Almighty God’s (YHWH) Great Gift to Mankind, The Rare Fruit Trees and Herbs

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Re: Almighty God’s (YHWH) Great Gift to Mankind, The Rare Fruit Trees and Herbs

Post  Admin on Sun Jun 23, 2013 11:33 am

Hi Everyone:
 
Here is a Commentary on the Black Saporte, Diospyros Digyna, of the family Ebenaceae:
 
Genesis 1:29-30 And God said, Behold, I have given you every herb yielding seed, which is upon the face of all the earth, and every tree, in which is the fruit of a tree yielding seed; to you it shall be for food: 30 and to every beast of the earth, and to every bird of the heavens, and to everything that creepeth upon the earth, wherein there is life, [I have given] every green herb for food: and it was so. (American Standard Version)
 
The Black Saporte, Diospyros Digyna, is a handsome evergreen fruit tree, that produces a greenish-brown thin skined fruit that can be eaten fresh, but in my opinion is much better when used in baked goods. I know one German lady that makes the most tasteful Black Saporte brownies that taste even better than chocolate ones. I, myself, am a great cook, but unfortunately not the best baker.
 
The tree can grow to about 25 feet high with a width of 25 feet. Its leaves are very glossy dark green and appear as if someone polished them, leathery, alternate, with wavy margins. Originally the tree was a native to Mexico, but has spread throughout the warm areas of the tropics. Its flowers are quite small and white, and in Florida and the Caribbean it flowers in May and June. Unfortunately, it takes about nine months for the fruit to mature. I believe the ones on my tree will be ready in March.
 
The tree does not like cold and freezes at about 29 degrees F. Also the tree likes moist, well-drained soil having a pH of between 5.5 to 7.0. It likes full sun or light shade, and makes a wonderful addition to the looks of any tropical garden. This tree can not take drought conditions.
 
With respect propagation, seeds germinate in about 30 days, and seedling trees will fruit in about 5 years. The tree also does NOT have any serious pest problems. There is only one known variety, the Bell. The tree is sometimes called the Chocolate Pudding Fruit as the inside edible part of the fruit resembles chocolate pudding both with respect looks and taste when fully ripe, but has jet black seeds which chocolate pudding does not have. These seeds are very hard and one must be sure never to accidentally eat one. O'h the fruit is about the size of an orange.
 
Thus as can readily be seen, our heavenly Father (YHWH) has provided wonderful things of creation for our physical needs and made them also beautiful to behold.
 
Special note, Let's get a good discussion on the wonderful things of Creation God (YHWH) has provided for us. I have on this thread provided an excellent start. Let's get into growing wonders and not cults and negativity. I am a positive outgoing person and like everyone to be the same.
 
Now to know the truth, go to:
 
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2)    http://www.network54.com/Forum/403209/ 
 
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4)    http://religioustruths.boardhost.com/
 
5)    http://religious-truths.forums.com/
 
6)    http://religioustruthsbyiris.createmybb3.com/
 
7)    http://religioustruths.forumotion.com/
 
 
Your Friend in Christ Iris89
 
Francis David said it long ago, "Neither the sword of popes...nor the image of death will halt the march of truth."Francis David, 1579, written on the wall of his prison cell."   Read the book, "What Does The Bible Really Teach" and the Bible today!

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the Blackberry Jam Fruit, Randia Formosa,

Post  Admin on Tue Jun 25, 2013 6:06 pm

Hi Everyone:
 
Here is a Commentary on Bountiful Trees and Vegetables God (YHWH) has provided for mankind, specifically the Blackberry Jam Fruit, Randia Formosa, Synonyms: Mussaenda formosa, Randia mussaenda, of the Family Rubiaceae.  Common name: Blackberry Jam Fruit, Raspberry Bush, Jasmin de Rosa which originated in Central and South America.
 
Randia formosa is a rare tropical to subtropical fruit, growing as a small evergreen bushy shrub, usually only 4-5 ft tall in the ground and 3-4 ft in container. It can be also trained into a miniature tree. The plant is closely related to gardenia and produces 1.5-2" star shaped, very fragrant, tubular white flowers that attract nocturnal moths. Olive-shaped yellow fruits are woody shelled, about 1" size and look like small loquats. They can be easily crushed between teeth. The fruit contains two cells with small flat seeds surrounded by sweet black soft pulp tasting like "blackberry jam", beloved of children and adults.
 
