex. At the beginning of the dry, cool season, the leaves turn bright-yellow and fall, but the tree with its nearly smooth, light gray-brown bark and graceful, rounded branches is not unattractive during the few weeks that it remains bare. Small, inconspicuous, whitish flowers are borne in large terminal panicles. They are assorted, male, female and perfect in each cluster. Long-stalked fruits dangle in bunches of a dozen or more; oval or somewhat irregular or knobby, and 2 1/2 to 3 1/2 in (6.25-9 cm) long, with thin but tough skin, often russetted. While still green and hard, the fruits fall to the ground, a few at a time, over a period of several weeks. As they ripen, the skin and flesh turn golden-yellow. While the fruit is still firm, the flesh is crisp, juicy and subacid, and has a somewhat pineapple-like fragrance and flavor. If allowed to soften, the aroma and flavor become musky and the flesh difficult to slice because of conspicuous and tough fibers extending from the rough ridges of the 5-celled, woody core containing 1 to 5 flat seeds. Some fruits in the South Sea Islands weigh over 1 lb (0.45 kg) each.

Origin and Distribution
The ambarella is native from Melanesia through Polynesia and has been introduced into tropical areas of both the Old and New World. It is common in Malayan gardens and fairly frequent in India and Ceylon. The fruits are sold in markets in Vietnam and elsewhere in former Indochina. It first fruited in the Philippines in 1915. It is cultivated in Queensland, Australia, and grown on a small scale in Gabon and Zanzibar.

It was introduced into Jamaica in 1782 and again 10 years later by Captain Bligh, probably from Hawaii where it has been grown for many years. It is cultivated in Cuba, Haiti, the Dominican Republic, and from Puerto Rico to Trinidad; also in Central America, Venezuela, and Surinam; is rare in Brazil and other parts of tropical America. Popenoe said there were only a few trees in the Province of Guayas, Ecuador, in 1924.

The United States Department of Agriculture received seeds from Liberia in 1909, though Wester reported at that time that the tree had already been fruiting for 4 years in Miami, Florida. In 1911, additional seeds reached Washington from Queensland, Australia. A number of specimens are scattered around the tip of Florida, from Palm Beach southward, but the tree has never become common here. Some that were planted in the past have disappeared.

Climate
The tree flourishes in humid tropical and subtropical areas, being only a trifle tenderer than its close relative, the mango. It succeeds up to an altitude of 2,300 ft (700 m). In Israel, the tree does not thrive, remaining small and bearing only a few, inferior fruits.

Soil
The ambarella grows on all types of soil, including oolitic limestone in Florida, as long as they are well-drained.

Propagation
The tree is easily propagated by seeds, which germinate in about 4 weeks, or by large hardwood cuttings, or air-layers. It can be grafted on its own rootstock, but Firminger says that in India it is usually grafted on the native S. pinnata Kurz (see below). Wester advised: "Use non-petioled, slender, mature, but green and smooth budwood; cut large buds with ample wood-shield, 1 1/2 to 1 3/4 in (4-4.5 cm) long; insert the buds in the stock at a point of approximately the same age and appearance as the scion."

Culture
Seedlings may fruit when only 4 years old. Ochse recommends that the young trees be given light shade. Mature trees are somewhat brittle and apt to be damaged by strong winds; therefore, sheltered locations are preferred.

Season
In Hawaii, the fruit ripens from November to April; in Tahiti, from May to July. In Florida, a single tree provides a steady supply for a family from fall to midwinter, at a time when mangos and many other popular fruits are out of season.

Pests and Diseases
Ochse says that in Indonesia the leaves are severely attacked by the larvae of the kedongdong spring-beetle, Podontia affinis. In Costa Rica, the bark is eaten by a wasp ("Congo"), causing necrosis which leads to death. No particular insects or diseases have been reported in Florida. In Jamaica, the tree is subject to gummosis and is consequently short-lived.

Food Uses
The ambarella has suffered by comparison with the mango and by repetition in literature of its inferior quality. However, taken at the proper stage, while still firm, it is relished by many out-of-hand, and it yields a delicious juice for cold beverages. If the crisp sliced flesh is stewed with a little water and sugar and then strained through a wire sieve, it makes a most acceptable product, much like traditional applesauce but with a richer flavor. With the addition of cinnamon or any other spices desired, this sauce can be slowly cooked down to a thick consistency to make a preserve very similar to apple butter. Unripe fruits can be made into jelly, pickles or relishes, or used for flavoring sauces, soups and stews.

Young ambarella leaves are appealingly acid and consumed raw in southeast Asia. In Indonesia, they are steamed and eaten as a vegetable with salted fish and rice, and also used as seasoning for various dishes. They are sometimes cooked with meat to tenderize it.

Food Value Per 100 g of Edible Portion*

Calories
157.30
Total Solids
14.53-40-35%
Moisture
59.65-85.47%
Protein
0.50-0.80%
Fat
0.28-1.79%
Sugar (sucrose)
8.05-10-54%
Acid
0.47%
Crude Fiber
0.85-3-60%
Ash
0.44-0.65%
*

According to analyses made in the Philippines and Hawaii. I
Miller, Louis and Yanazawa in Hawaii reported an ascorbic acid content of 42 mg per 100 g of raw pulp. It is a good source of iron. Unripe fruits contain 9.76% of pectin.

Other Uses
Wood: The wood is light-brown and buoyant and in the Society Islands has been used for canoes.

Medicinal Uses: In Cambodia, the astringent bark is used with various species of Terminalia as a remedy for diarrhea.

Related Species
The amra, S. pinnata Kurz (syns. Mangifera pinnata L. f.; Pourpartia pinnata Blanco), which some botanists consider merely a wild form of S. dulcis, is wild and cultivated from the Himalayas of northern India to the Andaman Islands and is commonly cultivated throughout southeast Asia and Malaysia. The twigs are smooth and the leaves are not toothed; the fruit is smaller than the ambarella and inferior in quality but has the same uses. The aromatic, acidulous leaves and flowers are employed as flavoring and consumed raw or cooked, especially in curries. The wood is used for making boats, floats, matches, etc. There are several medicinal applications of the bark, root, and the gum that exudes from the trunk. (source - retrieved from http://www.hort.purdue.edu/newcrop/morton/ambarella_ars.html on 3/27/2013)


In Genesis 1:11-13, "And God said, Let the earth put forth grass, herbs yielding seed, and fruit-trees bearing fruit after their kind, wherein is the seed thereof, upon the earth: and it was so. 12 And the earth brought forth grass, herbs yielding seed after their kind, and trees bearing fruit, wherein is the seed thereof, after their kind: and God saw that it was good. 13 And there was evening and there was morning, a third day. (American Standard Version, ASV)[for more details, go to www.jw.org].

View this plant and fruit at, http://www.bing.com/images/search?q=Spondias+dulcis+Ambarella&qpvt=Spondias+dulcis+Ambarella&FORM=IGRE

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Francis David said it long ago, "Neither the sword of popes...nor the image of death will halt the march of truth."Francis David, 1579, written on the wall of his prison cell." Read the book, "What Does The Bible Really Teach" and the Bible today, and go to www.jw.org!




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Amur Grape Vitis Amurensis

Post  Admin on Sat Apr 13, 2013 2:21 pm

Hi Everyone:

Here is a Commentary on Bountiful Trees and Vegetables God (YHWH) has provided for mankind, specifically the Amur Grape Vitis Amurensis

This plant is native to the Far East (China, Japan, Korea, and Siberia). This is a rarely offered species with exceptional fall coloring. This robust, fast growing vine attains a height of 18-24 ft (6-8 m), with up to 6 ft (2 m) of annual growth.

This plant is suitable for growing up tall fences, arbors, and sturdy supports. A splendid and vigorous climber with reddish flossy shoots, when there young. The leaves are broad, ovate and large (3 or 5-lobed), up to 10 in. across (15-25 cm). In autumn the rather fine foliage turns a rich crimson and purple. This plant climbs by means of tendrils. This plant is attractive to bees, butterflies and/or birds.

The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by insects. They bloom from May to July, and the seeds ripen from September to October. After the flowers the fruits appear, they are small (1-1.5 cm) colored purple to black, and they taste very good, making wonderful jelly.
Hardiness zones: 4-9 (-32°C/-25°F, -5°C/25°F) in winter. Even if it has small soil requirements, this plant prefers a deep rich moist well-drained moderately fertile loam. The plant does best in calcium rich fertile loamy evenly moist soils for best production and flavorful fruit. Vitis Amurensis succeeds in sun or partial shade; though a warm sunny position is required for the fruit to ripen. This vine is very hardy, tolerating temperatures down to about -40°c.
Note: These seeds need to be cold statified before sowing. (source - retrieved from http://www.seedman.com/fruit.htm on 4/4/2013)

In Genesis 1:11-13, "And God said, Let the earth put forth grass, herbs yielding seed, and fruit-trees bearing fruit after their kind, wherein is the seed thereof, upon the earth: and it was so. 12 And the earth brought forth grass, herbs yielding seed after their kind, and trees bearing fruit, wherein is the seed thereof, after their kind: and God saw that it was good. 13 And there was evening and there was morning, a third day. (American Standard Version, ASV)[for more details, go to www.jw.org].

View plant and fruit at, https://www.google.com/search?q=Amur+Grape+Vitis+Amurensis&hl=en&client=firefox&hs=lIX&rls=com.yahoo:en-US:official&tbm=isch&tbo=u&source=univ&sa=X&ei=H99dUafhFPSs0AGEoYG4DA&ved=0CFkQsAQ&biw=1280&bih=854


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Your Friend in Christ Iris89

Francis David said it long ago, "Neither the sword of popes...nor the image of death will halt the march of truth."Francis David, 1579, written on the wall of his prison cell." Read the book, "What Does The Bible Really Teach" and the Bible today, and go to www.jw.org!

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the Aronia, the chokeberries,

Post  Admin on Mon Apr 15, 2013 9:45 pm

Hi Everyone:

Here is a Commentary on Bountiful Trees and Vegetables God (YHWH) has provided for mankind, specifically the Aronia, the chokeberries, are two[2] to three species of deciduous shrubs in the family Rosaceae, native to eastern North America. They are most commonly found in wet woods and swamps.[3][4][5][6] Chokeberries are cultivated as ornamental plants and also because they are very high in antioxidant pigment compounds, such as anthocyanins. The name "chokeberry" comes from the astringency of the fruits, which are inedible when raw. The berries can be used to make wine, jam, syrup, juice, soft spreads, tea and tinctures. The fruits are eaten by birds, which then disperse the seeds in their droppings; birds do not taste astringency and feed on them freely.
The chokeberries are often mistakenly called chokecherries, which is the common name for Prunus virginiana. Further adding to the ambiguity, there is a cultivar of Prunus virginiana named 'Melanocarpa',[7][8] easily confused with Aronia melanocarpa. Chokecherries are also high in antioxidant pigment compounds, like anthocyanins, further contributing to confusion. In fact, the two plants are only distantly related within the Rosaceae.

Identification and taxonomy
The leaves are alternate, simple, and oblanceolate with crenate margins and pinnate venation; in autumn the leaves turn a bold red color. Dark trichomes are present on the upper midrib surface. The flowers are small, with 5 petals and 5 sepals, and produced in corymbs of 10-25 together. Hypanthium is urn-shaped. The fruit is a small pome, with a very astringent flavor.

Aronia has been thought to be closely related to Photinia, and has been included in that genus in some classifications,[9] but botanist Cornelis Kalkman observed that a combined genus should be under the older name Aronia.[10] The combined genus contains about 65 species.[11] In 2004, Kalkman expressed doubt about the monophyly of the combined group, and new molecular studies confirm this.[1][12] They do not place these two genera together or even near one another.
In eastern North America, there are two well-known species, named after their fruit color, red chokeberry and black chokeberry, plus a purple chokeberry whose origin is a natural hybrid of the two.[11]

Red chokeberry, Aronia arbutifolia (Photinia pyrifolia),[3] grows to 2–4m tall, rarely up to 6 m. Leaves are 5–8 cm wide and densely pubescent on the underside. The flowers are white or pale pink, 1 cm wide, with glandular sepals. The fruit is red, 4–10mm wide, persisting into winter.

Black chokeberry, Aronia melanocarpa (Photinia melanocarpa),[4] tends to be smaller, rarely exceeding 1m tall, rarely 3 m, and spreads readily by root sprouts. The leaves are smaller, not more than 6-cm wide, with terminal glands on leaf teeth and a glabrous underside. The flowers are white, 1.5 cm wide, with glabrous sepals. The fruit is black, 6–9mm wide, not persisting into winter.
The Purple chokeberry, Aronia prunifolia (Photinia floribunda)[5] apparently originated as a hybrid of the black and red chokeberries but might be more accurately considered a distinct species than a hybrid[11] (see also nothospecies). Leaves are moderately pubescent on the underside. Few to no glands are present on the sepal surface. The fruit is dark purple to black, 7–10mm in width, not persisting into winter. There are purple chokeberry populations which seem to be self-sustaining independent of the two parent species – including an introduced one in northern Germany where neither parent species occurs –, leading botanist Alan Weakley to consider it a full species rather than a hybrid.[11] The range of the purple chokeberry is roughly that of the black chokeberry; it is found in areas (such as Michigan and Missouri) where the red chokeberry is not.[13]

Products and uses
The chokeberries are attractive ornamental plants for gardens. They are naturally understory and woodland edge plants, and grow well when planted under trees. Chokeberries are resistant to drought, insects, pollution, and disease. Several cultivars have been developed for garden planting, including A. arbutifolia 'Brilliant', selected for its striking fall leaf color. A. melanocarpa 'Viking' and 'Nero' were selected for larger fruit suitable for jam-making, and because they are self-fertile only one plant is needed to produce fruit.[14]

Juice from these berries is astringent and not sweet, but high in vitamin C and antioxidants. The berries can be used to make wine, jam, syrup, juice, soft spreads, and tea.[14] In the U.S., aronia berries are used in mass-marketed juice blends for color and marketed for their antioxidant properties. The Voruta label exports a Chokeberry wine from Lithuania. In Poland they are dried to make an herbal tea.[15] The tea is usually a blend with other more flavorful ingredients including blackcurrant.[14] Aronia is also used as a flavoring or colorant for beverages or yogurts.[14]

The red chokeberry's fruit is more palatable and can be eaten raw. It has a sweeter flavor than the black species and is used to make jam or pemmican.
Antioxidant qualities

Aronia melanocarpa (black chokeberry) has attracted scientific interest due to its deep purple, almost black pigmentation that arises from dense contents of phenolic phytochemicals, especially anthocyanins. Total anthocyanin content in chokeberries is 1480 mg per 100 g of fresh berries, and proanthocyanidin concentration is 664 mg per 100 g.[16][17] Both values are among the highest measured in plants to date.

The plant produces these pigments mainly in the skin of the berries to protect the pulp and seeds from constant exposure to ultraviolet radiation.[18] By absorbing UV rays in the blue-purple spectrum, pigments filter intense sunlight and thereby have a role assuring regeneration of the species. Brightly colorful pigmentation also attracts birds and other animals to consume the fruit and disperse the seeds in their droppings.

Anthocyanins not only contribute toward chokeberry's astringent property (that would deter pests and infections) but also give Aronia melanocarpa extraordinary antioxidant strength that combats oxidative stress in the fruit during photosynthesis.

A test tube measurement of antioxidant strength, the oxygen radical absorbance capacity or ORAC, demonstrates chokeberry with one of the highest values yet recorded—16,062 micromoles of Trolox Eq. per 100 g[19] (see this ORAC reference for antioxidant scores for 277 common foods).

There is growing appreciation for consumers to increase their intake of antioxidant-rich plant foods from colorful sources like berries, tree or citrus fruits, vegetables, grains, and spices. Accordingly, a deep blue food source such as chokeberry yields anthocyanins in high concentrations per serving, indicating potential value as a functional food or nutraceutical.

Analysis of anthocyanins in chokeberries has identified the following individual chemicals (among hundreds known to exist in the plant kingdom): cyanidin-3-galactoside, epicatechin, caffeic acid, quercetin, delphinidin, petunidin, pelargonidin, peonidin, and malvidin. All these except caffeic acid are members of the flavonoid category of antioxidant phenolics.

Efficacy in disease models
Chokeberries' rich antioxidant content may be beneficial as a dietary preventative for reducing the risk of diseases caused by oxidative stress. Among the models under evaluation where preliminary results show benefits of chokeberry anthocyanins are colorectal cancer,[20] cardiovascular disease,[21] chronic inflammation,[22] gastric mucosal disorders (peptic ulcer),[23] eye inflammation (uveitis)[24] and liver failure.[25]

References
1. ^ a b Potter, D., et al. (2007). Phylogeny and classification of Rosaceae. Plant Systematics and Evolution. 266(1–2): 5–43. [Referring to the subfamily by the name "Spiraeoideae"]
2. ^ "Aronia Medik.". Germplasm Resources Information Network. http://www.ars-grin.gov/cgi-bin/npgs/html/genus.pl?13463.
3. ^ a b "Photinia pyrifolia (Lam.) K.R. Robertson & Phipps". USDA PLANTS. http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=PHPY4.
4. ^ a b "Photinia melanocarpa (Michx.) K.R. Robertson & Phipps". USDA PLANTS. http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=PHME13.
5. ^ a b "Photinia floribunda". USDA PLANTS. http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=PHFL9.
6. ^ Voss, E.G. 1985. Michigan Flora: A guide to the identification and occurrence of the native and naturalized seed-plants of the state. Part II: Dicots (Saururaceae–Cornaceae). Cranbrook Institute of Science and University of Michigan Herbarium, Ann Arbor, Michigan, U.S.A.
7. ^ http://www.msue.msu.edu/msue/imp/modzz/00001191.html
8. ^ http://www.laspilitas.com/plants/545.htm
9. ^ Robertson, K. R., J. B. Phipps, J. R. Rohrer, and P. G. Smith. 1991. A synopsis of genera in Maloideae (Rosaceae). Systematic Botany 16:376–394.
10. ^ Kalkman, C. 2004. Rosaceae. In The families and genera of vascular plants. Edited by K. Kubitzki. Springer, Berlin. pp. 343–386, isbn=3-540-06512-1. in Google books, page 377
11. ^ a b c d Alan S. Weakley (April 2008). "Flora of the Carolinas, Virginia, and Georgia, and Surrounding Areas". http://www.herbarium.unc.edu/flora.htm.
12. ^ Campbell C. S., R. C. Evans, D. R. Morgan, T. A. Dickinson, and M. P. Arsenault (2007). "Phylogeny of subtribe Pyrinae (formerly the Maloideae, Rosaceae): Limited resolution of a complex evolutionary history". Pl. Syst. Evol. 266: 119–145. doi:10.1007/s00606-007-0545-y.
13. ^ James W. Hardin ((May - Jun., 1973)). "The Enigmatic Chokeberries (Aronia, Rosaceae)". Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club 100 (3): 178–184. doi:10.2307/2484630. JSTOR 2484630.
14. ^ a b c d Steven A. McKay (March 17, 2004). "Demand increasing for aronia and elderberry in North America". New York Berry News 3 (11). http://www.fruit.cornell.edu/Berries/specialtyfru%20pdf/aroniaeldeberry.pdf.
15. ^ http://www.malwa.net.pl/oferta.html
16. ^ Wu, X., Gu, L., Prior, R. L., & McKay, S. (2004). Characterization of anthocyanins and proanthocyanidins in some cultivars of Ribes, Aronia and Sambucus and their antioxidant capacity. J Agric Food Chem. 52 (26): 7846-7856.
17. ^ Wu, X., Beecher, G. R., Holden, J. M., Haytowitz, D. B., Gebhardt, S. E., & Prior, R. L. (2006). Concentrations of anthocyanins in common foods in the United States and estimation of normal consumption. J Agric Food Chem. 54 (1): 4069–4075.
18. ^ Simon PW. Plant pigments for color and nutrition, United States Department of Agriculture, University of Wisconsin, 1996
19. ^ Nutrient Data Laboratory, Agriculture Research Service, US Department of Agriculture, Oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) of Selected Foods - 2007.[1]
20. ^ Lala, G., Malik, M., Zhao, C., He, J., Kwon, Y., Giusti, M. M., & Magnuson, B. A. (2006). Anthocyanin-rich extracts inhibit multiple biomarkers of colon cancer in rats. Nutr. Cancer 54 (1): 84-93
21. ^ Bell, D. R., & Gochenaur, K. (2006). Direct vasoactive and vasoprotective properties of anthocyanin-rich extracts. J Appl Physiol. 100 (4): 1164-70.
22. ^ Han, G.-L., Li, C.-M., Mazza, G., & Yang, X.-G. (2005). Effect of anthocyanin rich fruit extract on PGE2 produced by endothelial cells. Wei Sheng Yan Jiu. 34 (5): 581-4.
23. ^ Valcheva-Kuzmanova, S., Marazova, K., Krasnaliev, I., Galunska, B., Borisova, P., & Belcheva, A. (2005). Effect of Aronia melanocarpa fruit juice on indomethacin-induced gastric mucosal damage and oxidative stress in rats. Exp Toxicol Pathol. 56 (6): 385-92.
24. ^ Ohgami, K., Ilieva, I., Shiratori, K., Koyama, Y., Jin, X.-H., Yoshida, K., Kase, S., Kitaichi, N., Suzuki, Y., Tanaka, T., & Ohno, S. (2005). Anti-inflammatory effects of aronia extract on rat endotoxin-induced uveitis. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 46 (1): 275-81.
25. ^ Valcheva-Kuzmanova, S., Borisova, P., Galunska, B., Krasnaliev, I., & Belcheva, A. (2004). Hepatoprotective effect of the natural fruit juice from Aronia melanocarpa on carbon tetrachloride-induced acute liver damage in rats. Exp Toxicol Pathol. 56 (3): 195-201. (source - retrieved from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aronia on 2/23/2013)

In Genesis 1:11-13, "And God said, Let the earth put forth grass, herbs yielding seed, and fruit-trees bearing fruit after their kind, wherein is the seed thereof, upon the earth: and it was so. 12 And the earth brought forth grass, herbs yielding seed after their kind, and trees bearing fruit, wherein is the seed thereof, after their kind: and God saw that it was good. 13 And there was evening and there was morning, a third day. (American Standard Version, ASV)

For pictures and more information on this plant and fruit, go to, http://www.missouribotanicalgarden.org/gardens-gardening/your-garden/plant-finder/plant-details/kc/d726/aronia-arbutifolia.aspx

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1) http://religioustruths.forumsland.com/

2) http://www.network54.com/Forum/403209/

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5) http://religious-truths.forums.com/

6) http://religioustruthsbyiris.createmybb3.com/

7) http://religioustruths.forumotion.com/


Your Friend in Christ Iris89

Francis David said it long ago, "Neither the sword of popes...nor the image of death will halt the march of truth. "Francis David, 1579, written on the wall of his prison cell." Read the book, "What Does The Bible Really Teach" and the Bible today, and go to www.jw.org!