Besides tasty fruit, the plant has many other GREAT FEATURES.
* Slow and compact grower. For years, it can be grown in 3-5 gal container, reaching 3-4 ft in height.
* Branching habit and a dense pretty foliage.
* Tolerates shade and will flower and fruit in filtered light, which is appreciated by container gardeners who grow these plants indoors or in a crowded greenhouse.
* Flowers are gardenia-like and have pleasant sweet fragrance, although not as strong as gardenias. When in bloom, the bush is all covered with star-shaped flowers.
* Starts fruiting in young age - 1-1.5 year from seed. 1-3 gallon container plants start blooming and fruiting when reach about 2 ft tall.
* Heavy producer. A small 3 ft plant in 3 gal container can bear as many as 25-30 fruit at a time. Blooming/fruiting period continues for a few months, new flowers appear while the first fruit start to ripen.
* Fall/winter bloomer. Enjoy fragrance and fruit when other plants are off-season!
* Likes container culture. It requires acidic soil and will feel happy in a well-drained potting mix.  [source - retrieved from  http://toptropicals.com/html/toptropicals/plant_wk/randia.htm  on  01/01/2013]
 
In Genesis 1:11-13, "And God said, Let the earth put forth grass, herbs yielding seed, and fruit-trees bearing fruit after their kind, wherein is the seed thereof, upon the earth: and it was so. 12 And the earth brought forth grass, herbs yielding seed after their kind, and trees bearing fruit, wherein is the seed thereof, after their kind: and God saw that it was good. 13 And there was evening and there was morning, a third day. (American Standard Version, ASV)[for more details, go to  www.jw.org].
 
Blackberry Jam Fruit can take both sun and shade. However, in filtered light leaves look healthier and greener.
 
The plant is relatively cold hardy and is said to withstand as low as 26F. However, young plants are more sensitive and should be protected from chill winds and frost. During cold period, watering should be reduced, otherwise leaves may become chlorotic - Randia formosa is very sensitive to over-watering particularly during cool season.
 
This species is reported to be drought tolerant, however, it requires regular watering until the plant is well-established. Young plants easily droop leaves if underwatered, they may even loose all the leaves overnight if the soil gets too dry! However, the plant usually recovers very quickly and new growth comes in a few days to a week.
 
In general, Randia formosa is easy in cultivation. The two most important requirements are - acidic soil and good drainage. If these two conditions are missing, most likely the leaves may turn chlorotic (yellow with green veins, see picture on the right) once there is a chance of a slight over-watering. This is not a fatal failure though, but effects the looks of the plant.
The best mixture for this plant is - 50:50 mix of perlite and peat moss (or coconut fiber). You may add some pine bark for a better drainage, too. Use slow-release fertilizer and apply microelements on regular basis to avoid possible chlorosis.
 
The Blackberry Jam Fruit is definitely a conversation piece, and tasting a "blackberry jam" from a gem of your rare fruit collection will always bring fun time for your family, friends and garden visitors. [source - retrieved from  http://toptropicals.com/html/toptropicals/plant_wk/randia.htm  on  01/01/2013]
How this tree and other plants absorb water from the ground.   Plants have developed an effective system to absorb, translocate, store, and utilize water.  Plants contain a vast network of conduits, which consists of xylem and phloem tissues.  These conducting tissues start in the roots and continue up through the trunks of trees, into the branches and then into every leaf.  Phloem tissue is made of living elongated cells that are connected to one another and responsible for translocating nutrients and sugars (carbohydrates), which are produced by leaves for energy and growth.  The xylem is also composed of elongated cells but once the cells are formed, they die.  The walls of the xylem cells still remain intact and serve as an excellent peipline to transport water from the roots to the leaves.
 
The main driving force of water uptake and transport into a plant is transpiration of water from leaves through specialized openings called stomata.  Heat from the sun causes the water to evaporate, setting this ‘water chain’ in motion.  The evaporation creates a negative water vapor pressure.  Water is pulled into the leaf to replace the water that has transpired from the leaf.  This pulling of water, or tension, occurs in the xylem of the leaf.  Since the xylem is a continuous water column that extends from the leaf to the roots, this negative water pressure extends into the roots and results in water uptake from the soil.  [adapted from: http://www.scientificamerican.com/article.cfm?id=follow-up-how-do-trees-ca ]
 
Clearly this clever water transport system shows a superior intelligence of the Creator (YHWH).
 
 
Now to know the truth, go to:
 
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2) http://www.network54.com/Forum/403209/
 
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5) http://religious-truths.forums.com/
 
6) http://religioustruthsbyiris.createmybb3.com/
 
7) http://religioustruths.forumotion.com/
 
 
Your Friend in Christ Iris89
 
Francis David said it long ago, "Neither the sword of popes...nor the image of death will halt the march of truth."Francis David, 1579, written on the wall of his prison cell." Read the book, "What Does The Bible Really Teach" and the Bible today, and go to www.jw.org!