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the Aronia, the chokeberries,

Post  Admin on Sat Apr 20, 2013 7:35 pm

Hi Everyone:

Here is a Commentary on Bountiful Trees and Vegetables God (YHWH) has provided for mankind, specifically the Aronia, the chokeberries, are two[2] to three species of deciduous shrubs in the family Rosaceae, native to eastern North America. They are most commonly found in wet woods and swamps.[3][4][5][6] Chokeberries are cultivated as ornamental plants and also because they are very high in antioxidant pigment compounds, such as anthocyanins. The name "chokeberry" comes from the astringency of the fruits, which are inedible when raw. The berries can be used to make wine, jam, syrup, juice, soft spreads, tea and tinctures. The fruits are eaten by birds, which then disperse the seeds in their droppings; birds do not taste astringency and feed on them freely.
The chokeberries are often mistakenly called chokecherries, which is the common name for Prunus virginiana. Further adding to the ambiguity, there is a cultivar of Prunus virginiana named 'Melanocarpa',[7][8] easily confused with Aronia melanocarpa. Chokecherries are also high in antioxidant pigment compounds, like anthocyanins, further contributing to confusion. In fact, the two plants are only distantly related within the Rosaceae.

Identification and taxonomy
The leaves are alternate, simple, and oblanceolate with crenate margins and pinnate venation; in autumn the leaves turn a bold red color. Dark trichomes are present on the upper midrib surface. The flowers are small, with 5 petals and 5 sepals, and produced in corymbs of 10-25 together. Hypanthium is urn-shaped. The fruit is a small pome, with a very astringent flavor.

Aronia has been thought to be closely related to Photinia, and has been included in that genus in some classifications,[9] but botanist Cornelis Kalkman observed that a combined genus should be under the older name Aronia.[10] The combined genus contains about 65 species.[11] In 2004, Kalkman expressed doubt about the monophyly of the combined group, and new molecular studies confirm this.[1][12] They do not place these two genera together or even near one another.
In eastern North America, there are two well-known species, named after their fruit color, red chokeberry and black chokeberry, plus a purple chokeberry whose origin is a natural hybrid of the two.[11]

Red chokeberry, Aronia arbutifolia (Photinia pyrifolia),[3] grows to 2–4m tall, rarely up to 6 m. Leaves are 5–8 cm wide and densely pubescent on the underside. The flowers are white or pale pink, 1 cm wide, with glandular sepals. The fruit is red, 4–10mm wide, persisting into winter.

Black chokeberry, Aronia melanocarpa (Photinia melanocarpa),[4] tends to be smaller, rarely exceeding 1m tall, rarely 3 m, and spreads readily by root sprouts. The leaves are smaller, not more than 6-cm wide, with terminal glands on leaf teeth and a glabrous underside. The flowers are white, 1.5 cm wide, with glabrous sepals. The fruit is black, 6–9mm wide, not persisting into winter.
The Purple chokeberry, Aronia prunifolia (Photinia floribunda)[5] apparently originated as a hybrid of the black and red chokeberries but might be more accurately considered a distinct species than a hybrid[11] (see also nothospecies). Leaves are moderately pubescent on the underside. Few to no glands are present on the sepal surface. The fruit is dark purple to black, 7–10mm in width, not persisting into winter. There are purple chokeberry populations which seem to be self-sustaining independent of the two parent species – including an introduced one in northern Germany where neither parent species occurs –, leading botanist Alan Weakley to consider it a full species rather than a hybrid.[11] The range of the purple chokeberry is roughly that of the black chokeberry; it is found in areas (such as Michigan and Missouri) where the red chokeberry is not.[13]

Products and uses
The chokeberries are attractive ornamental plants for gardens. They are naturally understory and woodland edge plants, and grow well when planted under trees. Chokeberries are resistant to drought, insects, pollution, and disease. Several cultivars have been developed for garden planting, including A. arbutifolia 'Brilliant', selected for its striking fall leaf color. A. melanocarpa 'Viking' and 'Nero' were selected for larger fruit suitable for jam-making, and because they are self-fertile only one plant is needed to produce fruit.[14]

Juice from these berries is astringent and not sweet, but high in vitamin C and antioxidants. The berries can be used to make wine, jam, syrup, juice, soft spreads, and tea.[14] In the U.S., aronia berries are used in mass-marketed juice blends for color and marketed for their antioxidant properties. The Voruta label exports a Chokeberry wine from Lithuania. In Poland they are dried to make an herbal tea.[15] The tea is usually a blend with other more flavorful ingredients including blackcurrant.[14] Aronia is also used as a flavoring or colorant for beverages or yogurts.[14]

The red chokeberry's fruit is more palatable and can be eaten raw. It has a sweeter flavor than the black species and is used to make jam or pemmican.
Antioxidant qualities

Aronia melanocarpa (black chokeberry) has attracted scientific interest due to its deep purple, almost black pigmentation that arises from dense contents of phenolic phytochemicals, especially anthocyanins. Total anthocyanin content in chokeberries is 1480 mg per 100 g of fresh berries, and proanthocyanidin concentration is 664 mg per 100 g.[16][17] Both values are among the highest measured in plants to date.

The plant produces these pigments mainly in the skin of the berries to protect the pulp and seeds from constant exposure to ultraviolet radiation.[18] By absorbing UV rays in the blue-purple spectrum, pigments filter intense sunlight and thereby have a role assuring regeneration of the species. Brightly colorful pigmentation also attracts birds and other animals to consume the fruit and disperse the seeds in their droppings.

Anthocyanins not only contribute toward chokeberry's astringent property (that would deter pests and infections) but also give Aronia melanocarpa extraordinary antioxidant strength that combats oxidative stress in the fruit during photosynthesis.

A test tube measurement of antioxidant strength, the oxygen radical absorbance capacity or ORAC, demonstrates chokeberry with one of the highest values yet recorded—16,062 micromoles of Trolox Eq. per 100 g[19] (see this ORAC reference for antioxidant scores for 277 common foods).

There is growing appreciation for consumers to increase their intake of antioxidant-rich plant foods from colorful sources like berries, tree or citrus fruits, vegetables, grains, and spices. Accordingly, a deep blue food source such as chokeberry yields anthocyanins in high concentrations per serving, indicating potential value as a functional food or nutraceutical.

Analysis of anthocyanins in chokeberries has identified the following individual chemicals (among hundreds known to exist in the plant kingdom): cyanidin-3-galactoside, epicatechin, caffeic acid, quercetin, delphinidin, petunidin, pelargonidin, peonidin, and malvidin. All these except caffeic acid are members of the flavonoid category of antioxidant phenolics.

Efficacy in disease models
Chokeberries' rich antioxidant content may be beneficial as a dietary preventative for reducing the risk of diseases caused by oxidative stress. Among the models under evaluation where preliminary results show benefits of chokeberry anthocyanins are colorectal cancer,[20] cardiovascular disease,[21] chronic inflammation,[22] gastric mucosal disorders (peptic ulcer),[23] eye inflammation (uveitis)[24] and liver failure.[25]

References
1. ^ a b Potter, D., et al. (2007). Phylogeny and classification of Rosaceae. Plant Systematics and Evolution. 266(1–2): 5–43. [Referring to the subfamily by the name "Spiraeoideae"]
2. ^ "Aronia Medik.". Germplasm Resources Information Network. http://www.ars-grin.gov/cgi-bin/npgs/html/genus.pl?13463.
3. ^ a b "Photinia pyrifolia (Lam.) K.R. Robertson & Phipps". USDA PLANTS. http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=PHPY4.
4. ^ a b "Photinia melanocarpa (Michx.) K.R. Robertson & Phipps". USDA PLANTS. http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=PHME13.
5. ^ a b "Photinia floribunda". USDA PLANTS. http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=PHFL9.
6. ^ Voss, E.G. 1985. Michigan Flora: A guide to the identification and occurrence of the native and naturalized seed-plants of the state. Part II: Dicots (Saururaceae–Cornaceae). Cranbrook Institute of Science and University of Michigan Herbarium, Ann Arbor, Michigan, U.S.A.
7. ^ http://www.msue.msu.edu/msue/imp/modzz/00001191.html
8. ^ http://www.laspilitas.com/plants/545.htm
9. ^ Robertson, K. R., J. B. Phipps, J. R. Rohrer, and P. G. Smith. 1991. A synopsis of genera in Maloideae (Rosaceae). Systematic Botany 16:376–394.
10. ^ Kalkman, C. 2004. Rosaceae. In The families and genera of vascular plants. Edited by K. Kubitzki. Springer, Berlin. pp. 343–386, isbn=3-540-06512-1. in Google books, page 377
11. ^ a b c d Alan S. Weakley (April 2008). "Flora of the Carolinas, Virginia, and Georgia, and Surrounding Areas". http://www.herbarium.unc.edu/flora.htm.
12. ^ Campbell C. S., R. C. Evans, D. R. Morgan, T. A. Dickinson, and M. P. Arsenault (2007). "Phylogeny of subtribe Pyrinae (formerly the Maloideae, Rosaceae): Limited resolution of a complex evolutionary history". Pl. Syst. Evol. 266: 119–145. doi:10.1007/s00606-007-0545-y.
13. ^ James W. Hardin ((May - Jun., 1973)). "The Enigmatic Chokeberries (Aronia, Rosaceae)". Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club 100 (3): 178–184. doi:10.2307/2484630. JSTOR 2484630.
14. ^ a b c d Steven A. McKay (March 17, 2004). "Demand increasing for aronia and elderberry in North America". New York Berry News 3 (11). http://www.fruit.cornell.edu/Berries/specialtyfru%20pdf/aroniaeldeberry.pdf.
15. ^ http://www.malwa.net.pl/oferta.html
16. ^ Wu, X., Gu, L., Prior, R. L., & McKay, S. (2004). Characterization of anthocyanins and proanthocyanidins in some cultivars of Ribes, Aronia and Sambucus and their antioxidant capacity. J Agric Food Chem. 52 (26): 7846-7856.
17. ^ Wu, X., Beecher, G. R., Holden, J. M., Haytowitz, D. B., Gebhardt, S. E., & Prior, R. L. (2006). Concentrations of anthocyanins in common foods in the United States and estimation of normal consumption. J Agric Food Chem. 54 (1): 4069–4075.
18. ^ Simon PW. Plant pigments for color and nutrition, United States Department of Agriculture, University of Wisconsin, 1996
19. ^ Nutrient Data Laboratory, Agriculture Research Service, US Department of Agriculture, Oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) of Selected Foods - 2007.[1]
20. ^ Lala, G., Malik, M., Zhao, C., He, J., Kwon, Y., Giusti, M. M., & Magnuson, B. A. (2006). Anthocyanin-rich extracts inhibit multiple biomarkers of colon cancer in rats. Nutr. Cancer 54 (1): 84-93
21. ^ Bell, D. R., & Gochenaur, K. (2006). Direct vasoactive and vasoprotective properties of anthocyanin-rich extracts. J Appl Physiol. 100 (4): 1164-70.
22. ^ Han, G.-L., Li, C.-M., Mazza, G., & Yang, X.-G. (2005). Effect of anthocyanin rich fruit extract on PGE2 produced by endothelial cells. Wei Sheng Yan Jiu. 34 (5): 581-4.
23. ^ Valcheva-Kuzmanova, S., Marazova, K., Krasnaliev, I., Galunska, B., Borisova, P., & Belcheva, A. (2005). Effect of Aronia melanocarpa fruit juice on indomethacin-induced gastric mucosal damage and oxidative stress in rats. Exp Toxicol Pathol. 56 (6): 385-92.
24. ^ Ohgami, K., Ilieva, I., Shiratori, K., Koyama, Y., Jin, X.-H., Yoshida, K., Kase, S., Kitaichi, N., Suzuki, Y., Tanaka, T., & Ohno, S. (2005). Anti-inflammatory effects of aronia extract on rat endotoxin-induced uveitis. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 46 (1): 275-81.
25. ^ Valcheva-Kuzmanova, S., Borisova, P., Galunska, B., Krasnaliev, I., & Belcheva, A. (2004). Hepatoprotective effect of the natural fruit juice from Aronia melanocarpa on carbon tetrachloride-induced acute liver damage in rats. Exp Toxicol Pathol. 56 (3): 195-201. (source - retrieved from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aronia on 2/23/2013)

In Genesis 1:11-13, "And God said, Let the earth put forth grass, herbs yielding seed, and fruit-trees bearing fruit after their kind, wherein is the seed thereof, upon the earth: and it was so. 12 And the earth brought forth grass, herbs yielding seed after their kind, and trees bearing fruit, wherein is the seed thereof, after their kind: and God saw that it was good. 13 And there was evening and there was morning, a third day. (American Standard Version, ASV)

For pictures and more information on this plant and fruit, go to, http://www.missouribotanicalgarden.org/gardens-gardening/your-garden/plant-finder/plant-details/kc/d726/aronia-arbutifolia.aspx

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Astrocaryum aculeatum (Tucuma)

Post  Admin on Sat Apr 20, 2013 7:49 pm

Hi Everyone:

Here is a Commentary on Bountiful Trees and Vegetables God (YHWH) has provided for mankind, specifically the Astrocaryum aculeatum (Tucuma)

Tucuma, a heavily spined palm, is of interest because of the oily mesocarp and large kernel. A very brief examination of a few dozen introductions from the Manaus market, identified one with over 30% oil in the fresh fruit (Arkcoll et al. 1986, Arkcoll 1988). However, the species is only used locally for the direct consumption of the very thin pulp. This is bitter, nutty, and oily and rarely appreciated by the newcomer. However, it is so appreciated by locals that it costs as much as a dollar a dozen. Despite the premium price, tucuma is not grown commercially because there are enough native trees to satisfy demand. The species often becomes dominant in secondary forests because of resistance to fire and perhaps this characteristic can be used to recover worn out and abandoned pasture (FAO 1986). Difficulty in breaking seed dormancy and slow initial growth, have dampened the enthusiasm of research workers, but the large variation found in A. vulgare (Lima et al. 1986), a similar species with several stems, suggests that both species deserve more attention. (source - retrieved from http://www.hort.purdue.edu/newcrop/proceedings1990/v1-367.html on 3/29/2013)


This plant has edible fruit which may be used for production of biodiesel. Contains 50,000 i.u. per gram of pulp of Vitamin A, three times that of a carrot. It is also used to make a symbolic ring called a tucum ring. (source - retrieved from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Astrocaryum_aculeatum on 3/27/2013)


In Genesis 1:11-13, "And God said, Let the earth put forth grass, herbs yielding seed, and fruit-trees bearing fruit after their kind, wherein is the seed thereof, upon the earth: and it was so. 12 And the earth brought forth grass, herbs yielding seed after their kind, and trees bearing fruit, wherein is the seed thereof, after their kind: and God saw that it was good. 13 And there was evening and there was morning, a third day. (American Standard Version, ASV)[for more details, go to www.jw.org].

View fruit at, http://www.flickr.com/photos/11561233@N03/2510923113/

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Francis David said it long ago, "Neither the sword of popes...nor the image of death will halt the march of truth."Francis David, 1579, written on the wall of his prison cell." Read the book, "What Does The Bible Really Teach" and the Bible today, and go to www.jw.org!





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the atemoya, Annona squamosa × A. cherimola

Post  Admin on Tue Apr 23, 2013 5:13 pm


Hi Everyone:

Here is a Commentary on Bountiful Trees and Vegetables God (YHWH) has provided for mankind, specifically the atemoya, Annona squamosa × A. cherimola, is a hybrid of the sugar apple and cherimoya, qq.v. The tree closely resembles that of the cherimoya; is fast-growing; may reach 25 to 30 ft (7.5-9 m) and is short-bunked, the branches typically drooping and the lowest touching the ground. The leaves are deciduous, alternate, elliptical, leathery, less hairy than those of the cherimoya; and up to 6 in (15 cm) in length. The flowers are long-stalked, triangular, yellow, 2 3/8 in (6 cm) long and 1 1/2 to 2 in (4-5 cm) wide. The fruit is conical or heart-shaped, generally to 4 in (10 cm) long and to 3 3/4 in(9.5 cm) wide; some weighing as much as 5 lbs(2.25 kg); pale bluish-green or pea-green, and slightly yellowish between the areoles. The rind, 1/8 in (3 mm) thick, is composed of fused areoles more prominent and angular than those of the sugar apple, with tips that are rounded or slightly upturned; firm, pliable, and indehiscent. The fragrant flesh is snowy-white, of fine texture, almost solid, not conspicuously divided into segments, with fewer seeds than the sugar apple; sweet and subacid at the same time and resemblirig the cherimoya in flavor. The seeds are cylindrical, 3/4 in (2 cm) long and 5/16 in (8 mm) wide; so dark a brown as to appear black; hard and smooth. [source - retrieved from http://www.hort.purdue.edu/newcrop/morton/atemoya.html on 12/31/2012]

In Genesis 1:11-13, "And God said, Let the earth put forth grass, herbs yielding seed, and fruit-trees bearing fruit after their kind, wherein is the seed thereof, upon the earth: and it was so. 12 And the earth brought forth grass, herbs yielding seed after their kind, and trees bearing fruit, wherein is the seed thereof, after their kind: and God saw that it was good. 13 And there was evening and there was morning, a third day. (American Standard Version, ASV)[for more details, go to www.jw.org].

An atemoya is normally heart-shaped or rounded, with pale-green, easily bruised, bumpy skin. Near the stem, the skin is bumpy as it is in the sugar-apple, but become smoother like the cherimoya on the bottom. The flesh is not segmented like that of the sugar-apple, bearing more similarity to that of the cherimoya. It is very juicy and smooth, tasting slightly sweet and a little tart, reminiscent of a piña colada. The taste also resembles vanilla from its sugar-apple parent.[1] Many inedible, toxic, black seeds are found throughout the flesh of the atemoya.[2] When ripe, the fruit can be scooped out of the shell and eaten chilled.[1]

Atemoya (Annona cherimola × squamosa) was developed by crossing cherimoya (A. cherimola) with sugar-apple (A. squamosa). The first cross was made in 1908 by P.J. Wester, a horticulturist at the USDA’s Subtropical Laboratory in Miami.
The resulting fruits were of superior quality to the sugar-apple and were given the name "atemoya", a combination of ate, an old Mexican name for sugar-apple, and "moya" from cherimoya.

Subsequently, in 1917, Edward Simmons at Miami’s Plant Introduction Station successfully grew hybrids that survived a drop in temperature to 26.5°F, showing atemoya’s hardiness derived from one of its parents, the cherimoya.
The atemoya, like other Annona trees, bears protogynous, hermaphroditic flowers, and self-pollination is rare. Therefore, artificial, hand pollination almost always guarantees superior quality fruits. One variety, 'Geffner', produces well without hand pollination. Atemoyas are sometimes misshapen, underdeveloped on one side, as the result of inadequate pollination.
An atemoya flower, in its female stage, opens between 2:00 and 4:00 pm; between 3:00 pm and 5:00 pm on the following afternoon, the flower converts to its male stage.
References Cited Above:

1. ^ a b Clarke, Joan (1998). "Hawai’i". In Feierabend, Peter; Chassman, Gary; Danforth, Randi. Culinaria: The United States: A Culinary Discovery. Köln, Germany: Könemann. pp. 476. ISBN 3-8290-0259-9.
2. ^ Purdue New Crops Profile
[source - retrieved from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Atemoya on 12/31/2012]

This is one of my favorite fruits, but I rarely get to eat one. Do not try to grow one from seed as they will NOT come true from seed. And unless you have a great deal of spare time to hand pollinate, it is best not even to grow one commercially obtained.

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Francis David said it long ago, "Neither the sword of popes...nor the image of death will halt the march of truth."Francis David, 1579, written on the wall of his prison cell." Read the book, "What Does The Bible Really Teach" and the Bible today, and go to www.jw.org!

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the Azara Fruit Bush Azara microphylla

Post  Admin on Fri Apr 26, 2013 2:27 pm

Hi Everyone:

Here is a Commentary on Bountiful Trees and Vegetables God (YHWH) has provided for mankind, specifically the Azara Fruit Bush Azara microphylla

Beautiful shrubby tree native to Chile. Grows variably 15' - 25' and may be pruned to desired size and may also be grown as a Bonsai. Hardy to zone 8 ( 15F ). Its small green / yellow flowers produce the wonderful scent of vanilla. Lush with glossy oval leaves. Small orange-red berries are edible. Grow in sun or light shade. Small seeds are about the size of Kiwi seeds. (source - retrieved from http://www.seedman.com/fruit.htm on 4/2/2013)

This fast growing, upright shrub is an exceptional choice for screening between narrow lots or as a background hedge in smaller landscapes. Shade tolerance makes it useful between tall buildings or under high-branched trees. Mature plants have gracefully layered branches. Glossy green foliage is accented by tiny clusters of creamy white, highly scented flowers in mid to late winter. Small shiny berries may appear in early spring. Evergreen.

Key feature:
Hedge Plant
Plant type:
Tree
Garden styles:
Contemporary, Rustic
Deciduous/evergreen:
Evergreen
Cold hardiness zones:
7 - 10
Light needs:
Filtered to full sun
Water Needs:
Needs regular watering - weekly, or more often in extreme heat.
Average landscape size:
Fast growing, 18 to 25 ft. tall and 12 ft. wide in 10 years
Growth rate:
Fast
Growth habit:
Columnar
Flower attribute:
Fragrant
Landscape uses:
Hedge, Mass Planting, Woodland Garden
Flower color:
White
Blooms:
Mid to late winter
Foliage color:
Green



(source - retrieved from http://www.monrovia.com/plant-catalog/plants/3210/box-leaf-azara.php on 4/2/2013)

In Genesis 1:11-13, "And God said, Let the earth put forth grass, herbs yielding seed, and fruit-trees bearing fruit after their kind, wherein is the seed thereof, upon the earth: and it was so. 12 And the earth brought forth grass, herbs yielding seed after their kind, and trees bearing fruit, wherein is the seed thereof, after their kind: and God saw that it was good. 13 And there was evening and there was morning, a third day. (American Standard Version, ASV)[for more details, go to www.jw.org].

To get more information and view pictures, go to, http://gardenmentors.com/garden-help/tag/azara-microphylla/


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Francis David said it long ago, "Neither the sword of popes...nor the image of death will halt the march of truth."Francis David, 1579, written on the wall of his prison cell." Read the book, "What Does The Bible Really Teach" and the Bible today, and go to www.jw.org!

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the Bactris gasipaes (Peach palm, Pejebaye)

Post  Admin on Sun Apr 28, 2013 4:50 pm

Hi Everyone:

Here is a Commentary on Bountiful Trees and Vegetables God (YHWH) has provided for mankind, specifically the Bactris gasipaes (Peach palm, Pejebaye)

The Peach palm has attracted much attention in the last decade because of the texture and composition of the fruit mesocarp which is usually similar to that of a starchy cereal or root crop. It is consequently an important backyard tree in much of tropical Latin America and is used as a dietary staple by some Amerindian tribes (FAO 1986, Clement and Arkcoll 1989). The small crown and very high yield of some trees have suggested that it could be a useful plantation crop capable of producing large amounts of basic food in the wet tropics. We have been studying this potential as an important part of attempts to create ecologically attractive "food forests" to produce food from a permanent perennial system (Arkcoll 1978, 1979, 1984). Some introductions are very rich in oil (62% of mesocarp dry matter) suggesting that selecting for this character would be an interesting alternative because of the local and world markets for oil and protein rich meals (Arkcoll and Aguiar 1984). Most fruit have a bland taste that is not exotic enough to export, however some with a sweetish flavor may have more potential as a table fruit and at least expand local markets. The crop has only been grown on a large commercial scale for palmhearts in Costa Rica where over 2000 ha have been planted. The viability of this venture has been dependent on Government subsidy as it is difficult for plantations to compete with raw material coming from wild Euterpe edulis in Brazil. It is especially interesting as a source of palmhearts because it tillers and grows extremely fast (Gomes and Arkcoll 1987). Unfortunately, this vegetative vigor is proving to be a problem in fruit production as the fruit are produced too high above the ground to harvest after a few years. Precocity has been observed and there are signs of different growth rates suggesting that researchers might locate dwarf phenotypes. Managing tillers as in banana plantations, is also being considered. While individual stem yields of over 80 kg/yr. have been recorded, plantation yields have been frustrated by uneven bearing and tremendous fruit drop caused by poor pollination, drought, nutrient deficiencies, and principally pests and diseases. It is hoped that these problems can be controlled the crop is better understood. The successful selection and combination of desired characteristics could make this crop as important as the coconut in the wet tropics. (source - retrieved from http://www.hort.purdue.edu/newcrop/proceedings1990/v1-367.html on 3/29/2013)

Bactris gasipaes is well known by local people where it grows and has been used for centuries as food. The book Costa Rica Precolombina by Luis Ferrero Acosta (Editorial Costa Rica, 2000) mentions that the Spanish explorers found a pejibaye plantation of 30,000 trees on the Atlantic coast of Costa Rica, and that its fermented fruit was a major part of the indigenous diet, replacing corn as was common further north. The fruit is frequently stewed in salted water. It is then peeled before eating, and split to remove the seed. The texture both raw and cooked is similar to a firm sweet potato, with no sweetness. Some have compared the taste to hominy made from corn, or a very dry squash. A favorite dish in some areas is simply the fruit halves with the seed depression filled with mayonnaise. It may be eaten raw after being peeled and flavored with salt and sometimes honey. However, raw pejibaye contains acid crystals that are irritant and raw pejibaye has been proven to be inferior to cooked in trials raising chickens in Costa Rica. Raw pejibaye spoils relatively quickly once opened or damaged, yet can be kept for long periods as a dried meal. It can also be used to make compotes and jellies or to make flour and edible oil.

This plant may also be harvested for heart of palm, and has commercial advantages in being fast growing; the first harvest can be from 18 to 24 months after planting. In Brazil, it is a viable solution for the heart of palm cultivation industry because its agricultural characteristics are adequate for it to be beneficial to substitute it for other native palms such as species of Euterpe including Euterpe oleracea (known as açaí) and Euterpe edulis (known as juçara), that have been extensively exploited and are protected as endangered species. The Brazilian domestic market for heart of palm is about five times bigger than the external one; however, there is an increasing demand for this product internationally as it is increasingly used in international cookery. In addition, the cultivation of Bactris gasipaes is also economically important for Costa Rica.

Composition
The composition of 100 grams of pulp: 164 calories, 2.5 g of protein, 28 mg of calcium, 31 mg of phosphorus, 3.3 mg of iron, 1,500 mmg of vitamin A, 0.06 mg of vitamin B1 and 34 mg of vitamin C. (source - retrieved from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bactris_gasipaes on 3/29/2013)

In Genesis 1:11-13, "And God said, Let the earth put forth grass, herbs yielding seed, and fruit-trees bearing fruit after their kind, wherein is the seed thereof, upon the earth: and it was so. 12 And the earth brought forth grass, herbs yielding seed after their kind, and trees bearing fruit, wherein is the seed thereof, after their kind: and God saw that it was good. 13 And there was evening and there was morning, a third day. (American Standard Version, ASV)[for more details, go to www.jw.org].

View pictures at, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bactris_gasipaes


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Francis David said it long ago, "Neither the sword of popes...nor the image of death will halt the march of truth."Francis David, 1579, written on the wall of his prison cell." Read the book, "What Does The Bible Really Teach" and the Bible today, and go to www.jw.org!




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the Anamu

Post  Admin on Tue May 07, 2013 2:17 pm

Hi Everyone:

Here is a Commentary on Bountiful Trees and Vegetables God (YHWH) has provided for mankind, specifically the Anamu it is a herb that is indigenous to the Amazon rainforest and the tropical areas of the Caribbean, Central and South America and Africa. Its botanical name is Petiveria alliacea, but in Jamaica, it is known as guinea hen weed, guinea hen leaf, garlic weed or gully root.

Strictly speaking this plant is neither a fruit bearer or vegetable, but an important and rare medical herb being here covered due to its important medical potential.

But first a warning, do not use any parts of this plant nor capsules or medicine made from it without first obtaining approval from your Doctor, and having him/her supervise its use. Also, the FDA has NOT approved any medicine made from it as yet.

Now, let’s look at the caveats and/or conditions that it should NEVER be used.

CONTRAINDICATIONS:

* Methanol extracts of anamu cause uterine contractions, which can lead to abortion. As such, anamu is contraindicated for pregnant women.
* Anamu contains a low concentration of coumarin, which has a blood thinning effect. People with blood disorders such as hemophilia and, people on blood-thinning medications should not use this plant without the supervision and advice of a qualified healthcare practitioner.
* This plant has been shown to have hypoglycemic effects in mice. People with hypoglycemia and diabetes should not use this plant unless they are under the care of a healthcare practitioner to monitor their blood sugar levels.
Drug Interactions: None published. However, due to anamu's natural coumarin content, it is conceivable that it may potentiate the effects of coumadin (Warfarin®). [source - retrieved from http://www.rain-tree.com/anamu.htm#.UYV2XkqMw4g on 5/4/2013]

DETAILS ON THE PLANT FROM VARIOUS SOURCES:

The Encyclopedia Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia, says this of Anamu:

Scientific classification
Kingdom:
Plantae
(unranked):
Angiosperms
(unranked):
Eudicots
(unranked):
Core eudicots
Order:
Caryophyllales
Family:
Phytolaccaceae
Genus:
Petiveria
Species:
P. alliacea
Binomial name
Petiveria alliacea
L.[1]
Synonyms
Mapa graveolens
P. corrientina
P. foetida
P. graveolens
P. hexandria
P. paraguayensis
Petiveria alliacea is a species of flowering plant in the pokeweed family, Phytolaccaceae, that is native to Florida and the Lower Rio Grande Valley of Texas in the United States,[2] Mexico, Central America, the Caribbean, and tropical South America.[1] Introduced populations occur in Benin and Nigeria.[3] It is a deeply rooted herbaceous perennial shrub growing up to 1 m (3.3 ft) in height and has small greenish piccate flowers. The roots and leaves have a strong acrid, garlic-like odor which taints the milk and meat of animals that graze on it.[4]
It is known by a wide number of common names including: guinea henweed, anamu in the Dominican Republic, Puerto Rico and Brazil (where it is also known as tipi), apacin in Guatemala, mucura in Peru, and guine in many other parts of Latin America, feuilles ave, herbe aux poules, petevere a odeur ail, and, in Trinidad, as mapurite (pronounced Ma-po-reete) and gully root,[5] and many others.

Uses
P. alliacea is used as a bat and insect repellent.[6]

Chemistry
Petiveria alliacea has been found to contain a large number of biologically active chemicals including benzaldehyde, benzoic acid, benzyl 2-hydroxyethyl trisulphide, coumarin, isoarborinol, isoarborinol acetate, isoarborinol cinnamate, isothiocyanates, polyphenols, senfol, tannins, and trithiolaniacine.[7]

The plant's roots have also been shown to contain cysteine sulfoxide derivatives that are analogous to, but different from, those found in such plants as garlic and onion. For example, P. alliacea contains S-phenylmethyl-L-cysteine sulfoxides (petiveriins A and B)[8] and S-(2-hydroxyethyl)-L-cysteines (6-hydroxyethiins A and B). These compounds serve as the precursors of several thiosulfinates such as S-(2-hydroxyethyl) 2-hydroxyethane)thiosulfinate, S-(2-hydroxylethyl) phenylmethanethiosulfinate, S-benzyl 2-hydroxyethane)thiosulfinate and S-benzyl phenylmethanethiosulfinate (petivericin).[9] All four of these thiosulfinates have been found to exhibit antimicrobial activity.[10] Petiveriin also serves as percursor to phenylmethanethial S-oxide, a lachrymatory agent structurally similar to syn-propanethial-S-oxide from onion, [11][12] but whose formation requires novel cysteine sulfoxide lyase and lachrymatory factor synthase enzymes differing from those found in onion.[13][14][15]

References
1. ^ a b "Petiveria alliacea L.". Germplasm Resources Information Network. United States Department of Agriculture. 2008-07-28. Retrieved 2010-04-05.
2. ^ Mild, C (2004-06-26). "Smelly Weed Is Strong Medicine" (PDF). Rio Delta Wild. Retrieved 2010-04-05.
3. ^ Schmelzer, GH; Gurib-Fakim, A (2008). Medicinal Plants. Plant Resources of Tropical Africa. pp. 412–415. ISBN 978-90-5782-204-9.
4. ^ Johnson, L. 1999. Anamu: Petiveria Alliacea. 14 pages (paperback). Woodland Publishing. ISBN 1-58054-038-4 (In Spanish).
5. ^ Mendes J. 1986. Cote ce Cote la: Trinidad & Tobago Dictionary, Arima, Trinidad, p. 95.
6. ^ http://www.ansci.cornell.edu/plants/medicinal/anamu.html
7. ^ "Petiveria alliacea". Medicinal Plants for Livestock. Cornell University Department of Animal Science. Retrieved 2010-04-04.
8. ^ Kubec, R; Musah, RA (2001). "Cysteine sulfoxide derivatives in Petiveria alliacea". Phytochemistry 58: 981–985.
9. ^ Kubec, R; Kim, S; Musah, RA (2002). "S-Substituted cysteine derivatives and thiosulfinate formation in Petiveria alliacea--Part II". Phytochemistry 61: 675–680.
10. ^ Kim, S; Kubec, R; Musah, RA (2006). "Antibacterial and antifungal activity of sulfur-containing compounds from Petiveria alliacea". Journal of Ethnopharmacology 104: 188–192.
11. ^ Kubec R, Kim S, Musah RA (2003). "The lachrymatory principle of Petiveria alliacea". Phytohemistry 63 (1): 37–40. doi:10.1016/S0031-9422(02)00759-8. PMID 12657295.
12. ^ Kubec R, Cody RB, Dane AJ, Musah RA, Schraml J, Vattekkatte A, Block E (2010). "Applications of DART Mass Spectrometry in Allium Chemistry. (Z)-Butanethial S-Oxide and 1-Butenyl Thiosulfinates and their S-(E)-1-Butenylcysteine S-Oxide Precursor from Allium siculum". Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 58 (2): 1121–1128. doi:10.1021/jf903733e. PMID 20047275.
13. ^ Musah RA, He Q, Kubec R (2009). "Discovery and characterization of a novel lachrymatory factor synthase in Petiveria alliacea and its influence on alliinase-mediated formation of biologically active organosulfur compounds". Plant Physiology 151 (3): 1294–1303. doi:10.1104/pp.109.142539. PMID 19692535.
14. ^ Musah RA, He Q, Kubec R, Jadhav A (2009). "Studies of a novel cysteine sulfoxide lyase from Petiveria alliacea: the first heteromeric alliinase.". Plant Physiology 151 (3): 1304–1316. doi:10.1104/pp.109.142430. PMID 19789290.
15. ^ He Q, Kubec R, Jadhav AP, Musah RA (2011). "First insights into the mode of action of a "lachrymatory factor synthase"--implications for the mechanism of lachrymator formation in Petiveria alliacea, Allium cepa and Nectaroscordum species". Phytohemistry 72 (16): 1939–1946. doi:10.1016/j.phytochem.2011.07.013. PMID 21840558. [source - retrieved from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Petiveria_alliacea on 5/4/2013]

ANAMU
HERBAL PROPERTIES AND ACTIONS
Main Actions
Other Actions
Standard Dosage
? reduces pain
? reduces spasms
Whole herb
? kills bacteria
? reduces anxiety
Infusion: 1/4 to 1/2 cup 2-3
? kills cancer cells
? reduces fever
times daily
? kills fungi
? lowers blood sugar
Capsules: 1-3 g daily
? reduces inflammation
? kills insects

? kills leukemia cells
? promotes menstruation

? reduces free radicals
? sedates

? prevents tumors
? increases perspiration

? kills viruses
? expels worms

? kills Candida


? increases urination


? enhances immunity




Anamu is an herbaceous perennial that grows up to 1 m in height. It is indigenous to the Amazon rainforest and tropical areas of Central and South America, the Caribbean, and Africa. It produces dark green leathery leaves that lie close to the ground and tall spikes lined with small white flowers that float airily above the leaves. It is sometimes called "garlic weed," as the plant, and especially the roots, have a strong garlic odor. It is called mucura in the Peruvian Amazon, anamu or tipi in Brazil, and guine in other parts of Latin America.

TRIBAL AND HERBAL MEDICINE USES
In the Amazon rainforest, anamu is used as part of an herbal bath against witchcraft by the Indians and local jungle herbal healers called curanderos. The Ka'apor Indians call it mikur-ka'a (which means opossum herb) and use it for both medicine and magic. The Caribs in Guatemala crush the root and inhale it for sinusitis, and the Ese'Ejas Indians in the Peruvian Amazon prepare a leaf infusion for colds and flu. The Garifuna indigenous people in Nicaragua also employ a leaf infusion or decoction for colds, coughs, and aches and pains, as well as for magic rituals. The root is thought to be more powerful than the leaves. It is considered a pain reliever and is often used in the rainforest in topical remedies for the skin. Other indigenous Indian groups beat the leaves into a paste and use it externally for headache, rheumatic pain, and other types of pain. This same jungle remedy is also used as an insecticide.
Anamu has a long history in herbal medicine in all of the tropical countries where it grows. In Brazilian herbal medicine, it is considered an antispasmodic, diuretic, menstrual promoter, stimulant, and sweat promoter. Herbalists and natural health practitioners there use anamu for edema, arthritis, malaria, rheumatism, and poor memory, and as a topical analgesic and anti-inflammatory for skin afflictions. Throughout Central America, women use anamu to relieve birthing pains and facilitate easy childbirth as well as to induce abortions. In Guatemalan herbal medicine, the plant is called apacín and a leaf decoction is taken internally for digestive ailments and sluggish digestion, flatulence, and fever. A leaf decoction is also used externally as an analgesic for muscular pain and for skin diseases. Anamu is commonly used in big cities and towns in South and Central America as a natural remedy to treat colds, coughs, influenza, respiratory and pulmonary infections, and cancer, and to support the immune system. In Cuba, herbalists decoct the whole plant and use it to treat cancer and diabetes, and as an anti-inflammatory and abortive.

BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITIES AND CLINICAL RESEARCH

The research published on anamu (and the plant chemicals described above) reveals that it has a broad range of therapeutic properties, including antileukemic, antitumorous, and anticancerous activities against several types of cancer cells. In an in vitro study by Italian researchers in 1990, water extracts and ethanol extracts of anamu retarded the growth of leukemia cells and several other strains of cancerous tumor cells. Three years later, the researchers followed up with another study, which showed that the same extracts had a cytotoxic effect, actually killing some of these cancer cells, rather than just retarding their growth. This study indicated that whole herb water extracts of anamu were toxic to leukemia and lymphoma cancer cells but only inhibited the growth of breast cancer cells. More recently, a study published in 2002 documented an in vitro toxic effect against a liver cancer cell line; another in vitro study in 2001 reported that anamu retarded the growth of brain cancer cells. A German study documenting anamu's activity against brain cancer cells related its actions to the sulfur compounds found in the plant.

In addition to its documented anticancerous properties, anamu has also been found in both in vivo and in vitro studies to be an immunostimulant. In a 1993 study with mice, a water extract stimulated immune cell production (lymphocytes and Interleukin II). In the same year, another study with mice demonstrated that an anamu extract increased natural killer cell activity by 100% and stimulated the production of even more types of immune cells (Interferon, Interleukin II, and Interleukin 4). Additional research from 1997 to 2001 further substantiated anamu's immunostimulant actions in humans and animals.