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Bitter Melon, Momordica charantia,

Post  Admin on Fri Jun 28, 2013 9:07 am


Hi Everyone:

Here is a Commentary on Bountiful Trees and Vegetables God (YHWH) has provided for mankind, specifically the, Bitter Melon, Momordica charantia, often called bitter gourd or bitter squash in English, has many other local names. Goya[1] from the indigenous language of Okinawa and karavella[2] from Sanskrit are also used by English-language speakers.
It is a tropical and subtropical vine of the family Cucurbitaceae, widely grown in Asia, Africa, and the Caribbean for its edible fruit, which is among the most bitter of all fruits.[citation needed] Its many varieties differ substantially in the shape and bitterness of the fruit.
Bitter melon originated on the Indian subcontinent, and was carried to China in the 14th century.[3]

Cautions
The seeds of bitter melon contains vicine, so can trigger symptoms of favism in susceptible individuals. In addition, the red arils of the seeds are reported to be toxic to children, and the fruit is contraindicated during pregnancy.[36]
It is only potentially toxic only at an extremely large quantity,[37] such as possibly overdosing from concentrated bitter gourd capsules.[38] However, there has never been any case of toxic reactions reported after the vegetable is eaten as is normally prepared as food.[38]

Description
This herbaceous, tendril-bearing vine grows to 5 m. It bears simple, alternate leaves 4–12 cm across, with three to seven deeply separated lobes. Each plant bears separate yellow male and female flowers. In the Northern Hemisphere, flowering occurs during June to July and fruiting during September to November.
The fruit has a distinct warty exterior and an oblong shape. It is hollow in cross-section, with a relatively thin layer of flesh surrounding a central seed cavity filled with large, flat seeds and pith. The fruit is most often eaten green, or as it is beginning to turn yellow. At this stage, the fruit's flesh is crunchy and watery in texture, similar to cucumber, chayote or green bell pepper, but bitter. The skin is tender and edible. Seeds and pith appear white in unripe fruits; they are not intensely bitter and can be removed before cooking.
As the fruit ripens, the flesh (rind) becomes tougher, more bitter, and too distasteful to eat. On the other hand, the pith becomes sweet and intensely red; it can be eaten uncooked in this state, and is a popular ingredient in some Southeast Asian salads.
When the fruit is fully ripe, it turns orange and mushy, and splits into segments which curl back dramatically to expose seeds covered in bright red pulp.
Varieties
Bitter melon comes in a variety of shapes and sizes. The Chinese variety is 20–30 cm long, oblong with bluntly tapering ends and pale green in color, with a gently undulating, warty surface. The bitter melon more typical of India has a narrower shape with pointed ends, and a surface covered with jagged, triangular "teeth" and ridges. It is green to white in color. Between these two extremes are any number of intermediate forms. Some bear miniature fruit of only 6–10 cm in length, which may be served individually as stuffed vegetables. These miniature fruit are popular in India, Nepal and elsewhere in Southeast Asia.

Culinary uses

A small green bitter melon (front) and a scoop of Okinawan stir-fried gōyā chanpurū (back)
Bitter gourd pods
boiled, drained, no salt
Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz)
Energy
79 kJ (19 kcal)
Carbohydrates
4.32 g
- Sugars
1.95 g
- Dietary fiber
2 g
Fat
0.18 g
Protein
0.84 g
Water
93.95 g
Vitamin A equiv.
6 μg (1%)
- beta-carotene
68 μg (1%)
- lutein and zeaxanthin
1323 μg
Thiamine (vit. B1)
0.051 mg (4%)
Riboflavin (vit. B2)
0.053 mg (4%)
Niacin (vit. B3)
0.28 mg (2%)
Pantothenic acid (B5)
0.193 mg (4%)
Vitamin B6
0.041 mg (3%)
Folate (vit. B9)
51 μg (13%)
Vitamin C
33 mg (40%)
Vitamin E
0.14 mg (1%)
Vitamin K
4.8 μg (5%)
Calcium
9 mg (1%)
Iron
0.38 mg (3%)
Magnesium
16 mg (5%)
Manganese
0.086 mg (4%)
Phosphorus
36 mg (5%)
Potassium
319 mg (7%)
Sodium
6 mg (0%)
Zinc
0.77 mg (8%)
Link to USDA Database entry
Percentages are relative to
US recommendations for adults.
Source: USDA Nutrient Database