Anamu's traditional use as a remedy for arthritis and rheumatism has been validated by clinical research confirming its pain-relieving and anti-inflammatory properties. One research group in Sweden reported that anamu possesses cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1) inhibitory actions. COX-1 inhibitors are a new (and highly profitable) class of arthritis drugs being sold today by pharmaceutical companies. Another research group in Brazil documented significant anti-inflammatory effects in rats using various models, and researchers in 2002 noted a significant pain-relieving effect in rats. The pain-relieving and anti-inflammatory effects were even verified when an ethanol extract was applied topically in rats, again validating traditional use.
Many clinical reports and studies document that anamu shows broad-spectrum antimicrobial properties against numerous strains of bacteria, viruses, fungi, and yeast. In a 2002 study, anamu extracts inhibited the replication of the bovine diarrhea virus; this is a test model for hepatitis C virus. A Cuban research group documented anamu's antimicrobial properties in vitro against numerous pathogens, including Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus, Pseudomonas, and Shigella and, interestingly enough, their crude water extracts performed better than any of the alcohol extracts. A German group documented good activity against several bacteria, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, several strains of fungi, and Candida Anamu's antifungal properties were documented by one research group in 1991, and again by a separate research group in 2001. Its antimicrobial activity was further demonstrated by researchers from Guatemala and Austria who, in separate studies in 1998, confirmed its activity in vitro and in vivo studies against several strains of protozoa, bacteria, and fungi.

While anamu has not been used widely employed for diabetes, it has been clinically documented to have hypoglycemic actions. Researchers in 1990 demonstrated the in vivo hypoglycemic effect of anamu, showing that anamu decreased blood sugar levels by more than 60% one hour after administration to mice. This finding reflects herbal medicine practice in Cuba where anamu has been used as an herbal aid for diabetes for many years.

Then, just two years later, a U.S. company changed this natural plant chemical in anamu slightly and patented it in 2009 as a new chemotherapy drug for cancer. They've called this new drug fluorapacin and applied for Phase I Human Clinical trials in 2010 in China. Did they skip that step of testing their drug in animals first? Maybe they just didn't want to waste the time to have their animal studies published in all the normal peer reviewed medical journals ( a few animal tests were referred to in their patents). That's what I call "fast-tracking" in cancer drug development! It doesn't look as if this clinical trial on fluorapacin has been approved yet so maybe they are doing those animals studies first. They did publish one preliminary study on the in vitro testing among various cell lines with their new drug in 2009. In the meantime, anamu still continues to be a great natural remedy for cancer as it has been for many years.

Previously in the book, I also reviewed anamu's documented immunostimulant actions. In a critical review published in 2007 on dibenzyl trisulphide, West Indian researchers describe this action to be more of a immune modulation action rather than a stimulatory action. They explained: "Dibenzyl trisulphide seems to have a cytokine switching mechanism in which it down regulates cytokines from the Type I helper cells (Th -1 cell) pathway which contained several pro-inflammatory cytokines and up-regulates those on the Type 2 helper cells (Th-2) pathway." Basically this means it increases the actions of the immune cells which are responsible for tracking down and removing foreign cells like bacteria and cancer, but its' previously documented anti-inflammatory action might be from suppressing other anti-inflammatory immune cells which cause inflammation. Another research group in Colombia did a preliminary in vitro test and reported that a water extract of anamu evidenced immune modulation activity in 2012 but didn't specifically attribute that to any one chemical, despite this earlier research on dibenzyl trisulphide.

Years ago, research pretty much confirmed that antileukemic plants were almost always antiviral (but never could prove leukemia was caused by a virus). The same could be true with anti-inflammatory plants and cancerous tumors. In my opinion, anamu would be a perfect candidate for this type of research since it meets this inflammation criteria and it has a direct toxic actions to tumor cells to boot! One of the West Indian researchers publishing prior studies on anamu or dibenzyl trisulfide's actions on the immune system and thymus (Willams, L., et al.) published an editorial article in 2010 stating his belief that dibenzyl trisulfide provided anti-aging, immune enhancement, and antioxidant actions. He said this chemical: "may be capable of delaying the onset of ageing (degenerative) diseases such as osteoarthritis and some forms of cancer."
Recent research also confirms that anamu is a very good example of a medicinal plant which can have very different actions depending on what part of the plant is used and why consumers should be aware of which part of the plant is being marketed and sold. Brazilian university researchers reported that they have re-confirmed anamu's stimulant action on locomotor activity and also reported that a alcohol extract of the whole plant demonstrated anti-depressant, memory improvement, anti-anxiety and antioxidant actions in their study with rats in 2012. Other university researchers in Brazil had previously reported in 2010 that anamu had an effect on anxiety in their studies with mice as well. Interestingly, they reported in that an extract of the fresh whole plant evidenced anti-anxiety actions, but an extract of just the aerial parts increased anxiety, and a root extract had no activity at all. They noted that the flavonoid content of the three extracts varied widely, but couldn't attribute the effects on anxiety to this group of active chemicals. Previously in 2008, research conducted by yet a third Brazilian university reported that the root of anamu decreased locomotor activity (had a sedative effect) with direct actions in the central nervous system by demonstrating significant depressant and anticonvulsant actions.

The National Institute for Pharmaceutical Research and Development in Nigeria began a screening program in 2011 to study the local herbal remedies for sickle cell anemia (a prevalent disease in that country). Anamu was reported to be one of the first three medicinal plants identified with anti-sickling actions in their study published in 2012. In another screening program, German researchers screening plants traditionally used for wound healing in 2009 reported anamu turned out to be one of three of the most active plants they tested. Scientists in Mexico reported that anamu might be an excellent agent for killing ticks on cattle. A methanol extract of the leaf and stem of anamu was shown to have 100% mortality against ticks in their research published in 2010. In 2008, Japanese researchers discovered a new chemical derivative in anamu and reported it to possess antioxidant actions. University researchers in the U.S. reported anamu's antimicrobial actions in 2006 and reported that the chemical dibenzyl trisulfide and other benzyl-containing chemicals in the plant had the strongest actions against the largest number of bacteria and fungi. The Brazilian researchers who had previously reported anamu's pain-relieving and anti-inflammatory action in 2002 published another study in 2005 reporting that a anamu root extract had pain-relieving actions as well.

Other researchers in the West Indies tested dibenzyl trisulfide extracted from anamu in vitro in human blood. They reported in 2010 that this chemical (at much higher dosages than would be obtained from using anamu at traditional dosages), resulted in increased elasticity, relaxation time and deformation of the erythrocytes in the blood. However, acute and sub-chronic toxicity studies were conducted on anamu leaves by researchers in Costa Rica in 2006. They reported no mortality nor any toxicity signs could be observed even at very high dosages.
Whew! That's a lot of research in just 7 years on a previously little-known Amazonian medicinal plant! See the cited research below. No wonder the U.S. sales of anamu have been increasing over the last five years and word is traveling about this wonderful sustainable rainforest plant.

CURRENT PRACTICAL USES

With the many documented properties and actions of this tropical plant, it is no wonder that anamu has enjoyed such a long history of use in herbal medicine. Continuing research on this plant's attributes is quantifying and qualifying the richness of indigenous herbal traditions. Today, in South America, anamu is being used for its immune stimulant and anticancerous properties as a support aid for cancer and leukemia patients. This use is catching on here in the United States, and anamu is now available in capsules and tablets under several labels. It is also being employed in various formulas for its antimicrobial actions against bacteria, viruses, yeast, and fungi, as well as in other formulas supporting immune function.

In the first published study on toxicity in 1992, researchers noted that, at high dosages, anamu extract delayed cell proliferation in vitro. When they tested the extract in mice, they noted that it caused a change in bone marrow cells; however, they were using 100 to 400 times the traditional dosage given to humans. In two independent studies published later by other researchers, oral doses of leaf and root extracts did not cause any toxicity in rats and mice at up to 5 grams per kilogram of body weight. Methanol extracts of the plant did, however, cause uterine contractions in an early study; such contractions can lead to abortion, one of anamu's well documented uses in traditional herbal medicine. [source - retrieved from http://www.rain-tree.com/anamu.htm#.UYV2XkqMw4g on 5/4/2013]

Anamu has a long history in herbal medicine in all the countries where it grows. Herbalists and natural-health practitioners have traditionally used anamu for a wide variety of conditions, including arthritis, digestive disorders, infections, diabetes, cancer, for pain relief, and to induce abortion.
Over the past quarter of a century, however, modern scientific research has studied anamu intensively. Many biologically active compounds have been discovered in anamu: flavanoids, triterpenes, steroids, and sulphur compounds. The research published on anamu now validates many of the historical uses of this herb.

Interestingly, the researchers found that of the 20 compounds isolated from the plant - several of which had never been identified in nature before - some were similar to compounds found in garlic, a plant known to have medicinal properties.

CANCER INHIBITOR

Laboratory investigations show that anamu retards the growth of several strains of cancer and leukaemia cells. In a plant-screening programme performed at the University of Illinois at Chicago, over 1,400 plant extracts were evaluated for the prevention and treatment of cancer. Anamu was one of only 34 plants identified with active properties against cancer.

How does anamu work against cancer? Several phytochemicals in anamu like astilbin and dibenzyl trisulphide have been documented to directly kill cancer cells. Research showed further that the compounds in anamu were able to differentiate between normal cells and cancer cells, killing only the cancerous cells. In addition, other substances in the herb stimulate the body's natural defences as described below.

BOOSTS IMMUNE SYSTEM

Anamu has also been verified to have immunostimulant properties. It stimulates the immune system to increase its production of lymphocytes and natural killer cells - powerful disease-destroying cells. At the same time, it increases the production of interferon and interleukins - chemicals used by the immune systemin fighting cancers and infections.

FIGHTS INFECTIONS

It demonstrates broad-spectrum antimicrobial properties against numerous bacteria, viruses, fungi and yeast. Compounds in anamu directly kill and/or inhibit the growth of these germs. Interestingly, man medicine practitioners believe that infection plays a major role in many cancers. Anamu is widely used in folk medicine for treating infections.

PAIN RELIEVER

Its traditional use as a remedy for arthritis and rheumatism has been validated by clinical research that confirms its pain-relieving and anti-inflammatory effect. Researchers in Sweden demonstrated its COX-1 inhibitory properties (cyclo-oxogenase-1 inhibitors are a new class of popular and profitable arthritis drugs). Anamu extracts have been found to relieve pain and inflammation even when applied topically to the skin.

LOWERS BLOOD SUGAR

While anamu had not been widely researched for diabetes, it has been documented to lower blood-sugar levels by more than 60 per cent in laboratory animals. This reflects herbal medical practice in Cuba where anamu has been used as an aid for diabetes for many years.

CONTRA-INDICATIONS

Anamu has been found to cause contractions of the uterus that can lead to abortion and miscarriage. As such, it should not be used by pregnant women.
Anamu contains a low concentration of a blood thinner called coumadin. People with any bleeding disorder like haemophilia or who are on blood-thinning medication should consult their health-care provider before using anamu.

DIRECTIONS FOR USE

I recommend using organically grown anamu herb, free of insecticides, herbicides and other pollution.

One heaping tablespoonful of the whole powdered anamu plant is diffused in one litre of hot water. The resulting tea is drunk preferably on an empty stomach. An average dosage is four ounces (about half a cup) twice daily.

MY EXPERIENCE

I was introduced to anamu by a Jamaicanoncologist (a cancer specialist) who had seen good results in some of her patients with the use of this herb. I thank her for her generous spirit. I had also heard impressive stories from Jamaican men with prostate cancer who had benefited from its use.

After doing my own research, I now use it regularly in my practice and find it to be a useful, safe, inexpensive addition to a cancer treatment programme as well as in the treatment of the other conditions listed above.

REMINDER & WARNING

Many persons are desperately looking for a quick fix: a magic bullet that will miraculously cure their illness. The reality is that there is no quick fix. Like so many useful herbs, anamu will give optimal results when combined with optimal nutrition, nutritional supplements, exercise, detoxification, stress management and adequate restful sleep. It must be a part of a programme of healthy lifestyles. It may also be used along with conventional medicines. If you have a serious medical condition, do not self-medicate without the assistance and guidance of a qualified health practitioner.

Email Dr. Tony Vendryes at vendryes@mac.com, log on to www.anounceofprevention.org, or listen to 'An Ounce of Prevention' on Power 106FM on Fridays and Saturdays at 8:00 p.m. [source - retrieved from http://jamaica-gleaner.com/gleaner/20070813/news/news7.html on 5/4/2013]

In Genesis 1:11-13, "And God said, Let the earth put forth grass, herbs yielding seed, and fruit-trees bearing fruit after their kind, wherein is the seed thereof, upon the earth: and it was so. 12 And the earth brought forth grass, herbs yielding seed after their kind, and trees bearing fruit, wherein is the seed thereof, after their kind: and God saw that it was good. 13 And there was evening and there was morning, a third day. (American Standard Version, ASV)[for more details, go to www.jw.org].

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Some have asked for more information on Anamu and here it is on this gift of Almighty God (YHWH) to Mankind:

Post  Admin on Wed May 08, 2013 10:20 am

Some have asked for more information on Anamu and here it is on this gift of Almighty God (YHWH) to Mankind:

Additional Information On Anamu, Petiveria alliacea

First caveats.

Contraindications: Methanol extracts of anamu were reported to cause uterine contractions in animal studies, therefore, it is contraindicated in pregnancy.

Drug Interactions: None published. Due to anamu’s natural coumarin content, however, it is conceivable that it might potentiate the effects of coumadin (Warfarin®).

Other Observations:
• Anamu contains a low concentration of coumarin, which has a blood thinning effect. People with blood disorders, such as hemophilia, should be monitored closely for this possible effect.
• This plant has been shown to have hypoglycemic effects in mice. People with hypoglycemia should be monitored more closely for this possible effect.
FDA has NOT passed on any of the uses.


Cytotoxic & Anticancerous Actions:
Research published on anamu (and its plant chemicals) reveals that it has antileukemic, antitumorous, and anticancerous activities against several types of cancer cells. In an in vitro study by Italian researchers in 1990, water extracts and ethanol extracts of anamu retarded the growth of leukemia cells and several other strains of cancerous tumor cells. Three years later, they reported anamu was directly cytotoxic to leukemia and lymphoma cancer cells but only inhibited the growth of breast cancer cells. A study published in 2002 documented an in vitro toxic effect against a liver cancer cell line; another in vitro study in 2001 reported that anamu retarded the growth of brain cancer cells (neuroblastoma).
Williams, L., et al. "Implications of dibenzyl trisulphide for disease treatment based on its mode of action." West Indian Med J. 2009 Nov;58(5):407-9.
Urueña, C., et al. "Petiveria alliacea extracts uses multiple mechanisms to inhibit growth of human and mouse tumoral cells." BMC Complement. Altern. Med. 2008 Nov 18; 8:60.
Williams, L., et al. "A critical review of the therapeutic potential of dibenzyl trisulphide isolated from Petiveria alliacea L (guinea hen weed, anamu)." West Indian Med. J. 2007 Jan; 56(1): 17-21.
An, H., et al. "Synthesis and anti-tumor evaluation of new trisulfide derivatives." Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett. 2006 Sep; 16(18): 4826-9.
Williams, L. A., et al. "In vitro anti-proliferation/cytotoxic activity of sixty natural products on the human SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells with specific reference to dibenzyl trisulphide." West Indian Med. J. 2004 Sep; 53(4): 208-19.
Ruffa, M. J., et al. “Cytotoxic effect of Argentine medicinal plant extracts on human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line.” ; J. Ethnopharmacol. 2002; 79(3): 335-39.
Mata-Greenwood, E., et al. “Discovery of novel inducers of cellular differentiation using HL-60 promyelocytic cells.” Anticancer Res. 2001; 21(3B): 1763-70.
Rosner, H., et al. “Disassembly of microtubules and inhibition of neurite outgrowth, neuroblastoma cell proliferation, and MAP kinase tyrosine dephosphorylation by dibenzyl trisulphide.” Biochem. Biophys. Acta 2001; 1540(2): 166-77.
Jovicevic, L., et al. “In vitro antiproliferative activity of Petiveria alliacea L. on several tumor cell lines.” Pharmacol. Res. 1993; 27(1): 105-06.
Rossi, V., et al. “Antiproliferative effects of Petiveria alliacea on several tumor cell lines.” Pharmacol. Res. Suppl. 1990; 22(2): 434.
Yan, R., et al. “Astilbin selectively facilitates the apoptosis of interleukin-2-dependent phytohemaglutinin-activated Jurkat cells.” Pharmacol. Res. 2001; 44(2): 135-39.
Weber, U. S., et al. “Antitumor activities of coumarin, 7-hydroxy-coumarin and its glucuronide in several human tumor cell lines”. Res. Commun. Mol. Pathol. Pharmacol. 1998; 99(2): 193-206.
Bassi, A. M., et al. “Comparative evaluation of cytotoxicity and metabolism of four aldehydes in two hepatoma cell lines.” Drug Chem. Toxicol. 1997 Aug; 20(3): 173-87.

Anti-Sickling Actions
Ameh, S., et al. "Traditional herbal management of sickle cell anemia: lessons from Nigeria." Anemia. 2012; 2012:607436.

Immunostimulant & Antioxidant Actions:
Anamu has been found in both in vivo and in vitro studies to be an immunostimulant. In a 1993 study with mice, a water extract stimulated immune cell production (lymphocytes and Interleukin II). In the same year, another study with mice demonstrated that anamu increased natural killer cell activity by 100% and stimulated the production of even more types of immune cells (Interferon, Interleukin II, and Interleukin IV). Additional research from 1997 to 2001 further substantiated anamu's immunostimulant actions in humans and animals. In one study they reported: "Based on these findings we suggest that P. alliacea [anamu] up-regulates anti-bacterial immune response by enhancing both Th1 function and the activity of NK cells."
Santander, S., et al. "Immunomodulatory effects of aqueous and organic fractions from Petiveria alliacea on human dendritic cells." Am J Chin Med. 2012;40(4):833-44
Williams, L. "Life's immunity as a normal distribution function: philosophies for the use of dibenzyl trisulphide in immunity enhancement and life extension." West Indian Med J. 2010 Oct;59(5):455.
Okada, Y., et al. "Antioxidant activity of the new thiosulfinate derivative, S-benzyl phenylmethanethiosulfinate, from Petiveria alliacea L." Org. Biomol. Chem. 2008 Mar 21; 6(6): 1097-102.
Queiroz, M. L., et al. “Cytokine profile and natural killer cell activity in Listeria monocytogenes infected mice treated orally with Petiveria alliacea extract. Immunopharmacol. Immunotoxicol. 2000 Aug; 22(3): 501-18.
Quadros, M. R., et al. “Petiveria alliacea L. extract protects mice against Listeria monocytogenes infection—effects on bone marrow progenitor cells.” Immunopharmacol. Immunotoxicol. 1999 Feb; 21(1): 109-24.
Williams, L., et al. “Immunomodulatory activities of Petiveria alliaceae L.” Phytother. Res. 1997; 11(3): 251253.
Rossi, V., “Effects of Petiveria alliacea L. on cell immunity.” Pharmacol. Res. 1993; 27(1): 111-12.
Marini, S., “Effects of Petiveria alliacea L. on cytokine production and natural killer cell activity.” Pharmacol. Res. 1993; 27(1): 107-08.

Anti-inflammatory & Pain-Relieving Actions:
Other research suggests anamu's traditional use as a remedy for arthritis and rheumatism has been validated by documenting analgesic, antinociceptive (pain-relieving), and anti-inflammatory properties. One research group in Sweden reported that anamu possesses COX-1 inhibitory actions. Another research group in Brazil documented significant anti-inflammatory effects in rats using various models, and researchers in 2002 noted a significant analgesic effect in rats. The analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects were even verified when an ethanol extract was applied topically in rats.
de Morais Lima, G., et al. "Database Survey of Anti-Inflammatory Plants in South America: A Review" Int J Mol Sci. 2011; 12(4): 2692–2749.
Gomes, P. B., et al. “Study of antinociceptive effect of isolated fractions from Petiveria alliacea L. (tipi) in mice.” Biol. Pharm. Bull. 2005; 28(1): 42-6.
Lopes-Martins, R. A., et al. “The anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects of a crude extract of Petiveria alliacea L. (Phytolaccaceae).” Phytomedicine. 2002; 9(3): 245-48.
Dunstan, C. A., et al. “Evaluation of some Samoan and Peruvian medicinal plants by prostaglandin biosynthesis and rat ear oedema assays.” J. Ethnopharmacol. 1997 Jun; 57(1): 35-56.
Germano, D., et al. “Pharmacological assay of Petiveria alliaceae. Oral anti-inflammatory activity and gastrotoxicity of a hydro alcoholic root extract.” Fitoterapia. 1993; 64(5): 459-467
Germano, D. H., et al. “Topical anti-inflammatory activity and toxicity of Petiveria alliaceae.” Fitoterapia. 1993; 64(5): 459-67.
de Lima, T. C., et al. “Evaluation of antinociceptive effect of Petiveria alliacea (Guine) in animals.” Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz. 1991; 86 Suppl 2: 153-58.
Di Stasi, L. C., et al. “Screening in mice of some medicinal plants used for analgesic purposes in the state of Saõ Paulo.” J. Ethnopharmacol. 1988; 24(2/3): 205–11.

Wound Healing Actions:
Schmidt, C., et al. "Biological studies on Brazilian plants used in wound healing." J. Ethnopharmacol. 2009 Apr 21; 122(3): 523-32.

Antimicrobial & Antiparasitic Actions:
Many clinical reports and studies document that anamu shows broad-spectrum antimicrobial properties against numerous strains of bacteria, viruses, fungi, and yeast. In a 2002 study, anamu inhibited the replication of the bovine diarrhea virus; this is a test model for hepatitis C virus. A Cuban research group documented anamu's antimicrobial properties in vitro against numerous pathogens, including E. coli, Staphylococcus, Pseudomonas, and Shigella and, interestingly enough, their crude water extracts performed better than any of the alcohol extracts. A German group documented good activity against several bacteria, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, several strains of fungi, and Candida. Anamu's antifungal properties were documented by one research group in 1991, and again by a separate research group in 2001. Its antimicrobial activity was further demonstrated by researchers from Guatemala and Austria who, in separate studies in 1998, confirmed its activity in vitro and in vivo studies against several strains of protozoa, bacteria, and fungi.
Kim, S., et al. “Antibacterial and antifungal activity of sulfur-containing compounds from Petiveria alliacea L.” J. Ethnopharmacol. 2006 Mar; 104(1-2): 188-92.
Kubec, R., et al. “The lachrymatory principle of Petiveria alliacea.” Phytochemistry. 2003 May; 63(1): 37-40.
Ruffa, M. J., et al. “Antiviral activity of Petiveria alliacea against the bovine diarrhea virus. Chemotherapy 2002; 48(3): 144-47.
Benevides, P. J., et al. “Antifungal polysulphides from Petiveria alliacea L.” Phytochemistry. 2001; 57(5): 743-7.
Caceres, A., et al. “Plants used in Guatemala for the treatment of protozoal infections. I. Screening of activity to bacteria, fungi and American trypanosomes of 13 native plants.” J. Ethnopharmacol. 1998 Oct; 62(3): 195-202.
Berger, I., et al. “Plants used in Guatemala for the treatment of protozoal infections: II. Activity of extracts and fractions of five Guatemalan plants against Trypanosoma cruzi.” J. Ethnopharmacol. 1998 Sep; 62(2): 107-15.
Hoyos, L., et al. “Evaluation of the genotoxic effects of a folk medicine, Petiveria alliaceae (Anamu).” Mutat. Res. 1992; 280(1): 29-34.
Caceres, A., et al. “Plants used in Guatemala for the treatment of dermatophytic infections. I. Screening for antimycotic activity of 44 plant extracts.” J. Ethnopharmacol. 1991; 31(3): 263-76.
Misas, C.A.J., et al. “The biological assessment of Cuban plants. III.” Rev. Cub. Med. Trop. 1979; 31(1): 21–27.
Von Szczepanski, C., et al. “Isolation, structure elucidation and synthesis of an antimicrobial substance from Petiveria alliacea.” Arzneim-Forsch 1972; 22: 1975–.
Feng, P., et al. “Further pharmacological screening of some West Indian medicinal plants.” J. Pharm. Pharmacol. 1964; 16: 115.

Sedative, Antidepressant, & Anticonvulsant Actions:
de Andrade, T., et al. "Potential behavioral and pro-oxidant effects of Petiveria alliacea L. extract in adult rats." J Ethnopharmacol. 2012 Sep 28;143(2):604-10.
Gomes, F., et al. "Central effects of isolated fractions from the root of Petiveria alliacea L. (tipi) in mice." J. Ethnopharmacol. 2008 Nov 20; 120(2): 209-14.

Anxiogenic Actions:
de Andrade, T., et al. "Potential behavioral and pro-oxidant effects of Petiveria alliacea L. extract in adult rats." J Ethnopharmacol. 2012 Sep 28;143(2):604-10.
Blainski, A., et al. "Dual effects of crude extracts obtained from Petiveria alliacea L. (Phytolaccaceae) on experimental anxiety in mice." J Ethnopharmacol. 2010 Mar 24;128(2):541-4.

Hypoglycemic Actions:
Lans, C. A. "Ethnomedicines used in Trinidad and Tobago for urinary problems and diabetes mellitus." J. Ethnobiol. Ethnomedicine. 2006 Oct 13; 2: 45.
Lores, R. I., et al. “Petiveria alliaceae L. (anamu). Study of the hypoglycemic effect.” Med. Interne. 1990; 28(4): 347–52.

Insecticidal Actions:
Rosado-Aguilar, J., et al. "Acaricidal activity of extracts from Petiveria alliacea (Phytolaccaceae) against the cattle tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Acari: ixodidae)." Vet Parasitol. 2010 Mar 25;168(3-4):299-303.

Non-Toxic Actions:
García-González, M., et al. "Subchronic and acute preclinic toxicity and some pharmacological effects of the water extract from leaves of Petiveria alliacea (Phytolaccaceae)." Rev. Biol. Trop. 2006 Dec; 54(4): 1323-6.

Chemical Constituents Identified:
Musah, R., et al. "Discovery and characterization of a novel lachrymatory factor synthase in Petiveria alliacea and its influence on alliinase-mediated formation of biologically active organosulfur compounds." Plant Physiol. 2009 Nov; 151(3): 1294-303.
Musah, R., et al. "Studies of a novel cysteine sulfoxide lyase from Petiveria alliacea: the first heteromeric alliinase. Plant Physiol. 2009 Nov; 151(3): 1304-16. [source - retrieved from http://www.rain-tree.com/anamu-capsules.htm#.UYpMfEqMw4g on 5/8/2013]

To view pictures of this plant and its products, go to, http://images.search.yahoo.com/search/images?_adv_prop=image&fr=chr-greentree_ff&va=Anamu


A commercial source of products made from Anamu is given to show readers one possible source and NOT as an endorsement and/or passing of judgment on the product.

Anamu
(100 capsules) - Stock No. 39-8

Retail price: $33.75 33%
Your price: $22.50

Quantity
Benefits
• Immune system support.
• Provides protection to cells.
• May strengthen the body's defense against common illnesses.
After much research and testing, Nature's Sunshine Products proudly introduces this powerful Peruvian herb known for its immune system support.
Anamú (Petiveria alliacea) grows primarily in Peru, Cuba and the southeastern United States. Folk use suggests that people with compromised immune systems may benefit from the immune-supporting properties of the anamú leaf. Historically, the leaf powder has also been used to provide support for the structural system, specifically the joints.
It has been used as a remedy to expel parasites, as an analgesic (pain-relieving) and as an anti-inflammatory, particularly for arthritis and gastritis. Amazonian native people groups have also used this herb for blood and vascular benefits.
Anamu has a long history in herbal medicine in all of the tropical countries where it grows. It is commonly used in big cities and towns in South and Central America as a natural remedy to support the immune system. Throughout Central America, Anamu is used by women to relieve birthing pains and facilitate easy childbirth. In Guatemalan herbal medicine, a tea is made from the leaves and drank for digestive ailments. Externally they apply it for muscular pain and for skin problems.
Nature's Sunshine uses only the finest quality of pure anamú leaf. Anamú has many active constituents, including tannins, polyphenols, senfols and benzyl-2-hydrox-yethyl-trisulfide. Currently, only a few companies sell this unique herb.
The NSP (Nature's Sunshine Products) Advantage
NSP gets its anamú from trusted sources in Peru where the locals refer to it as "mucura hembra." Those seeking its benefits should take caution to obtain their anamú from a trusted source, as does Nature's Sunshine.
"Ours is the only brand of anamú that has been scientifically identified and certified as mucura hembra anamú," said Dr. Alvin Segelman, Vice President of NSP Health Sciences.
How Does It Work?
Little scientific or clinical research has been done on anamú, but its active constituents appear to provide protection to cells. Folk use suggests that this protection offers support for the immune system.
Ingredients
Each capsule contains 400 mg of anamú leaf powder.
Recommended Use
For optimal benefits, take one capsule with a meal three times daily.

Pregnant women or women planning to become pregnant should not use this product.
[source - retrieved from http://www.theherbsplace.com/Anamu_p_369.html on 5/8/2013]

Another source for products can be found at http://www.nextag.com/anamu/compare-html

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the strawberry tree, Arbutus unedo,

Post  Admin on Sat May 11, 2013 11:51 am

Hi Everyone:

Here is a Commentary on Bountiful Trees and Vegetables God (YHWH) has provided for mankind, specifically the strawberry tree, Arbutus unedo, is an evergreen shrub or small tree in the family Ericaceae, native to the Mediterranean region and western Europe north to western France and Ireland. Due to its presence in South West Ireland, it is known as either "Irish strawberry tree" or "Killarney strawberry tree".

Taxonomy
Arbutus unedo was one of the many species described by Carl Linnaeus in Volume One of his landmark 1753 work Species Plantarum, giving it the name it still bears today.[1]

A study published in 2001 which analyzed ribosomal DNA from Arbutus and related genera found Arbutus to be paraphyletic, and A. unedo to be closely related to the other Mediterranean Basin species such as A. andrachne and A. canariensis and not to the western North American members of the genus.[2]

Arbutus unedo and A. andrachne hybridise naturally where their ranges overlap; the hybrid has been named Arbutus × andrachnoides (syn. A. × hybrida, or A. andrachne × unedo), inheriting traits of both parent species, though fruits are not usually borne freely, and as a hybrid is unlikely to breed true from seed.

Description
Arbutus unedo grows to 5–10 m tall, rarely up to 15 m, with a trunk diameter of up to 80 cm. Zone: 7–10

The leaves are dark green and glossy, 5–10 cm (2–4 in) long and 2–3 cm (0.8–1.2 in) broad, with a serrated margin.

The hermaphrodite flowers are white (rarely pale pink), bell-shaped, 4–6 mm diameter, produced panicles of 10–30 together in autumn. They are pollinated by bees.

The fruit is a red berry, 1–2 cm diameter, with a rough surface, maturing 12 months at the same time as the next flowering. The fruit is edible, though many people find it bland and meally; the name 'unedo' is explained by Pliny the Elder as being derived from unum edo "I eat one",[3] which may seem an apt response to the flavour.

Distribution
Arbutus unedo is widespread in the Mediterranean region: in Portugal, Spain and southeastern France; southward in Algeria, Morocco, and Tunisia, and eastward in Italy, Greece, Turkey, Cyprus, Lebanon, and Syria. It is also found in western France, Albania, Bulgaria, Croatia, and southwestern Ireland.[4]

Its disjunct distribution, with an isolated relict population in southwestern Ireland, notably in Killarney, is a remnant of former broader distribution during the milder climate of the Atlantic period, the warmest and moistest Blytt-Sernander period, when the climate was generally warmer than today. The red-flowered variant, named A. unedo rubra by William Aiton in 1785, was discovered growing wild in Ireland in 1835.

Uses
Arbutus unedo serves as a bee plant for honey production, and the fruits are food for birds. The fruits are also used to make jams, beverages, and liqueurs (such as the Portuguese medronho, a type of strong brandy).

In folk medicine, the plant has been used for antiseptic, astringent, intoxicant, rheumatism, and tonic purposes.[5]

Cultivation
Arbutus unedo is cultivated as an ornamental plant by plant nurseries. It is used as a single or muti-trunked ornamental tree, and as a specimen or hedge shrub in gardens and public landscapes. When grown as a tree rather than a shrub, basal sprouts are kept pruned off. The plant prefers well-drained soils, and low to moderate soil moisture.

Unlike most of the Ericaceae, A. unedo grows well in basic (limy) pH soils. In cold climates it prefers a sheltered position due to its late flowering habit.
Arbutus unedo is naturally adapted to dry summer climates. It is therefore useful for planting in regions with Mediterranean climates, and has become a very popular ornamental plant in California and the rest of the west coast of North America. It is hardy in USDA Hardiness Zones 8 to 10.

It also grows well in the cool, wet summers of western Ireland and England, and temperate regions of Europe and Asia. Pests include scales and thrips, and diseases include anthracnose, Phytophthora, root rot, and rust.

Arbutus unedo: habit
Its Mediterranean habitat, elegant details of leaf and habit and dramatic show of fruit with flowers made Arbutus unedo notable in Classical Antiquity, when Pliny thought it should not be planted where bees are kept, for the bitterness it imparts to honey.

The first signs of its importation into northern European gardens was to 16th-century England from Ireland. In 1586 a correspondent in Ireland sent plants to the Elizabethan courtiers Lord Leicester and Sir Francis Walsingham.[6] An earlier description by Rev. William Turner (The Names of Herbes, 1548) was probably based on hearsay. The Irish association of Arbutus in English gardens is reflected in the inventory taken in 1649 of Henrietta Maria's Wimbledon: "one very fayre tree, called the Irish arbutis standing in the midle parte of the sayd kitchin garden, very lovely to look upon"[6] By the 18th century Arbutus unedo was well known enough in English gardens for Batty Langley to make the bold and impractical suggestion that it might be used for hedges, though it "will not admit of being clipped as other evergreens are."[6]

In the United States, Thomas Jefferson lists the plant in his Monticello gardens in 1778.[7]

A. unedo,[8] together with the form A. unedo f. rubra[9] and the hybrid A. × andrachnoides,[10] have gained the Royal Horticultural Society's Award of Garden Merit.

Arbutus unedo in Partenit, Crimea
In the UK the gardens at Dunster Castle include the National Plant Collection of Strawberry Trees—A. unedo. During the early 1980s the steep banks on the south side of the castle were planted with over four hundred specimens. With the nine cultivars that were acquired at a later date, this constitutes the "National Arbutus Collection".[11]
Symbolic uses


Central panel of The Garden of Earthly Delights by Hieronymus Bosch, which was first described by José de Sigüenza as "The Picture of the Strawberry Tree".
The Garden of Earthly Delights, a painting by Hieronymus Bosch, was originally listed by José de Sigüenza, in the inventory of the Spanish Crown as La Pintura del Madroño – "The Painting of the Strawberry Tree".[12]

The tree makes up part of the Coat of arms of Madrid (El oso y el madroño, The Bear and the Strawberry Tree) of the city of Madrid, Spain. In the center of the city (Puerta del Sol) there is a statue of a bear eating the fruit of the Madroño tree. The image appears on city crests, taxi cabs, man-hole covers, and other city infrastructure. The fruit of the Madroño tree ferments on the tree if left to ripen, so some of the bears become drunk from eating the fruits.[citation needed]


A bear and a madroño (strawberry tree) are the symbol of Madrid.
The tree is mentioned by Roman poet Ovid, in Book I: 89–112 "The Golden Age" of his Metamorphoses:

Contented with food that grew without cultivation, they collected mountain strawberries and the fruit of the strawberry tree, wild cherries, blackberries clinging to the tough brambles, and acorns fallen from Jupiter’s spreading oak-tree.[13]“

Metamorphoses, (AD Cool
The poet Giovanni Pascoli dedicated to the strawberry tree a poem. In that he refers to the Aeneid passage which Pallas in, killed by Turnus, was posed on branches of strawberry tree; the poet saw the colours of that plant a prefiguration of the flag of Italy and considered Pallas the first national cause martyr.[14] Pascoli's ode says:

(Italian)
O verde albero italico, il tuo maggio
è nella bruma: s'anche tutto muora,
tu il giovanile gonfalon selvaggio
spieghi alla bora

(English)
Oh green Italian tree, your May month
is in the mist: if everything die,
you, the youthful wild banner
unfold to the northern wind
And actually in the Italian Risorgimento the strawberry tree, because of its autumnal colours, the same colours of the Italian flag, at the same time red for fruits and white for flowers, beyond the green colour of leaves, was considered, indeed, a symbol of the flag.[15]

See also
* Arbutus unedo hybrids
Notes
1. ^ (Latin) Linnaeus, Carl (1753). [[Species Plantarum]]. Tomus I. Holmiae (Stockholm), Sweden: Laurentii Salvii. p. 395. "caule erecto, foliis glabris serratis, baccis polyspermis" Wikilink embedded in URL title (help)
2. ^ Hileman, Lena C.; Vasey, Michael C.; Parker, V.Thomas (2001). "Phylogeny and Biogeography of the Arbutoideae (Ericaceae): Implications for the Madrean-Tethyan Hypothesis". Systematic Botany 26 (1): 131–143. JSTOR 2666660.
3. ^ Natural History 15.28.99
4. ^ Arbutus unedo information from NPGS/GRIN . accessed 12.22.2012
5. ^ Dr. Duke's Phytochemical and Ethnobotanical Databases: Ethnobotanical uses of Arbutus unedo . accessed 12.22.2012
6. ^ a b c Quoted in Alice M. Coats, Garden Shrubs and Their Histories (1964) 1992, s.v. "Arbutus".
7. ^ Ann Leighton, American Gardens in the Eighteenth Century: 'For Use or Delight' , 1976:395.
8. ^ http://apps.rhs.org.uk/plantselector/plant?plantid=158
9. ^ http://apps.rhs.org.uk/plantselector/plant?plantid=159
10. ^ http://apps.rhs.org.uk/plantselector/plant?plantid=160
11. ^ "Dunster Castle Gardens" at ngs.org.uk
12. ^ Warner, Marion. Fantastic metamorphoses, other worlds: ways of telling the self. Oxford University Press, 2002. 70.
13. ^ "The Metamorphoses, Book I, translated by A. S. Kline ©️ 2000 All Rights Reserved". Poetryintranslation.com. Retrieved 2012-08-27.
14. ^ Giovanni Pascoli, in the autograph note to his poem "Il corbezzolo" ("The strawberry tree"), compared the virgilian, deposed after death on branches of strawberry tree, to the Italian martyrs wrapped up, during the burial ceremonies, in the Italian flag.
15. ^ (Italian) various authors - Guida pratica agli alberi e arbusti in Italia; Biblioteca per chi ama la natura - Selezione dal Reader's Digest Milano 1983, 1991. [source - retrieved from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arbutus_unedo on 5/6/2013]

In Genesis 1:11-13, "And God said, Let the earth put forth grass, herbs yielding seed, and fruit-trees bearing fruit after their kind, wherein is the seed thereof, upon the earth: and it was so. 12 And the earth brought forth grass, herbs yielding seed after their kind, and trees bearing fruit, wherein is the seed thereof, after their kind: and God saw that it was good. 13 And there was evening and there was morning, a third day. (American Standard Version, ASV)[for more details, go to www.jw.org].

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he Banana Passionfruit, Passiflora mollissima Bailey

Post  Admin on Wed May 15, 2013 5:44 pm

Hi Everyone:

Here is a Commentary on Bountiful Trees and Vegetables God (YHWH) has provided for mankind, specifically the Banana Passionfruit, Passiflora mollissima Bailey
Passiflora tomentosa var. mollissima Tr.& Planch

A distinctive and much admired passionfruit relative, Passiflora mollissima Bailey (syns. P. tomentosa var. mollissima Tr. & Planch.; Tacsonia mollissima HBK.), was given this appealing and appropriate English name in New Zealand. In Hawaii, it is called banana poka. In its Latin American homeland, it is known as curuba, curuba de Castilla, or curuba sabanera blanco (Colombia); tacso, tagso, tauso (Ecuador); parcha (Venezuela), tumbo or curuba (Bolivia); tacso, tumbo, tumbo del norte, trompos, or tintin (Peru).

Description
The vine is a vigorous climber to 20 or 23 ft (6-7 m), its nearly cylindrical stems densely coated with yellow hairs. Its deeply 3-lobed leaves, 3 to 4 in (7.5-10 cm) long and 2 3/8 to 4 3/4 in (6-12 cm) wide, are finely toothed and downy above, grayish-or yellowish-velvety beneath. The stipules are short, slender and curved. The attractive blossom has a tube 3 to 4 in (7.5-10 cm) long, gray-green, frequently blushed with red, rarely downy; corolla with 5 oblong sepals and deep-pink petals flaring to a width of 2 to 3 in (5-7.5 cm); and a rippled, tuberculated, purple corona. The fruit is oblong or oblong-ovoid, 2 to 4 3/4 in (5-12 cm) long, 1 1/4 to 1 1/2 in (3.2-4 cm) wide. The rind is thick, leathery, whitish-yellow or, in one form, dark-green, and minutely downy. Very aromatic pulp (arils), salmon-colored, subacid to acid and rich in flavor, surrounds the small, black, flat, elliptic, reticulated seeds.