Bitter melon is generally consumed cooked in the green or early yellowing stage. The young shoots and leaves of the bitter melon may also be eaten as greens.
Bitter melon is often used in Chinese cooking for its bitter flavor, typically in stir-fries (often with pork and douchi), soups, and also in tisanes. It has also been used in place of hops as the bittering ingredient in some Chinese and Okinawan beers.[4]
It is very popular throughout South Asia. In Northern India, it is often prepared with potatoes and served with yogurt on the side to offset the bitterness, or used in sabzi. In North Indian cuisine, it is stuffed with spices and then cooked in oil. In Southern India, it is used in the dishes thoran/thuvaran (mixed with grated coconut), theeyal (cooked with roasted coconut) and pachadi (which is considered a medicinal food for diabetics). Other popular recipes include preparations with curry, deep fried with peanuts or other ground nuts, and Pachi Pulusu, a soup with fried onions and other spices.In Tamil Nadu, a special preparation in Brahmins' cuisine called pagarkai pitla a kind of sour koottu variety is very popular. Also popular is kattu pagarkkai a curry stuffed with onions, cooked lentil and grated coconut mix, tied with thread and fried in oil. In Konkan region of Maharashtra, salt is added to finely chopped bitter gourd and then it is squeezed, removing its bitter juice to some extent.After frying this with different spices, less bitter and crispy preparation is served with grated coconut.
In Pakistan and Bangladesh, bitter melon is often cooked with onions, red chili powder, turmeric powder, salt, coriander powder, and a pinch of cumin seeds. Another dish in Pakistan calls for whole, unpeeled bitter melon to be boiled and then stuffed with cooked ground beef, served with either hot tandoori bread, naan, chappati, or with khichri (a mixture of lentils and rice).
Bitter melon is a significant ingredient in Okinawan cuisine, and is increasingly used in mainland Japan. It is popularly credited with Okinawan life expectancies being higher than the already long Japanese ones.
In Indonesia, bitter melon is prepared in various dishes, such as gado-gado, and also stir fried, cooked in coconut milk, or steamed.
In Vietnam, raw bitter melon slices consumed with dried meat floss and bitter melon soup with shrimp are popular dishes. Bitter melons stuffed with ground pork are served as a popular summer soup in the south. It is also used as the main ingredient of "stewed bitter melon". This dish is usually cooked for the Tết holiday, where its "bitter" name is taken as a reminder of the poor living conditions experienced in the past.
In the Philippines, bitter melon may be stir-fried with ground beef and oyster sauce, or with eggs and diced tomato. The dish pinakbet, popular in the Ilocos region of Luzon, consists mainly of bitter melons, eggplant, okra, string beans, tomatoes, lima beans, and other various regional vegetables altogether stewed with a little bagoong-based stock.
In Nepal, bitter melon is prepared as a fresh pickle called achar. For this, the bitter gourd is cut into cubes or slices and sautéed covered in oil and a sprinkle of water. When it is softened and reduced, it is minced in a mortar with a few cloves of garlic, salt and a red or green pepper. It is also sautéed to golden-brown, stuffed, or as a curry on its own or with potatoes.
In Trinidad and Tobago bitter melons are usually sauteed with onion, garlic and scotch bonnet pepper until almost crisp.
Medicinal uses
Bitter melon has been used in various Asian and African herbal medicine systems for a long time.[6][7][8] In Turkey, it has been used as a folk remedy for a variety of ailments, particularly stomach complaints.[9][10] The fruit is broken up and soaked in either olive oil or honey.
Active substances
The plant contains several biologically active compounds, chiefly momordicin I and momordicin II, and cucurbitacin B.[11] The plant also contains several bioactive glycosides (including momordin, charantin, charantosides, goyaglycosides, momordicosides) and other terpenoid compounds (including momordicin-28, momordicinin, momordicilin, momordenol, and momordol).[12][13][14][15][16] It also contains cytotoxic (ribosome-inactivating) proteins such as momorcharin and momordin.[17]
Anticancer
Two compounds extracted from bitter melon, α-eleostearic acid (from seeds) and 15,16-dihydroxy-α-eleostearic acid (from the fruit) have been found to induce apoptosis of leukemia cells in vitro.[18] Diets containing 0.01% bitter melon oil (0.006% as α-eleostearic acid) were found to prevent azoxymethane-induced colon carcinogenesis in rats.[19]
Researchers at Saint Louis University claim an extract from bitter melon, commonly eaten and known as karela in India, causes a chain of events which helps to kill breast cancer cells and prevents them from multiplying.[20] [21]
Antihelmintic
Bitter melon is used as a folk medicine in Togo to treat gastrointestinal diseases, and extracts have shown activity in vitro against the nematode worm Caenorhabditis elegans.[7]
Antimalarial
Bitter melon is traditionally regarded in Asia as useful for preventing and treating malaria. Tea from its leaves is used for this purpose also in Panama and Colombia. In Guyana, bitter melons are boiled and stir-fried with garlic and onions. This popular side dish known as corilla is served to prevent malaria. Laboratory studies have confirmed that species related to bitter melon have antimalarial activity, though human studies have not yet been published.[22]