Origin and Distribution
The banana passionfruit is native and commonly found in the wild in Andean valleys from Venezuela and eastern Colombia to Bolivia and Peru. It is believed to have been domesticated only shortly before the Spanish Conquest. Today it is commonly cultivated and the fruits, which are highly favored, are regularly sold in local markets. In 1920, the United States Department of Agriculture received seeds from Guayaquil, Ecuador (S.P.I. No. 51205), and from Bogotá, Colombia (S.P.I. No. 54399). The vine is grown in California as an ornamental under the name "softleaf passionflower". It has never succeeded in Florida; is grown to some extent in Hawaii and the State of Madras, India. The climate of New Zealand seems highly suitable for it and it has been grown there, more or less commercially, for several decades.

Varieties
In general, the fruit is smaller in Peru than in Colombia and Ecuador. There are said to be several varieties. A form called curuba quiteña in Colombia is dark-green externally even when fully ripe, the apex is abruptly pointed and furrowed; the pulp is dark-orange or orange-brown.

Climate
This species is at home at elevations between 6,000 and 7,200 ft (1,800-3,200 m) in the Andes, and has adapted well to altitudes of 4,000 to 6,000 ft (1,200-1,800 m) in Hawaii and New Zealand. It can tolerate brief drops in temperature to 28.4º F (-2º C).

Propagation
The vine can be propagated from cuttings but is usually grown from seeds which normally germinate in 10 weeks. The time can be shortened to 5 weeks by preliminary soaking in lukewarm water.

Culture
The seedlings can be transplanted when 3 months old and need to be trained onto a horizontal trellis 6 1/2 ft (2 m) high with crosswires 16 in (40 cm) apart. At a vine spacing of 6.5 ft (2 m) each way, there will be 607 plants per acre (1,500 plants/ha). Less dense planting, allowing 10 ft (3 m) each way between vines, and 20 in (50 cm) between crosswires, will result in 445 vines per acre (1,100/ha). The first crop will be produced in 2 years. At dense spacing, and with good weed control and adequate fertilization, the annual harvest in Colombia will be 200 to 300 fruits per vine, amounting to 200,000 to 303,000 fruits per acre (500,000-750,000 fruits per ha), or about 31,000 to 47,000 lbs per acre (roughly the same number of kg per ha). The individual fruits range from 2 to 5 1/2 oz each (approximately 50-150 g). Some growers have practiced pruning, which improves air-flow, reducing disease, and facilitates weeding, irrigation, spraying and harvesting. It produces larger fruits but fewer and therefore is generally viewed as not practical as size is not important to the consumer. In India, the average yield is said to be 40 to 50 fruits per vine beginning with the 6th year from planting.

Season
There is more or less continuous fruiting the year around in Colombia. In New Zealand, the crop ripens from late March or early April to September or October.

Keeping Quality
The fruit stands shipment well and will keep in good condition in a dry and not too cold atmosphere for a reasonable length of time.

Pests and Diseases
In humid and poorly drained situations, some plantations suffer from nematodes (Meloidogyne sp.). Leaves and shoots may be attacked by leafhoppers (Empoasca sp.) and by Dione or Agraulis, vanillae; leaves and fruits may be plagued by mites (Tetranychus sp.); larvae of Hepialus sp. invade the flowerbud; stems may be bored and tunneled by Heteractes sp. and Nyssodrys sp. Occasionally the fruits are attacked by fruit flies. Young shoots are prone to powdery mildew (Asterinia sp.) and anthracnose (Colletotrichum sp.) may affect the vine and fruits. Boron deficiency causes cracking of fruits. Sometimes, for physiological reasons not yet fully understood, 50 to 60% of the fruits may drop prematurely.

Food Uses
The pulp is eaten out-of-hand or is strained for its juice which is not consumed alone but employed in refreshing mixed cold beverages. In Bolivia, the juice, combined with aguardiente and sugar, is served as a pre-dinner cocktail. Colombians strain out the seeds and serve the pulp with milk and sugar, or use it in gelatin desserts. In Ecuador, the pulp is made into ice cream.

The New Zealand Department of Agriculture has developed enticing recipes to encourage the growing and utilization of the seeded pulp as pie filling, and also for making meringue pie, sauce, spiced relish, jelly, jam and other preserves. It is also advocated as an ingredient in fruit salad, especially with pineapple, and for blending with whipped cream as a pudding, and for cooking and preserving as an ice-cream topping.

Canning the juice with benzoate of soda as a preservative loses much of the quality and, therefore, there is as yet no commercial processing.

Food Value Per 100 g of Edible Portion*

Calories
25
Moisture
92.0 g
Protein
0.6 g
Fat
0.1 g
Carbohydrates
6.3 g
Fiber
0.3 g
Ash
0.7 g
Calcium
4 mg
Phosphorus
20 mg
Iron
0.4 mg
Riboflavin
0.03 mg
Niacin
2.5 mg
Ascorbic Acid
70 mg
*Analyses made in Colombia. (source - retrieved from Passiflora mollissima Banana Passion Fruit on 3/29/2013)

In Genesis 1:11-13, "And God said, Let the earth put forth grass, herbs yielding seed, and fruit-trees bearing fruit after their kind, wherein is the seed thereof, upon the earth: and it was so. 12 And the earth brought forth grass, herbs yielding seed after their kind, and trees bearing fruit, wherein is the seed thereof, after their kind: and God saw that it was good. 13 And there was evening and there was morning, a third day. (American Standard Version, ASV)[for more details, go to www.jw.org].

View this plant, flower, and fruit at, http://www.bing.com/images/search?q=Passiflora+mollissima+Banana+Passion+Fruit&qpvt=Passiflora+mollissima+Banana+Passion+Fruit&FORM=IGRE

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Baobab; Lemonade Tree; Monkeybread Tree ( Adonis digitata )

Post  Admin on Fri May 17, 2013 12:47 pm

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Here is a Commentary on Bountiful Trees and Vegetables God (YHWH) has provided for mankind, specifically the Baobab; Lemonade Tree; Monkeybread Tree ( Adonis digitata )

Only the most serious of tree collectors have these unusual trees. The huge trunk of this tree can reach 30' in diameter. Has large 6" hibiscus like flowers and foot long fruits filled with refreshing lemon flavored pulp. The leaves can be eaten like spinach. The trunks store considerable water, as much as 1,000 gallons have been tapped from one. However, if you do not have a half acre to plant one on, they make great bonsai. (source - retrieved from http://www.seedman.com/tropic.htm on 4/4/2013)

Family: Bombacaceae (Malvaceae) the bombax or baobab Family

Scientific name: Adansonia digitata L.
Habitat: It is native to much of Africa and the most widespread of the Adansonia species, but restricted to suitable habitats that comprises hot, dry woodland on stoney, well drained soils, in frost-free areas that receive low rainfall. It ranges from the dry sub-Saharan scrub to the grassy savannas/ woodland of South Africa.

It is also widely grown as a street and park tree in the tropics of both hemispheres.

Ecology: Bats primarily pollinate the large white flowers with their ruffled petals at night, although many different insects and other creatures such as birds will visit the sweetly scented flowers.
Conservation status: Not threatened

Common Names include: baobab, dead-rat tree, bottle tree, monkey-bread tree baobab, Cream of Tartar tree, monkey-bread tree, lemonade tree (Eng.);
Etymology: Adansonia: Named after a French surgeon Michel Adanson (1727-1806). digitata: hand-shaped, referring to the shape of the leaves.
(source - retrieved from http://www.cactus-art.biz/schede/ADANSONIA/Adansonia_digitata/Adansonia_digitata/Adansonia_digitata.htm on 4/4/2013)



In Genesis 1:11-13, "And God said, Let the earth put forth grass, herbs yielding seed, and fruit-trees bearing fruit after their kind, wherein is the seed thereof, upon the earth: and it was so. 12 And the earth brought forth grass, herbs yielding seed after their kind, and trees bearing fruit, wherein is the seed thereof, after their kind: and God saw that it was good. 13 And there was evening and there was morning, a third day. (American Standard Version, ASV)[for more details, go to www.jw.org].

View more details, pictures of the plant, etc., at, http://toptropicals.com/catalog/uid/adansonia_digitata.htm

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Eugenia reinwardtiana, known as the Beach Cherry or Cedar Bay Cherry.

Post  Admin on Wed May 22, 2013 12:52 pm

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Here is a Commentary on Bountiful Trees and Vegetables God (YHWH) has provided for mankind, specifically the Eugenia reinwardtiana, known as the Beach Cherry or Cedar Bay Cherry. It is a rounded shrub that will form a tall shrub or small tree after many years. It is comparatively slow growing, but this is an excellent feature as it responds well to formative pruning to make excellent dense shrubs for low hedging and containers.

Leaves are shiny deep green, elliptical in shape up to 90mm long. New growth is pink maturing through lime green - an excellent feature of the plant. In colder semi-tropical areas the leaves will take on a reddish tone in winter, in response to the lower temperatures. It is not particularly frost tolerant.

In Genesis 1:11-13, "And God said, Let the earth put forth grass, herbs yielding seed, and fruit-trees bearing fruit after their kind, wherein is the seed thereof, upon the earth: and it was so. 12 And the earth brought forth grass, herbs yielding seed after their kind, and trees bearing fruit, wherein is the seed thereof, after their kind: and God saw that it was good. 13 And there was evening and there was morning, a third day. (American Standard Version, ASV)[for more details, go to www.jw.org].

Flowering and Fruiting: Plants flower in spring to early summer with masses of white five petal flowers, featuring centrally clustered stamens each up to 15mm across. The flowers are followed in November and December (just in time for Christmas) by fleshy, red succulent spherical fruits from 7mm to 20mm diameter, enclosing a cherry like seed. Fruits mature from green through scarlet to cherry red and are very tasty - they rival the traditional cherry. Some specimens are sweeter than others – try to source a good one!

This special rare plant is an excellent shrub that responds well to occasional pruning to produce a dense compact form for hedges. The succulent red fruits are wonderful ‘bush tucker’ and can be eaten raw, in fruit salads, with ice cream or made into jam, compotes or sauces. [source - retrieved from http://www.abc.net.au/queensland/stories/s1738525.htm on 01/01/2013]
It is well worth growing if you can obtain this extremely rare plant which seems to like sandy soils rich in nutrients, and it can be grown in large containers – 15 gallon or larger.

How this shrub and other plants absorb water from the ground. Plants have developed an effective system to absorb, translocate, store, and utilize water. Plants contain a vast network of conduits, which consists of xylem and phloem tissues. These conducting tissues start in the roots and continue up through the trunks of trees, into the branches and then into every leaf. Phloem tissue is made of living elongated cells that are connected to one another and responsible for translocating nutrients and sugars (carbohydrates), which are produced by leaves for energy and growth. The xylem is also composed of elongated cells but once the cells are formed, they die. The walls of the xylem cells still remain intact and serve as an excellent peipline to transport water from the roots to the leaves.

The main driving force of water uptake and transport into a plant is transpiration of water from leaves through specialized openings called stomata. Heat from the sun causes the water to evaporate, setting this ‘water chain’ in motion. The evaporation creates a negative water vapor pressure. Water is pulled into the leaf to replace the water that has transpired from the leaf. This pulling of water, or tension, occurs in the xylem of the leaf. Since the xylem is a continuous water column that extends from the leaf to the roots, this negative water pressure extends into the roots and results in water uptake from the soil. [adapted from: http://www.scientificamerican.com/article.cfm?id=follow-up-how-do-trees-ca ]

Clearly this clever water transport system shows a superior intelligence of the Creator (YHWH).


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the Alupag, Dimocarpus didyma.

Post  Admin on Fri May 24, 2013 6:16 pm

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Here is a Commentary on Bountiful Trees and Vegetables God (YHWH) has provided for mankind, specifically the Alupag, Dimocarpus didyma.

The rare Alupag bears longan-like fruits with noticeable warts on the skin. Flesh is very tasty, like the longan, with a fairly large seed. The fruit is appreciated in its native range, but generally put aside for its better known and highly selected relatives, the lychee and longan. [source - retrieved from http://www.tradewindsfruit.com/content/alupag.htm on 5/23/2013]

Tree up to 30 m high; stem up to 1.25 m in diameter, stem fluted, outer bark sometimes scaly or flaky.

Leaves pinnate, 1-3-, mostly 2-jugate, spirally arranged; leaflets elliptic, 8-11 x 2.8-4.5 cm, stiff-coriaceous; midrib beneath prominent and rounded, usually brittle; lamina glaucous on undersurface.

Flowers whitish or creamish yellow, small, in terminal or axillary thyrses.

Fruits 2.5-3 x 2-2.5 cm, the surface with pyramidal warts, yellowish-brown; seed glossy black, covered partly with white aril.

The fruit is a lot like lychee its closest relative in taste and the way it is eaten – of very good flavor.


This subspecies is endemic to the Philippines (Luzon, Sibuyan, Samar, and Mindanao); a single herbarium specimen has been reported from SE New Guinea. The species occurs in S China, Vietnam, Cambodia, Thailand, Malay Peninsula, Borneo, Java, and widely cultivated in subtro
[source - retrieved from http://211.114.21.20/tropicalplant/html/print.jsp?rno=117 on 5/23/2013]

In Genesis 1:11-13, "And God said, Let the earth put forth grass, herbs yielding seed, and fruit-trees bearing fruit after their kind, wherein is the seed thereof, upon the earth: and it was so. 12 And the earth brought forth grass, herbs yielding seed after their kind, and trees bearing fruit, wherein is the seed thereof, after their kind: and God saw that it was good. 13 And there was evening and there was morning, a third day. (American Standard Version, ASV)[for more details, go to www.jw.org].

This tree and its fruit can be viewed along with other rare fruits at, http://images.search.yahoo.com/search/images?_adv_prop=image&fr=chr-greentree_ff&va=alupag+tree

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Francis David said it long ago, "Neither the sword of popes...nor the image of death will halt the march of truth."Francis David, 1579, written on the wall of his prison cell." Read the book, "What Does The Bible Really Teach" and the Bible today, and go to www.jw.org!

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the Amazon Grape, Amazon Tree-grape or Uvilla; Pourouma cecropiifolia (syn. P. multifida)

Post  Admin on Mon May 27, 2013 1:29 pm


Hi Everyone:

Here is a Commentary on Bountiful Trees and Vegetables God (YHWH) has provided for mankind, specifically the Amazon Grape, Amazon Tree-grape or Uvilla; Pourouma cecropiifolia (syn. P. multifida) is a species of Pourouma, native to tropical South America, in the western Amazon Basin in northern Bolivia, western Brazil, southeastern Colombia, eastern Ecuador, eastern Peru, and southern Venezuela.[1]

It is a medium-sized evergreen tree growing to 20 m tall. The leaves are palmately compound, with 9–11 leaflets 10–20 cm long and 2.5–4 cm broad, on a 20 cm petiole. The flowers are white, produced 20 or more together in a 10 cm long inflorescence; it is dioecious, with male and female flowers on separate trees. The fruit is ovoid, 1–2 cm long, purple when ripe, grape-like except for its wintergreen smell; the skin is rough, inedible but easily peeled.[2][3]
Agriculture

The fruit is sweet and juicy, eaten fresh and made into jams. The tree grows quickly, and grows well in poor upland soils. It is vulnerable to floods. The fruit is susceptible to fungal attacks and does not keep well, which limits its commercial viability.[3]

References
1. ^ Germplasm Resources Information Network: Pourouma cecropiifolia
2. ^ Huxley, A., ed. (1992). New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. Macmillan ISBN 0-333-47494-5.
3. ^ a b "Pourouma cecropiifolia". Rainforest Conservation Fund. Archived from the original on 2007-02-28. Retrieved 2007-05-01. [source - retrieved from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pourouma_cecropiifolia on 5/23/2013]

In Genesis 1:11-13, "And God said, Let the earth put forth grass, herbs yielding seed, and fruit-trees bearing fruit after their kind, wherein is the seed thereof, upon the earth: and it was so. 12 And the earth brought forth grass, herbs yielding seed after their kind, and trees bearing fruit, wherein is the seed thereof, after their kind: and God saw that it was good. 13 And there was evening and there was morning, a third day. (American Standard Version, ASV)[for more details, go to www.jw.org].

Place of Origin
Native to Central and tropical South America, in the nations of Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, Bolivia and Peru.

Places and Types of Utilization
In the Peruvian forest, the tree is cultivated in the Departments of Loreto, Ucayali, St Martin, Mother of God, Huánuco, the Amazon, Pasco and Junín. It is a sweet, juicy fruit good for eating and making into jams. The tree grows quickly, reaches up to twenty metres in height and grows well in poor...

Places and Types of Utilization
In the Peruvian forest, the tree is cultivated in the Departments of Loreto, Ucayali, St Martin, Mother of God, Huánuco, the Amazon, Pasco and Junín. It is a sweet, juicy fruit good for eating and making into jams. The tree grows quickly, reaches up to twenty metres in height and grows well in poor upland soils. It is vulnerable to floods. The fruit is susceptible to fungal attacks and doesn't keep well, which limits its commercial viability. [source - retrieved from http://www.underutilized-species.org/species/species_details.asp?id=457 on 5/23/2013]
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Francis David said it long ago, "Neither the sword of popes...nor the image of death will halt the march of truth."Francis David, 1579, written on the wall of his prison cell." Read the book, "What Does The Bible Really Teach" and the Bible today, and go to www.jw.org!



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The "Beaumont Red" guava is commonly grown in Hawaii, and this behemoth

Post  Admin on Thu May 30, 2013 10:59 am

Hi Everyone:

Here is a Commentary on Bountiful Trees and Vegetables God (YHWH) has provided for mankind, specifically the The "Beaumont Red" guava is commonly grown in Hawaii, and this behemoth -- for a guava -- can tip the scales at a pound. It can be identified by its bright yellow exterior and pink flesh, and it's nonacidic and nonmusky. Many guavas can be particularly seedy, so the "Pear" cultivar, named for its green skin and pearlike shape, is a welcome alternative with few seeds. Its orange-pink flesh is tasty too. The medium-sized "South African" guava has a yellow skin and pink flesh. According to a report by the U.S. Forest Service Pacific Southwest Research station, the common strawberry guava (Psidium cattleianum), an interloper from Brazil, is considered an invasive species in Hawaii because it crowds out natural plants and gives nasty insects an ideal place to breed. (source - retrieved from http://www.ehow.com/info_8274559_guava-varieties.html on 4/1/2013)

Introduction [The following covers research done at Department of Natural Resources and Environmental Design, North Carolina A&T State University, Greensboro, North Carolina, USA, by ?Xiaomei Liu, Guochen Yang]
Guava (Psidium guajava L), sometimes called the apple of tropics, is a very valuable tropical and subtropical fruit representing a staple food in many countries. It is a rich natural source of vitamin C as well as a good source of calcium, phosphorous, iron and pectin.1 It also contains many high-grade antioxidants such as, lycopene, carotenoids and polyphenols.2 These compounds are superstar chemicals that are believed to help reduce the incidence of degenerative diseases such as arthritis, arteriosclerosis, diabetes, cancer, heart disease, inflammation and brain dysfunction Antioxidants have also been reported to retard aging.3,4,5

Because of its widespread cultivation, guava production is facing major agronomic and horticultural problems including susceptibility to many pathogens, such as guava wilting, low fruit growth, short shelf life, high seed content, and stress sensitivity. Conventional breeding methods to improve woody species like guava are limited because these plants generally have long juvenile growth periods, experience self incompatibility, and are heterozygous. In addition, seed originated guava plantlets often do not maintain the genetic purity of the variety due to the segregation and recombination of characters during sexual reproduction, whereas high internal fungi, bacteria contamination and phenolic compounds exudation tend to limit in vitro cultures of the guava plant.6

Genetic engineering has been considered a promising production alternative since it shortens the breeding period. For this approach to gain wide acceptance an efficient micro-propagation and regeneration procedure to produce large numbers of rooted plants from unique plants is a prerequisite. Also, clonal propagation reduces plant-to-plant variation to ensure uniform populations of unique clones. Morphogenesis from explants derived from mature trees is of great commercial value because it facilitates direct cultivar improvement. However, there are several problems associated with in vitro cultures of these explants including browning or blackening of culture medium due to leaching of phenolics, microbial contamination, and in vitro tissue recalcitrance.7

The tendency of guava to exude phenolic compounds into the media makes the regeneration process particularly difficult. A number of approaches have been tried to get rid of phenolic compounds from guava tissue cultures. Brookdrijk,8 for example, used silver nitrate for sterilization and achieved a 70% success rate. Concepción et al.9 found that PVPP was better than citric acid and ascorbic acid for controlling exudation of phenolic compounds.
Pretreatment of guava explants in 0.2% ascorbic acid also has been found effective in helping to overcome the browning problem, achieving an establishment rate of 64.4%.10 Joshee et al.11 found that dark treatments were helpful for guava in vitro culture establishment. Zamir et al.12 investigated the effect of different surface sterilization agents and antioxidants on guava and found that mercuric chloride produced the maximum survival rate of 67%. However, because of the danger of environmental pollution mercury compounds are not recommended.
Other workers have shown advances in guava production through tissue culture. Yasseen et al.13 established a propagation culture system from germinated seedings. Rooted plantlets were acclimatized into a greenhouse. The levels and kinds of plant growth regulators included in the culture medium were found to largely determine the success of tissue culture. Cytokinin levels especially have been shown to be critical for multiplication of many tropical fruit trees. BA has been the most common cytokinin used for guava propagation.6,13,14,15,16 However, proliferation of elite, mature genotypes or commercial cultivars is much more difficult than tissues from juvenile sources. Successful propagation from mature guava trees has been limited. Amin and Jaiswal 14 reported plantlet formation from mature tissue of guava and the best shoots multiplication rate was achieved when using BA (4.5 mM) only, but the survival and response rate of shoot tip explants were low.