Antiviral
In Togo, the plant is traditionally used against viral diseases such as chickenpox and measles. Tests with leaf extracts have shown in vitro activity against the herpes simplex type 1 virus, apparently due to unidentified compounds other than the momordicins.[7]
Laboratory tests suggest compounds in bitter melon might be effective for treating HIV infection.[23] As most compounds isolated from bitter melon that impact HIV have either been proteins or lectins, neither of which are well-absorbed, it is unlikely that oral intake of bitter melon will slow HIV in infected people. Oral ingestion of bitter melon possibly could offset negative effects of anti-HIV drugs, if an in vitro study can be shown to be applicable to people.[24]
Cardioprotective
Studies in mice indicate bitter melon seed may have a cardioprotective effect by down-regulating the NF-κB inflammatory pathway.[25]
Diabetes
In 1962, Lolitkar and Rao extracted from the plant a substance, which they called charantin, which had hypoglycaemic effect on normal and diabetic rabbits.[26] Another principle, active only on diabetic rabbits, was isolated by Visarata and Ungsurungsie in 1981.[27] Bitter melon has been found to increase insulin sensitivity.[28] In 2007, a study by the Philippine Department of Health determined a daily dose of 100 mg per kilogram of body weight is comparable to 2.5 mg/kg of the antidiabetes drug glibenclamide taken twice per day.[29] Tablets of bitter melon extract are sold in the Philippines as a food supplement and exported to many countries.[29]
Other compounds in bitter melon have been found to activate the AMPK, the protein that regulates glucose uptake (a process which is impaired in diabetics).[30][31][32][33][34]
Bitter melon also contains a lectin that has insulin-like activity due to its nonprotein-specific linking together to insulin receptors. This lectin lowers blood glucose concentrations by acting on peripheral tissues and, similar to insulin's effects in the brain, suppressing appetite. This lectin is likely a major contributor to the hypoglycemic effect that develops after eating bitter melon. As bitter melon is extremely bitter if eaten raw, it must be cooked to make it palatable.
Weight loss
In combination with Chinese yam, bitter melon has been shown to contribute to weight loss. Over a period of 23 weeks, those eating the diet containing bitter melon lost 7 kilos.[35]
Other uses
Bitter melon has been used in traditional medicine for several other ailments, including dysentery, colic, fevers, burns, painful menstruation, scabies and other skin problems. It has also been used as abortifacient, for birth control, and to help childbirth.[7]
References
1. ^ Tritten, Travis J. (March 9, 2011). "State Dept. official in Japan fired over alleged derogatory remarks". Stars and Stripes. Retrieved September 12, 2012.
2. ^ "karela - WordReference.com Dictionary of English". Wordreference.com. Retrieved 2012-08-15.
3. ^ Bagchi, Indrani (11 April 2005). "Food for thought: Green 'karela' for Red China". Times of India.
4. ^ For example, Goya Dry by Helios brewery of Okinawa
5. ^ Lim, T. K. (2013). Edible medicinal and non-medicinal plants. Dordrecht: Springer. pp. 331–332. ISBN 9789400717640.
6. ^ Grover, J. K.; Yadav, S. P. (2004). "Pharmacological actions and potential uses of Momordica charantia: A review". Journal of Ethnopharmacology 93 (1): 123–132. doi:10.1016/j.jep.2004.03.035. PMID 15182917. edit
7. ^ a b c d Beloin, N.; Gbeassor, M.; Akpagana, K.; Hudson, J.; De Soussa, K.; Koumaglo, K.; Arnason, J. T. (2005). "Ethnomedicinal uses of Momordica charantia (Cucurbitaceae) in Togo and relation to its phytochemistry and biological activity". Journal of Ethnopharmacology 96 (1–2): 49–55. doi:10.1016/j.jep.2004.08.009. PMID 15588650. edit
8. ^ Ananya Paul and Sarmistha Sen Raychaudhuri (2010), Medicinal uses and molecular identification of two Momordica charantia varieties – a review. Electronic Journal of Biology, volume 6, issue 2, pages 43-51.
9. ^ "Kudret Narı Faydaları". Beslenme Desteği. Retrieved 2011-10-03.
10. ^ Semiz, A, Sen A. (February 2007). "Antioxidant and chemoprotective properties of Momordica charantia L. (bitter melon) fruit extract". African Journal of Biotechnology 6 (3): 273–277.
11. ^ Fatope, Majekodunmi; Takeda, Yoshio; Yamashita, Hiroyasu; Okabe, Hikaru; Yamauchi, Tatsuo (1990). "New cucurbitane triterpenoids from Momordica charantia". Journal of Natural Products 53 (6): 1491–1497.
12. ^ Begum, Sabira; Ahmed, Mansour; Siddiqui, Bina S.; Khan, Abdullah; Saify, Zafar S.; Arif, Mohammed (1997). "Triterpenes, a sterol, and a monocyclic alcohol from Momordica charantia". Phytochemistry 44 (7): 1313–1320.
13. ^ Okabe, H.; Miyahara, Y.; Yamauci, T. (1982). "Studies on the constituents of Momordica charantia L.". Chemical Pharmacology Bulletin 30 (12): 4334–4340.
14. ^ Kimura, Yumiko; Akihisa, Toshihiro; Yuasa, Noriko; Ukiya, Motohiko; Suzuki, Takashi; Toriyama, Masaharu; Motohashi, Shigeyasu; Tokuda, Harukuni (2005). "Cucurbitane-type triterpenoids from the fruit of Momordica charantia". Journal of Natural Products 68 (5): 807–809. doi:10.1021/np040218p.
15. ^ Chang, Chi-I; Chen, Chiy-Rong; Liao, Yun-Wen; Cheng, Hsueh-Ling; Chen, Yo-Chia; Chou, Chang-Hung (2008). "Cucurbitane-type triterpenoids from the stems of Momordica charantia". Journal of Natural Products 71 (Cool: 1327–1330. doi:10.1021/np070532u.