In this paper, we report a protocol for rapid clonal propagation of guava using in vitro shoot proliferation on nodal explants of adult trees from elite cultivar.
Materials and Methods
Establishment of nodal explants cultures
Apical shoots explants, about 5-7 cm, were collected from four 10 year-old, greenhouse-growing, elite mature guava cultivar Beaumont (Figure 1A). This cultivar was selected because it produced large, pink-fleshed fruits with few seeds. Shoots apices and nodal segments of new shoots were brought to the laboratory in water where the outer leaves were removed. The shoots were washed thoroughly under running tap water, and then samples of the explant materials were subjected to different surface sterilization applications (Table 1). The treated explants were either stirred or not stirred in 0.5% (w/v) PVP solution for 40 mins followed by a 15% bleach solution for 20 mins and then washed with sterile water for five times. Nodal sections were placed vertically in the G7 Magenta boxes (Magenta Corporation, Chicago, IL, USA.) containing 50 mL of Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium17 with 3% (v/v) sucrose, 8.88 ?M BA and 0.7% Difco-Bacto agar, with or without 250 mg/L PVP. The pH of the medium was adjusted to 5.7 before the addition of agar and autoclaved at 121°C for 20 min. Cultures were incubated at 25°C under a 16-h photoperiod provided by cool-white fluorescent lamps (80-100 ?mol m-2 s-1). The media was changed 2-3 times over the first 10 to 14 days of the study to control phenolic exudation and to establish the in vitro culture.
The number of explants developing new shoots was expressed in terms of percentages. Browning rate, contamination rate and clean cultures were recorded approximately 2 weeks after culture initiation. For each treatment, at least 20 explants were tested and each experiment was replicated three times. The results were quantified as a mean ± se of three independent experiments. The data were analyzed statistically using one factorial analysis of variance; significant differences between means were assessed using Duncan’s multiple range test at P=0.05.
References
?1. Singh G. Strategies for improved production in guava. In: Kishun R, Mishra AK, Singh G, Chandra R (eds) Proceeding of 1st international guava symposium. 2005; CISH, Lucknow, India, pp 26-39.
2. Jiménez-Escrig A, Rincón M, Pulido R, et al. Guava Fruit (Psidium guajava L.) as a New Source of Antioxidant Dietary Fiber. J Agric Food Chem 2001;49:5489-93.[CrossRef] [PubMed]
3. Feskanich D, Ziegler RG, Michaud DS, et al. Prospective study of fruit and vegetable consumption and risk of lung cancer among men and women. J Natl Cancer Inst 2000;92:1812-23.[CrossRef] [PubMed]
4. Gordon MH. Dietary antioxidants in disease prevention. Natural Product Rep 1996;265-73.[CrossRef] [PubMed]
5. Halliwell B. Antioxidants in human health and disease. Anu Nutr Rev 1996;16:33-50.[CrossRef] [PubMed]
6. Ali N, Mulwa RMS, Norton MA, et al. Micropropagation of guava (Psidium guajava L.). J Hort Sci Biotechnol 2003;78:739-41.
7. Rai MK, Jaiswal VS, Jaiswal U. Shoot multiplication and plant regeneration of guava (psidium guajava l.) from nodal explants of in vitro raised plantlets. J Fruit Ornam Plant Res 2009;17:29-38.
8. Broodrijk M. New sterilization method for the in vitro culture of guavas (Psidium guajava). Information Bulletin - Citrus and Subtropical Fruit Research Institute 1989.
9. Concepcion O, Napoles L, Perez AT, et al. The effect of three antioxidants on the in vitro culture of guava (Psidium guajava L.) shoot tips. Relationship between explant origin and phenolic compound content. Cultivos Tropicales 2005;26:33-9.
10. Mangal M, Sharma D, Sharma M, et al. In vitro plantlet regeneration in guava from nodal segments. Phytomorphology 2008;58:103-8.
11. Joshee N, Mutua M, Yadav AK, et al. In vitro shoot bud induction and plantlet regeneration in guava as influenced by genotype. Acta Hort 2004;632:279-85. [Abstract]
12. Zamir R, Shan ST, Ali N. et al. Studies on in vitro surface sterilization and antioxidants on guava shoot tips and nodal explants. Pakistan J Biotech 2004;1:12-6.
13. Yasseen MY, Barringer SA, Schnell RJ, et al. In vitro shoot proliferation of guava (Psidium guajava L.) from germinated seedlings. Plant Cell Rep 1995;14:525-8. [Abstract]
14. Amin MN, Jaiswal VS. Rapid clonal propagation of guava through in vitro shoot proliferation on nodal explants of mature trees. Plant Cell Tiss Org Cul 1987;9:235-43.[CrossRef] [Abstract]
15. Loh CS, Rao AN. Clonal propagation of guava (Psidium guajava L.) from seedlings and grafted plants and adventitious shoot formation in vitro. Scientia Hortic 1989;39:31-9.[CrossRef] [Abstract]
16. Papadatau P, Pontikis CA, Ephtimiadou E, et al. Rapid multiplication of guava seedlings by in vitro shoot tip culture. Scientia Hortic 1990;45:99-103.[CrossRef] [Abstract]
17. Murashige T, Skoog F. A revised medium for rapid growth and bioassays with tobacco tissue cultures. Physiol Plant 1962;15: 473-97.[CrossRef] [Abstract]
18. Liu X, Pijut PM. Plant regeneration from in vitro leaves of mature black cherry (Prunus serotina). Plant Cell Tiss Org Cult 2008;94:113-23.[CrossRef] [Abstract]
19. Bosela MJ, Michler CH. Media effects on black walnut (Juglans nigra L.) shoot culture growth in vitro: evaluation of multiple nutrient formulations and cytokinin types. In vitro Cell Dev Biol 2008;44:316-29.[CrossRef] [Abstract]
20. Amin MN, Jaiswal VS. In vitro propagation of guava (Psidium guajava L.): effects of sucrose, agar and pH on growth and proliferation of shoots. Bangladesh J Bot 1989;18:1-8.
21. Mederos S, Rodríguez Enríquez MJ. In vitro propagation of "golden times" roses, factors affecting shoot tips and axillary buds growth and morphogenesis. Acta Hort 1987;212:619-24. [Abstract]
22. Durand-Cresswell R, Nitsch C. Factors affecting the regeneration of Eucalyptus grandis by organ culture. Acta Hort 1977; 78:149-55.
23. McComb JA. Clonal propagation of woody plants using tissue culture, with special reference to apples. Proc Int Plant Propag Soc 1978;28:413-6.
24. Ahuja MR. Micropropagation of juvenile and mature beech and oak. In: Editors, D. A. Somers, B.G. Gengenbach, D.D. Biesboer, W.P. Hackett, C.E. Green Abstract of VI Intemational Congress of Plant Tissue and Cell Culture, 1986; August 3-8, Minnesota, USA, p11.
25. Abenavoli MR, Pennisi AM. The effect of PVP on chestnut callus formation. Acta Hort 1998;457:17-20.[Abstract]
26. Malik SK, Chaudhury R, Kalia RK. Rapid in vitro multiplication and conservation of Garcinia indica: a tropical medicinal tree species. Sci Hort 2005;106:539-53.[CrossRef] [Abstract]
27. Singh SK, Meghwal PR, Sharma HC, et al. Direct shoot organogenesis on explants from germinated seedlings of Psidium guajava L. cv. Allahabad Safeda. Sci Hort 2002;95:213-21.[CrossRef] [Abstract] (source - retrieved from http://www.pagepress.org/journals/index.php/pb/article/view/pb.2011.e2/2801 on 4/1/2013)

In Genesis 1:11-13, "And God said, Let the earth put forth grass, herbs yielding seed, and fruit-trees bearing fruit after their kind, wherein is the seed thereof, upon the earth: and it was so. 12 And the earth brought forth grass, herbs yielding seed after their kind, and trees bearing fruit, wherein is the seed thereof, after their kind: and God saw that it was good. 13 And there was evening and there was morning, a third day. (American Standard Version, ASV)[for more details, go to www.jw.org].

View tree and fruit at, http://www.ez2plant.com/item/yard-garden-outdoor-living-pla/-beaumont-pink-guava-psidium-g/lid=33906326


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the bilimbi, Averrhoa bilimbi, L., (Oxalidaceae),

Post  Admin on Wed Jun 05, 2013 8:56 am

Hi Everyone:

Here is a Commentary on Bountiful Trees and Vegetables God (YHWH) has provided for mankind, specifically the bilimbi, Averrhoa bilimbi, L., (Oxalidaceae), is closely allied to the carambola but quite different in appearance, manner of fruiting, flavor and uses. The only strictly English names are "cucumber tree" and "tree sorrel", bestowed by the British in colonial times. "Bilimbi" is the common name in India and has become widely used. In Malaya, it is called belimbing asam, belimbing buloh, b'ling, or billing-billing. In Indonesia, it is belimbing besu, balimbing, blimbing, or blimbing wuluh; in Thailand, it is taling pling, or kaling pring.

In Haiti, it is called blimblin; in Jamaica, bimbling plum; in Cuba, it is grosella china; in El Salvador and Nicaragua, mimbro; in Costa Rica, mimbro or tiriguro; in Venezuela, vinagrillo; in Surinam and Guyana, birambi; in Argentina, pepino de Indias. To the French it is carambolier bilimbi, or cornichon des Indes. Filipinos generally call it kamias but there are about a dozen other native names.

The tree is attractive, long-lived, reaches 16 to 33 ft (5-10 m) in height; has a short trunk soon dividing into a number of upright branches. The leaves, very similar to those of the Otaheite gooseberry and mainly clustered at the branch tips, are alternate, imparipirmate; 12 to 24 in (30-60 cm) long, with 11 to 37 alternate or subopposite leaflets, ovate or oblong, with rounded base and pointed tip; downy; medium-green on the upper surface, pale on the underside; 3/4 to 4 in (2-10 cm) long, 1/2 to 1 1/8 in (1.2-1.25 cm) wide.

Small, fragrant, 5-petalled flowers, yellowish-green or purplish marked with dark-purple, are borne in small, hairy panicles emerging directly from the trunk and oldest, thickest branches and some twigs, as do the clusters of curious fruits. The bilimbi is ellipsoid, obovoid or nearly cylindrical, faintly 5-sided, 1 1/2 to 4 in (4-10 cm) long; capped by a thin, star-shaped calyx at the stem-end and tipped with 5 hair-like floral remnants at the apex. The fruit is crisp when unripe, turns from bright-green to yellowish-green, ivory or nearly white when ripe and falls to the ground. The outer skin is glossy, very thin, soft and tender, and the flesh green, jelly-like, juicy and extremely acid. There may be a few (perhaps 6 or 7) flattened, disc-like seeds about 1/4 in (6 mm) wide, smooth and brown. [source - retrieved from http://www.hort.purdue.edu/newcrop/morton/bilimbi.html on 01/01/2013]

In Genesis 1:11-13, "And God said, Let the earth put forth grass, herbs yielding seed, and fruit-trees bearing fruit after their kind, wherein is the seed thereof, upon the earth: and it was so. 12 And the earth brought forth grass, herbs yielding seed after their kind, and trees bearing fruit, wherein is the seed thereof, after their kind: and God saw that it was good. 13 And there was evening and there was morning, a third day. (American Standard Version, ASV)[for more details, go to www.jw.org].

Climate
The bilimbi is a tropical species, more sensitive to cold than the carambola, especially when very young. In Florida, it needs protection from cold and wind. Ideally, rainfall should be rather evenly distributed throughout most of the year but there should be a 2- to 3-month dry season. The bilimbi is not found in the wettest zones of Malaya. The tree makes slow growth in shady or semi-shady situations. It should be in full sun.
Soil
While the bilimbi does best in rich, moist, but well-drained soil, it grows and fruits quite well on sand or limestone.

Propagation
Most efforts at grafting and budding have not been rewarding, though Wester had success in shield-budding, utilizing non-petioled, ripe, brown budwood cut 1 1/2 to 2 in (3.8-5 cm) long. Air-layering has been practiced in Indonesia for many years. However, the tree is more widely grown from seed.
Bilimbi trees are vigorous and receive no special horticultural attention. It has been suggested that they would respond well to whatever cultural treatment gives good results with the carambola.
Season, Harvesting and Keeping Quality
In India as in Florida, the tree begins to flower about February and then blooms and fruits more or less continuously until December. The fruits are picked by hand, singly or in clusters. They need gentle handling because of the thin skin. They cannot be kept on hand for more than a few days.
Pests and Diseases
No pests or diseases have been reported specifically for the bilimbi.

Food Uses
The bilimbi is generally regarded as too acid for eating raw, but in Costa Rica, the green, uncooked fruits are prepared as a relish which is served with rice and beans. Sometimes it is an accompaniment for fish and meat. Ripe fruits are frequently added to curries in the Far East. They yield 44.2% juice having a pH of 4.47, and the juice is popular for making cooling beverages on the order of lemonade.

Mainly, the bilimbi is used in place of mango to make chutney, and it is much preserved. To reduce acidity, it may be first pricked and soaked in water overnight, or soaked in salted water for a shorter time; then it is boiled with much sugar to make a jam or an acid jelly. The latter, in Malaya, is added to stewed fruits that are oversweet. Half-ripe fruits are salted, set out in the sun, and pickled in brine and can be thus kept for 3 months. A quicker pickle is made by putting the fruits and salt into boiling water. This product can be kept only 4 to 5 days. [source - retrieved from http://www.hort.purdue.edu/newcrop/morton/bilimbi.html on 01/01/2013]

Medicinal benefits in Bilimbi
* The leaves of bilimbi are used as a treatment for venereal disease.
* The leaf decoction is taken as a medicine to relieve from rectal inflammation.
* The fruit seems to be effective against coughs and thrush.
* It fights against cholestrol and is used as a tonic and laxative.
* The fruit is also known to control internal bleeding in the stomach.
* The leaves serve as a paste on itches, swelling, mumps or skin eruptions.
* Syrup made from Bilimbi is a cure for fever and inflammation.
* It is also used to stop rectal bleeding and alleviate internal hemorrhoids.
[source - retrieved from http://www.fruitsinfo.com/bilimbi-tropical-fruit.php on 01/01/2013]

How this tree and other plants absorb water from the ground. Plants have developed an effective system to absorb, translocate, store, and utilize water. Plants contain a vast network of conduits, which consists of xylem and phloem tissues. These conducting tissues start in the roots and continue up through the trunks of trees, into the branches and then into every leaf. Phloem tissue is made of living elongated cells that are connected to one another and responsible for translocating nutrients and sugars (carbohydrates), which are produced by leaves for energy and growth. The xylem is also composed of elongated cells but once the cells are formed, they die. The walls of the xylem cells still remain intact and serve as an excellent peipline to transport water from the roots to the leaves.

The main driving force of water uptake and transport into a plant is transpiration of water from leaves through specialized openings called stomata. Heat from the sun causes the water to evaporate, setting this ‘water chain’ in motion. The evaporation creates a negative water vapor pressure. Water is pulled into the leaf to replace the water that has transpired from the leaf. This pulling of water, or tension, occurs in the xylem of the leaf. Since the xylem is a continuous water column that extends from the leaf to the roots, this negative water pressure extends into the roots and results in water uptake from the soil. [adapted from: http://www.scientificamerican.com/article.cfm?id=follow-up-how-do-trees-ca ]

Clearly this clever water transport system shows a superior intelligence of the Creator (YHWH).


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the Munyii, also known as the Bird Plum Tree, Berchemia Discolor.

Post  Admin on Sat Jun 08, 2013 8:34 am

Hi Everyone:

Here is a Commentary on Bountiful Trees and Vegetables God (YHWH) has provided for mankind, specifically the Munyii, also known as the Bird Plum Tree, Berchemia Discolor. The tree is widespread and scattered in open woodlands or at lower altitudes, along river valleys, and in sandy soil in woodlands . It also grows on termite mounds. Sandy clay loams. It is often found on clays, and stream valley and riverine soils.

Fruit ripening occurs between January and March, towards the end of the long rains. The fruits can be eaten fresh and the pulp can be used for a drink. Both are quite nutritious as the fruit is very high in ascorbic acid and sugar.

The yellow-brown wood is one of the hardest in East and Central Africa. It makes excellent furniture, pestles, ladders, poles and is used in general construction. The roots produce a black colour, the wood brown, and the bark red.

The tree has also been featured on Zimbabwean Stamps (source - retrieved from http://kundaistreet.blogspot.com/2011/11/little-known-african-fruit.html on 4/1/2013)

Bird plum is a fruit from Africa. It wide spread from the Sudan to South Africa and growing in dry open woodland, semi-arid bushland and along riverbanks in Angola, Botswana, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Kenya, Madagascar, Malawi, Mozambique, Namibia, Somalia, South Africa, Swaziland, Tanzania, Uganda, Yemen, Republic of, Zambia and Zimbabwe

Bird plum grows naturally in various climates, from semi-arid areas to areas receiving rainfall in 4 years out of 5. It is found scattered in semi-desert grassland, open woodland or at lower altitudes along river valleys, especially on termite mounds. This tree tolerates drought but is damaged by frost or cold wind.

Description:


A shrub or a tree 3-20 m high, with erect spreading branches making a heavy rounded crown; bark rough, dark grey that flakes longitudinally;



A developing fruit of bird plum
Ripe bird plum fruits


Leaves, alternate or sub-opposite, entirely or obscurely crenate, shiny above, dull and glaucous below, broadly elliptic, ovate or obovate-elliptic-lanceolate, 2-9 x 2-5 cm, obtuse or acute at the apex, rounded or cuneate at the base; leaf stalks glabrous or pubescent, 1-1.8 cm long.

Flowers, small, solitary, thick, oblong or ellipsoid, 4-5 mm in diameter, greenish when young, turning yellowish after ripening.

Fruits are shaped like date, yellow, up to 20 x 8 mm; edible, sweet.

Seeds flat, 1-2 per fruit.


Utilization:

Bird plum fruits are eaten fresh. They taste like dates. These are also sold in markets.

The sugar content of the pulp is as high as 30%,. The vitamin C content is 65 mg/100 g. A beverage similar to tea is made from the leaves. Large quantities of the fruit are collected, dried and stored and later used by people in the low veld areas of South Africa.

Fruits are soaked in water over-night and the solution collected next day is very much liked by people. The fruit can also be boiled to be eaten with sorghum. In certain areas people use the leaves of this tree to make tea.

The seeds are also eaten. They taste like walnuts


The yellow-brown wood is one of the hardest in East and Central Africa. It makes excellent furniture, pestles, ladders, poles and is used in general construction.

The roots produce a black colour, the wood brown, and the bark red.
The species is multipurpose and is used for construction, furniture, bee forage, and fodder, ornamental, for resin and for shade. The powdered heartwood and the roots can be used to produce a black dye that is used by basket makers.

Cultivation:

Bird plum grows best on sandy clay loam soils in areas where the rainfall ranges 25 and 125 cm. It thrives best in open locations with plenty of sunlight.

New plants of bird plum can be raised from seed, root suckers and by coppicing. (source - retrieved from http://www.fruitipedia.com/bird_plum%20Berchemia%20discolor.htm on 4/1/2013)


In Genesis 1:11-13, "And God said, Let the earth put forth grass, herbs yielding seed, and fruit-trees bearing fruit after their kind, wherein is the seed thereof, upon the earth: and it was so. 12 And the earth brought forth grass, herbs yielding seed after their kind, and trees bearing fruit, wherein is the seed thereof, after their kind: and God saw that it was good. 13 And there was evening and there was morning, a third day. (American Standard Version, ASV)[for more details, go to www.jw.org].

View plant and fruit at, https://www.google.com/search?q=Bird+Plum+Tree,+Berchemia+Discolor&hl=en&client=firefox&hs=mbh&rls=com.yahoo:en-US:official&tbm=isch&tbo=u&source=univ&sa=X&ei=oqBZUcCtItbi4AOiq4DICg&ved=0CDMQsAQ&biw=1280&bih=854


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the bitter orange, Citrus x aurantium,

Post  Admin on Tue Jun 11, 2013 2:05 pm

Hi Everyone:

Here is a Commentary on Bountiful Trees and Vegetables God (YHWH) has provided for mankind, specifically the bitter orange, Citrus x aurantium, also known as Seville orange, sour orange, bigarade orange, and marmalade orange, refers to a citrus tree (Citrus × aurantium) and its fruit. It is hybrid between Citrus maxima and Citrus reticulata. Many varieties of bitter orange are used for their essential oil, which is used in perfume, as a flavoring and as a solvent. The Seville orange variety is used in the production of marmalade.

Bitter orange is also employed in herbal medicine as a stimulant and appetite suppressant. The active ingredient, synephrine, has been linked to a number of deaths, and consumer groups advocate avoiding medicinal use of the fruit.

Varieties
* Citrus x aurantium subsp. amara is a spiny evergreen tree native to southern Vietnam, but widely cultivated. It is used as grafting stock for citrus trees, in marmalade, and in liqueur such as triple sec, Grand Marnier and Curaçao. It is also cultivated for the essential oil expressed from the fruit, and for neroli oil and orange flower water, which are distilled from the flowers.
* Seville orange (or bigarade) is a widely-known, particularly tart orange which is now grown throughout the Mediterranean region. It has a thick, dimpled skin, and is prized for making marmalade, being higher in pectin than the sweet orange, and therefore giving a better set and a higher yield. It is also used in compotes and for orange-flavored liqueurs. Once a year, oranges of this variety are collected from trees in Seville and shipped to Britain to be used in marmalade. However, the fruit is rarely consumed locally in Andalusia.
* Chinotto, from the myrtle-leaved orange tree, C. aurantium var. myrtifolia, is used for the namesake Italian soda beverage. This is sometimes considered a separate species.
* Daidai, C. aurantium var. daidai, is used in Chinese medicine and Japanese New Year celebrations. The aromatic flowers are added to tea.
* Wild Florida sour orange is found near small streams in generally secluded and wooded parts of Florida and the Bahamas. It was introduced to the area from Spain.[9]
* Bergamot orange is probably a bitter orange and limetta hybrid; it is cultivated in Italy for the production of bergamot oil, a component of many brands of perfume and tea, especially Earl Grey tea.

Uses
This orange is used as a rootstock in groves of sweet orange. The fruit and leaves make lather and can be used as soap. The hard white or light yellow wood is used in woodworking and made into baseball bats in Cuba.

Cooking
The unripe fruit, called narthangai, is commonly used in Southern Indian cuisine, especially in Tamil cuisine. It is pickled by cutting it into spirals and stuffing it with salt. The pickle is usually consumed with yoghurt rice thayir sadam. The fresh fruit is also used frequently in pachadis. The juice from the ripe fruit is also used as a marinade for meat in Nicaraguan, Cuban, Dominican and Haitian cooking, as it was in Peruvian Ceviche until the 1960s. The peel can be used in the production of bitters. In Mexico, it is a main ingredient of the cochinita pibil.

The Belgian Witbier (white beer) is made from wheat spiced with the peel of the bitter orange. The Finnish and Swedish use bitter orange peel in gingerbread (pepparkakor), some Christmas bread and in mämmi. It is also used in the Nordic mulled wine glögg. In Greece and Cyprus, the nerántzi or kitrómilon, respectively, is one of the most prized fruits used for spoon sweets, and the C. aurantium tree (nerantziá or kitromiliá) is a popular ornamental tree. Throughout Iran, the juice is popularly used as a salad dressing, souring agent in stews and pickles or as a marinade. The blossoms are collected fresh to make a prized sweet-smelling aromatic jam ("Bitter orange blossom jam" Morabba Bahar-Narendj), or added to brewing tea. In Turkey, juice of the ripe fruits can be used as salad dressing, especially in Çukurova region.

Herbal stimulant
The extract of bitter orange (and bitter orange peel) has been marketed as dietary supplement purported to act as a weight-loss aid and appetite suppressant. Bitter orange contains the tyramine metabolites N-methyltyramine, octopamine and synephrine, substances similar to epinephrine, which act on the ?1 adrenergic receptor to constrict blood vessels and increase blood pressure and heart rate. There is no evidence that bitter orange is effective in promoting weight loss.

Following bans on the herbal stimulant ephedra in the U.S., Canada, and elsewhere, bitter orange has been substituted into "ephedra-free" herbal weight-loss products by dietary supplement manufacturers. Like most dietary supplement ingredients, bitter orange has not undergone formal safety testing, but it is believed to cause the same spectrum of adverse events as ephedra. Case reports have linked bitter orange supplements to strokes, angina, and ischemic colitis.[ The U.S. National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine found that "there is currently little evidence that bitter orange is safer to use than ephedra. Bitter orange may have serious drug interactions with drugs such as statins in a similar way to grapefruit.[18]
Following an incident in which a healthy young man suffered a myocardial infarction (heart attack) linked to bitter orange, a case study found that dietary supplement manufacturers who replaced ephedra with its analogs from "bitter orange" had in effect found a loophole in the ephedra ban, substituting a similarly dangerous substance while labeling the products as "ephedra-free. (source - retrieved from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Citrus_aurantium on 1/26/2013)

In Genesis 1:11-13, "And God said, Let the earth put forth grass, herbs yielding seed, and fruit-trees bearing fruit after their kind, wherein is the seed thereof, upon the earth: and it was so. 12 And the earth brought forth grass, herbs yielding seed after their kind, and trees bearing fruit, wherein is the seed thereof, after their kind: and God saw that it was good. 13 And there was evening and there was morning, a third day. (American Standard Version, ASV)[for more details, go to www.jw.org].

To see pictures of various types of bitter oranges, go to, http://www.bing.com/images/search?q=Citrus+aurantium&qpvt=Citrus+aurantium&FORM=IGRE

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the Bixa orellana (Annatto)

Post  Admin on Fri Jun 14, 2013 9:15 am

Hi Everyone:
 
Here is a Commentary on Bountiful Trees and Vegetables God (YHWH) has provided for mankind, specifically the Bixa orellana (Annatto)
 
Restrictions on the use of many synthetic colorants and the relative instability of most other carotenoids, are leading to the increasing use of bixin, especially in the dairy industry. World production, estimated at about 3,000 t of annatto seed in 1983 (Anand 1983), is now thought to have risen rapidly to over 10,000 t, about half of which comes from Brazil. Until recently, annatto (or urucum as it is known in Brazil) was little more than a back garden crop. However, high prices and the good yields have resulted in a few farmers planting it on a larger scale. Yields, after 4 years, can pass 2 t/ha with 0.9 to 6.9% (average about 2.5%) bixin covering the seeds in a sticky resin (Nicholson 1964, I. Guimaraes pers. commun.). Yields from seedling trees are very variable as the crop is cross pollinated. Variation in the exact composition of the colorants in the final extracted products limits marketability. Vegetative propagation is easy and should make rapid advances possible especially if the crop is selected for a combination of yield and bixin content. The relatively small market for colorants could quickly become saturated so there is interest in the potential of this rustic perennial crop as an alternative grain for growing on exhausted tropical soils. The high yield potential despite any scientific attempts at improvement, makes it a very promising crop.  (source - retrieved from   http://www.hort.purdue.edu/newcrop/proceedings1990/v1-367.html  on  3/29/2013)
 
 
Achiote (Bixa orellana) is a shrub or small tree originating from the tropical region of the Americas. The name derives from the Nahuatl word for the shrub, ?chiotl [a?'t??iot??]. It is also known as Aploppas, and its original Tupi name urucu. It is cultivated there and in Southeast Asia, where it was introduced by the Spanish in the 17th century. It is best known as the source of the natural pigment annatto, produced from the fruit. The plant bears pink flowers and bright red spiny fruits which contain red seeds. The fruits dry and harden to brown capsules.
 
It is of particular commercial value in the United States because the Food and Drug Administration considers annatto colorants made from it to be "exempt of certification". It is used as a colorant and condiment for traditional dishes such as cochinita pibil, rice, chicken in achiote and caldo de olla. It is also used to add color to butter, cheese, popcorn, drinks, and breads. The main achiote growers are Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, India, Jamaica, Mexico, Peru, Puerto Rico and Dominican Republic.
 
The inedible fruit is harvested for its seeds, which contain annatto, also called bixin. It can be extracted by stirring the seeds in water. It is used to color food products, such as cheeses, fish, and salad oil. Sold as a paste or powder for culinary use, mainly as a color, it is known as "achiote," "annatto," "bijol," or "pimentão doce." It is a main ingredient in the Yucatecan spice mixture recado rojo, or "achiote paste." The seeds are ground and used as a subtly flavored and colorful additive in Latin American, Jamaican, Chamorro and Filipino cuisine. Annatto is growing in popularity as a natural alternative to synthetic food coloring compounds. While it has a distinct flavor of its own, it can be used to color and flavor rice instead of the much more expensive saffron. It is an important ingredient of cochinita pibil, the spicy pork dish popular in Mexico. It is also a key ingredient in the drink tascalate from Chiapas, Mexico.
In several European countries (e.g. Great Britain, Denmark, Sweden, Norway) the pigment, extracted by solvent or boiling the seeds in oil, have been and often still is used as color in margarines and several other foods. The pigment has E-number E160b. The seeds are collected from wild-growing bushes or from plantations, in Latin America, Africa (e.g. Kenya) and Asia. However, since there is no strong organization promoting the use of annatto, the color beta carotene, which is more expensive, has pushed the natural pigment out of many applications.
 
Culinary uses
Achiote paste, favored in Yucatán, Oaxacan, and Belizean cuisine, is made from the slightly bitter, earthy flavored, red annatto seeds, mixed with other spices and ground into a paste. Achiote is a distinctly colored and flavored mainstay of Mexican and Belizean kitchens.
 
A typical preparation mixes:
* 1/4 cup annatto seeds
* 1 tablespoon coriander seeds
* 1 tablespoon oregano
* 1 teaspoon cumin seeds
* 1 teaspoon black peppercorns
* 2 whole cloves
* 1 teaspoon salt
* 5 cloves of garlic, peeled
* 1/2 cup bitter orange juice (Seville) or 1/3 cup white vinegar
 
Grind the spices (annatto, coriander, cumin, peppercorns, oregano and cloves) in a spice mill or with a mortar and pestle. Blend the ground spices with the salt, garlic and the bitter orange juice until it is smooth. Rub the mixture onto chicken, pork or fish and let it marinate for 4–6 hours then cook as usual. Or use the achiote as an ingredient in another dish.
 
The paste is dissolved in either lemon juice, water, oil or vinegar to create a marinade, and marinated or rubbed directly upon meat. The meat is then grilled, baked, barbecued or broiled. Sometimes it is added to corn dough to create a zesty flavor and color in empanadas and red tamales.
 
Ethnomedical uses
The achiote has long been used by American Indians to make body paint, especially for the lips, which is the origin of the plant's nickname, lipstick tree. The use of the dye in the hair by men of the Tsáchila of Ecuador is the origin of their usual Spanish name, the Colorados.
 
In developing countries, particularly in Colombia, people with low income and less access to modern medicine resources use folk medicine and natural remedies for the treatment of common infections. Achiote is among those herbs used in Colombian folk medicine to treat infections of microbial origin.[1] Adding to the known health benefits exerted by carotenoids, a bioactive sesquiterpene from achiote exhibited moderate anti-fungal activity.[2] Extracts of the leaves of achiote possess antimicrobial activity against Gram positive microorganisms, with maximum activity against Bacillus pumilus.[3] Achiote leaves have been employed to treat malaria and Leishmaniasis.
 
See also
* B. orellana and annatto
* Van Wyk, Ben-Erik (2005). Food Plants of the World. Portland, Oregon: Timber Press, Inc. ISBN 0-88192-743-0
 
References
1. ^ "Health benefits of Achiote (Bixa orellana)". Herbcyclopedia. Retrieved 14 Dec 2012.
2. ^ Raga, DD; Espiritu, RA; Shen, CC; Ragasa, CY (30 Sept 2010). "A bioactive sesquiterpene from Bixa orellana". J Nat Med (Tokyo: Springer) 65 (1): 206–211. doi:10.1007/s11418-010-0459-9. PMID 20882359. Retrieved 14 Dec 2012.
3. ^ Fleischera, T.C.; Ameadea, E.P.K.; Mensaha, M.L.K.; Sawerb, I.K. (Feb 2003). "Antimicrobial activity of the leaves and seeds of Bixa orellana". Fitoterapia (Elsevier) 74 (1-2): 136–138. doi:10.1016/S0367-326X(02)00289-7. Retrieved 14 Dec 2012.  (source - retrieved from   http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bixa_orellana  on  3/29/2013)
 
In Genesis 1:11-13, "And God said, Let the earth put forth grass, herbs yielding seed, and fruit-trees bearing fruit after their kind, wherein is the seed thereof, upon the earth: and it was so. 12 And the earth brought forth grass, herbs yielding seed after their kind, and trees bearing fruit, wherein is the seed thereof, after their kind: and God saw that it was good. 13 And there was evening and there was morning, a third day. (American Standard Version, ASV)[for more details, go to  www.jw.org].
 
View plant at,  http://florawww.eeb.uconn.edu/199300441.html
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Your Friend in Christ Iris89
 
Francis David said it long ago, "Neither the sword of popes...nor the image of death will halt the march of truth."Francis David, 1579, written on the wall of his prison cell." Read the book, "What Does The Bible Really Teach" and the Bible today, and go to www.jw.org!

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Re: Almighty God’s (YHWH) Great Gift to Mankind, The Rare Fruit Trees and Herbs

Post  Admin on Mon Jun 17, 2013 9:28 am

Hi Everyone:
 
Here is a Commentary on Bountiful Trees and Vegetables God (YHWH) has provided for mankind, specifically the Achachairu, (Garcinia humilis Vahl), Clusiaceae before designated Rheedia laterifolia.
 
The achachairu, formerly called Rheedia spp, belongs to the genus Garcinia . In 1703 , Plumier first discovered a species of this genus, with the name of Van Rheedia. This plant was described by Linnaeus en 1753  [source - retrieved from    http://translate.google.com/translate?hl=en&sl=pt&u=http://pt.wikipedia.org/wiki/Achachairu&prev=/search%3Fq%3Dachachairu%26client%3Dfirefox-a%26hs%3D6D3%26rls%3Dorg.mozilla:en-US:official   on  6/14/2013]
 
Appearance
The Achacha has an appealing colour and form and is very decorative. It is egg-shaped, up to 6cm long by 4cm in diameter. It takes on a reddish-orange shade when mature. There is usually one significant coffee-coloured seed, but larger fruit may have more than one seed. As an eco-friendly forest fruit which has not been through hundreds of generations of selective breeding, each one has its own personality and curves, with perhaps a few small bumps and marks on its skin which add interest to its appearance but do not affect its quality.
 
Eating the fruit
The fruit grows to around six centimetres in length and has a bright glossy orange surface around the edible white pulp, which in turn contains one or two brown seeds. The taste is described as both bitter and sweet.[2] The rather tough, bitter rind can be split open with a knife or with the teeth, and the edible part of the fruit sucked off the seed.
 
The Queensland Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry has found that the fruit keeps well for four to six weeks as long as it stays out of the fridge. It recommends storing the fruit at 15 to 20 degrees Celsius with a high relative humidity. If these conditions are not met, the fruit will shrivel.[3] Although, some people have found that placing this egg shaped fruit in the egg rack of a fridge does not harm the fruit in any way.
 
The glossy orange rinds of the Achacha may be put in a blender with water. Once pureed and then strained to remove all of the solids, this liquid may be diluted and sweetened to one's taste, then chilled for a refreshing summer drink.
 
Season
The Achacha is in season from December to mid-March.
 
Health
Even though there is no medical proof, traditional uses for the inedible portions of the Garcinia humilis fruit (seed, rind, etc.) include;
In Bolivia the skins are used as a hunger suppressant[4]
 
The honey that you make from it is used for medicinal purposes. In Bolivia it sells for 10 times the normal price of honey.
 
The inside of the skin is used to rub on marks (such as warts) on the skin to reduce them.
 
References
1. ^ FRUIT LOGISTICA update fruitlogistica.de
2. ^ About the Achacha achacha.com.au
3. ^ True Bolivia abc.net.au
4. ^ Can the skin be used? achacha.com.au]  [source - retrieved from    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Garcinia_humilis   on  6/14/2013]
 
In Genesis 1:11-13, "And God said, Let the earth put forth grass, herbs yielding seed, and fruit-trees bearing fruit after their kind, wherein is the seed thereof, upon the earth: and it was so. 12 And the earth brought forth grass, herbs yielding seed after their kind, and trees bearing fruit, wherein is the seed thereof, after their kind: and God saw that it was good. 13 And there was evening and there was morning, a third day. (American Standard Version, ASV)[for more details, go to  www.jw.org].
 
To view plant and fruit, go to,  https://www.google.com/search?q=achachairu&client=firefox-a&hs=8xN&sa=N&rls=org.mozilla:en-US:official&tbm=isch&tbo=u&source=univ&ei=Xd-7UZ6iPIjS9QTvw4C4AQ&ved=0CCwQsAQ4Cg&biw=1280&bih=833
 
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Your Friend in Christ Iris89
 
Francis David said it long ago, "Neither the sword of popes...nor the image of death will halt the march of truth."Francis David, 1579, written on the wall of his prison cell." Read the book, "What Does The Bible Really Teach" and the Bible today, and go to www.jw.org!

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Re: Almighty God’s (YHWH) Great Gift to Mankind, The Rare Fruit Trees and Herbs

Post  Admin on Wed Jun 19, 2013 9:33 am

Hi Everyone:
 
Here is a Commentary on Bountiful Trees and Vegetables God (YHWH) has provided for mankind, specifically the Black Chokeberry Aronia Melanocarpa
 
Black chokeberry is a deciduous shrub that grows to about 6 feet tall in bogs, swamps, wet woods and occasionally in dry sandy soil of oak woods and pine barrens. It can tolerate partial shade, but produces the most flowers and fruit, and the brightest red fall color, in full sun. Best suited for zones 4-9.
 
The leaves are up to 8 cm long, with finely serrated edges. The flowers bloom in May and are white, rounded and with a short claw. The flowers are in loose clusters of 8 to 10 up to 5 cm across.
 
The fruit, which matures by late August, is round, up to 12 mm across, dark purple to black, and in drooping clusters on long red stalks. The fruit is technically a “pome”, like an apple or pear, where the seeds are in a stiff core surrounded by fleshy tissue. The fruit is sour, even when ripe, so that it persists until midwinter as a “last resort” food source for songbirds, upland game birds and small mammals.
 
In northern Europe Aronia is commercially grown for bottled fruit juice. The fruit is valued for its juice which is very high in anthocyanins, blends well with other fruit juices and is reputed as a source of "phenols,
leucoanthocyanins, catachines, flavonoles, and flavones" that are considered to be bioactive in humans. In the US it’s growing in popularity as a landscape shrub since it tolerates both wet and dry soil, is attractive from spring through fall and resists most diseases and pests. (source - retrieved from  http://www.seedman.com/fruit.htm   on  4/1/2013)
 
 
In Genesis 1:11-13, "And God said, Let the earth put forth grass, herbs yielding seed, and fruit-trees bearing fruit after their kind, wherein is the seed thereof, upon the earth: and it was so. 12 And the earth brought forth grass, herbs yielding seed after their kind, and trees bearing fruit, wherein is the seed thereof, after their kind: and God saw that it was good. 13 And there was evening and there was morning, a third day. (American Standard Version, ASV)[for more details, go to  www.jw.org].
 
To learn more about this plant and to view it, go to,  http://plants.usda.gov/plantguide/pdf/pg_arme6.pdf
 
Now to know the truth, go to:
 
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2) http://www.network54.com/Forum/403209/
 
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4) http://religioustruths.boardhost.com/
 
5) http://religious-truths.forums.com/
 
6) http://religioustruthsbyiris.createmybb3.com/
 
7) http://religioustruths.forumotion.com/
 
 
Your Friend in Christ Iris89
 
Francis David said it long ago, "Neither the sword of popes...nor the image of death will halt the march of truth."Francis David, 1579, written on the wall of his prison cell." Read the book, "What Does The Bible Really Teach" and the Bible today, and go to www.jw.org!

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Re: Almighty God’s (YHWH) Great Gift to Mankind, The Rare Fruit Trees and Herbs

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