16. ^ Akihisa, Toshihiro; Higo, Naoki; Tokuda, Harukuni; Ukiya, Motohiko; Akazawa, Hiroyuki; Tochigi, Yuichi; Kimura, Yumiko; Suzuki, Takashi et al. (2007). "Cucurbitane-type triterpenoids from the fruits of Momordica charantia and their cancer chemopreventive effects". Journal of Natural Products 70: 1233–1239. doi:10.1021/np068075p. PMID 17685651.
17. ^ Ortigao, Marcelo; Better, Marc (1992). "Momordin II, a ribosome inactivating protein from Momordica balsamina, is homologous to other plant proteins". Nucleic Acids Research 20 (17): 4662.
18. ^ Kobori, M.; Ohnishi-Kameyama, M.; Akimoto, Y.; Yukizaki, C.; Yoshida, M. (2008). "Α-Eleostearic Acid and Its Dihydroxy Derivative Are Major Apoptosis-Inducing Components of Bitter Gourd". Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 56 (22): 10515–10520. doi:10.1021/jf8020877. PMID 18959405. edit
19. ^ H. Kohno, Y. Yasui, R. Suzuki, M. Hosokawa, K. Miyashita, T. Tanaka (2004), Dietary seed oil rich in conjugated linolenic acid from bitter melon inhibits azoxymethane-induced rat colon carcinogenesis through elevation of colonic PPAR γ expression and alteration of lipid composition. International Journal of Cancer, volume 110, pages 896–901.
20. ^ Ratna Ray "Possible Cancer Cure in 'Karela', also known as Bitter Melon", The Chakra, 26 February 2010.
21. ^ Ray RB, Raychoudhuri A, Steele R, Nerurkar P. "Bitter Melon (Momordica charantia) Extract Inhibits Breast Cancer Cell Proliferation by Modulating Cell Cycle Regulatory Genes and Promotes Apoptosis". Cancer Res., 2010 Mar 1;70(5):1925–31.
22. ^ Waako PJ, Gumede B, Smith P, Folb PI (May 2005). "The in vitro and in vivo antimalarial activity of Cardiospermum halicacabum L. and Momordica foetida Schumch. Et Thonn". J Ethnopharmacol 99 (1): 137–43. doi:10.1016/j.jep.2005.02.017. PMID 15848033.
23. ^ Jiratchariyakul W, Wiwat C, Vongsakul M et al. (June 2001). "HIV inhibitor from Thai bitter gourd". Planta Med. 67 (4): 350–3. doi:10.1055/s-2001-14323. PMID 11458453.
24. ^ Nerurkar PV, Lee YK, Linden EH et al. (August 2006). "Lipid lowering effects of Momordica charantia (Bitter Melon) in HIV-1-protease inhibitor-treated human hepatoma cells, HepG2". Br. J. Pharmacol. 148 (Cool: 1156–64. doi:10.1038/sj.bjp.0706821. PMC 1752016. PMID 16847441.
25. ^ Gadang, V; Gilbert, W; Hettiararchchy, N; Horax, R; Katwa, L; Devareddy, L (2011). "Dietary bitter melon seed increases peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ gene expression in adipose tissue, down-regulates the nuclear factor-κB expression, and alleviates the symptoms associated with metabolic syndrome". Journal of medicinal food 14 (1–2): 86–93. doi:10.1089/jmf.2010.0010. PMID 21128828.
26. ^ M. M. Lolitkar and M. R. Rajarama Rao (1962), Note on a Hypoglycaemic Principle Isolated from the fruits of Momordica charantia. Journal of the University of Bombay, volume 29, pages 223-224
27. ^ Visarata, N.; Ungsurungsie, M. (1981). "Extracts fromMomordica charantiaL". Pharmaceutical Biology 19 (2–3): 75. doi:10.3109/13880208109070580. edit
28. ^ Sridhar MG, Vinayagamoorthi R, Arul Suyambunathan V, Bobby Z, Selvaraj N (2008-04-01). "Bitter gourd (Momordica charantia) improves insulin sensitivity by increasing skeletal muscle insulin-stimulated IRS-1 tyrosine phosphorylation in high-fat-fed rats". British Journal of Nutrition 99 (4): 806–12. doi:10.1017/S000711450783176X. PMID 17942003.
29. ^ a b "Ampalaya tablets out soon for diabetics". GMANews.TV. March 27, 2007. Retrieved August 12, 2010.
30. ^ Tan, Min-Jia; Ji-Ming Ye, Nigel Turner, Cordula Hohnen-Behrens, Chang-Qiang Ke, Chun-Ping Tang, Tong Chen, Hans-Christoph Weiss, Ernst-Rudolf Gesing, Alex Rowland, David E. James, and Yang Ye (21 March 2008). "Antidiabetic Activities of Triterpenoids Isolated from Bitter Melon Associated with Activation of the AMPK Pathway". Chemistry & Biology 15 (3): 263–73. doi:10.1016/j.chembiol.2008.01.013. PMID 18355726.
31. ^ Virdi J, Sivakami S, Shahani S, Suthar AC, Banavalikar MM, Biyani MK. (September 2003). "Antihyperglycemic effects of three extracts from Momordica charantia". J Ethnopharmacol 88 (1): 107–11. doi:10.1016/S0378-8741(03)00184-3. PMID 12902059.
32. ^ Shetty AK, Kumar GS, Sambaiah K, Salimath PV (September 2005). "Effect of bitter gourd (Momordica charantia) on glycaemic status in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats". Plant Foods Hum Nutr. 60 (3): 109–12. doi:10.1007/s11130-005-6837-x. PMID 16187012.
33. ^ Krawinkel MB, Keding GB (July 2006). "Bitter gourd (Momordica Charantia): A dietary approach to hyperglycemia". Nutr Rev. 64 (7 Pt 1): 331–7. PMID 16910221.
34. ^ Miura T, Itoh C, Iwamoto N, Kato M, Kawai M, Park SR, Suzuki I (October 2001). "Hypoglycemic activity of the fruit of the Momordica charantia in type 2 diabetic mice". J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo) 47 (5): 340–4. PMID 11814149.
35. ^ "My Microbiome and Me", Mara Hvistendahl, Science, vol. 336, page 1248–1250, 8 June 2012.
36. ^ "About Herbs: Bitter Melon". Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center. Retrieved 2007-12-27.
37. ^ 1997, Department of Horticultural Science, North Carolina State University
38. ^ a b 2011, Bio-active compounds of bitter melon genotypes (Dept. of Agriculture, U. of Arkansas) [source - retrieved from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Momordica_charantia on 6/27/2013]

In Genesis 1:11-13, "And God said, Let the earth put forth grass, herbs yielding seed, and fruit-trees bearing fruit after their kind, wherein is the seed thereof, upon the earth: and it was so. 12 And the earth brought forth grass, herbs yielding seed after their kind, and trees bearing fruit, wherein is the seed thereof, after their kind: and God saw that it was good. 13 And there was evening and there was morning, a third day. (American Standard Version, ASV)[for more details, go to www.jw.org].
View at, http://images.search.yahoo.com/yhs/search?_adv_prop=image&fr=yhs-Babylon-002&va=momordica+charantia&hspart=Babylon&hsimp=yhs-002

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the blue marble, elaeocarpus garnitrus.

Post  Admin on Sun Jun 30, 2013 6:16 pm

Hi Everyone:

Here is a Commentary on Bountiful Trees and Vegetables God (YHWH) has provided for mankind, specifically the blue marble, elaeocarpus garnitrus.

Elaeocarpus is a genus of tropical and subtropical evergreen trees and shrubs. The approximately 350 species are distributed from Madagascar in the west through India, Southeast Asia, Malaysia, southern China, and Japan, through Australia to New Zealand, Fiji, and Hawaii in the east. The islands of Borneo and New Guinea have the greatest concentration of species. These trees are well-known for their attractive, pearl-like fruit which are often colorful.
Many species are threatened, in particular by habitat loss.

In Darjeeling and Sikkim areas, the fruit of several species of Elaeocarpus is called bhadrasey and is used to make pickles and chutney.
Selected species

Elaeocarpus dentatus foliage


Elaeocarpus hainanensis flowers
* Elaeocarpus aberrans
* Elaeocarpus acmosepalus
* Elaeocarpus acrantherus
* Elaeocarpus acuminatus – (India. Endangered.)
* Elaeocarpus acutifidus
* Elaeocarpus amboinensis
* Elaeocarpus amoenus – (Sri Lanka)
* Elaeocarpus amplifolius
* Elaeocarpus angustifolius – Blue Marble Tree, Blue Fig, Blue Quandong
* Elaeocarpus apiculatus
* Elaeocarpus bancroftii
* Elaeocarpus bifidus – Kalia (O?ahu, Kaua?i, Hawai'i)[1][2]
* Elaeocarpus biflorus
* Elaeocarpus blascoi
* Elaeocarpus bojeri – (Mauritius)
* Elaeocarpus brigittae
* Elaeocarpus calomala – Anakle, Binting-dalaga, Bunsilak
* Elaeocarpus castanaefolius
* Elaeocarpus ceylanicus
* Elaeocarpus colnettianus
* Elaeocarpus coorangooloo – (Queensland Australia)
* Elaeocarpus cordifolius
* Elaeocarpus coriaceus
* Elaeocarpus costatus – (Lord Howe Island)
* Elaeocarpus crassus – (New Guinea)
* Elaeocarpus cruciatus
* Elaeocarpus debruynii – (New Guinea)
* Elaeocarpus decipiens
* Elaeocarpus dentatus – H?nau
* Elaeocarpus dinagatensis
* Elaeocarpus eriobotryoides
* Elaeocarpus eumundi – (Australia)
* Elaeocarpus ferrugineus – (Malaysia, Borneo)
* Elaeocarpus floribundus – (Java Indonesia, Malesia)
* Elaeocarpus fraseri
* Elaeocarpus floribundus
* Elaeocarpus ganitrus – Rudraksha Tree
* Elaeocarpus gaussenii
* Elaeocarpus gigantifolius
* Elaeocarpus glabrescens
* Elaeocarpus glandulifer
* Elaeocarpus graeffii
* Elaeocarpus grandiflorus – (India, Indo-China, Malaysia, Malesia in general)
* Elaeocarpus hainanensis – (Hainan)
* Elaeocarpus hartleyi – (New Guinea)
* Elaeocarpus hedyosmus – (Sri Lanka)
* Elaeocarpus holopetalus – (New South Wales, Victoria, Australia)
* Elaeocarpus homalioides
* Elaeocarpus hookerianus – P?k?k?. (New Zealand)
* Elaeocarpus hygrophilus – (Thailand)
* Elaeocarpus inopinatus
* Elaeocarpus integrifolius
* Elaeocarpus japonicus – (Japan, Taiwan, China; tree up to 15m)
* Elaeocarpus johnsonii
* Elaeocarpus joga Merr. – Yoga Tree
* Elaeocarpus kaalensis
* Elaeocarpus kirtonii – (Australia)
* Elaeocarpus lanceifolius – (South Asia)
* Elaeocarpus mastersii
* Elaeocarpus miegei – (New Guinea, Bismarck Archipelago, Solomon Islands, Aru Islands and Melville Island Australia)
* Elaeocarpus mindoroensis
* Elaeocarpus miriensis
* Elaeocarpus miratii
* Elaeocarpus montanus – (Sri Lanka)
* Elaeocarpus moratii
* Elaeocarpus munronii
* Elaeocarpus nanus
* Elaeocarpus neobritannicus – (New Guinea, Bismarck Archipelago)
* Elaeocarpus oblongus
* Elaeocarpus obovatus – (Australia)
* Elaeocarpus obtusus
* Elaeocarpus petiolatus
* Elaeocarpus photiniaefolius – (Ogasawara Islands)
* Elaeocarpus prunifolius
* Elaeocarpus pseudopaniculatus
* Elaeocarpus recurvatus
* Elaeocarpus reticosus
* Elaeocarpus reticulatus – Blueberry Ash
* Elaeocarpus robustus – (India, Bangladesh)
* Elaeocarpus royenii
* Elaeocarpus rugosus
* Elaeocarpus sallehiana
* Elaeocarpus sedentarius (synonym: E. sp. Rocky Creek)
* Elaeocarpus serratus – (South Asia)
* Elaeocarpus sikkimensis – (India, Bhutan)
* Elaeocarpus simaluensis
* Elaeocarpus sphaericus
* Elaeocarpus stipularis – (Indo-China, Malesia)
* Elaeocarpus storckii Seem. – Fiji
* Elaeocarpus subvillosus
* Elaeocarpus sylvestris – tree up to 15m; (Japan, Taiwan, China, Indo-China).
o var. ellipticus – Japanese: Horutonoki (ja)
* Elaeocarpus symingtonii
* Elaeocarpus taprobanicus – (Sri Lanka)
* Elaeocarpus timikensis – (New Guinea)
* Elaeocarpus tuberculatus
* Elaeocarpus variabilis – (Southern India)
* Elaeocarpus valetonii
* Elaeocarpus venosus
* Elaeocarpus venustus
* Elaeocarpus verruculosus
* Elaeocarpus verticellatus
* Elaeocarpus viscosus
* Elaeocarpus whartonensis
* Elaeocarpus williamsianus – (NSW, Australia, rare)
* Elaeocarpus xanthodactylus
* Elaeocarpus zambalensis


References

Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Elaeocarpus
* Coode, M J E (2001). "Elaeocarpus in New Guinea - new taxa in the Debruynii subgroup of the Monocera group. Contributions to the Flora of Mt Jaya, V". Kew Bulletin, Kew, United Kingdom.
* Red Data Book of Indian Plants. Botanical Survey of India.
* Zmarzty, Sue (2001). "Revision of Elaeocarpus (Elaeocarpaceae) section Elaeocarpus in southern India and Sri Lanka" Kew Bulletin, Kew, United Kingdom.
1. ^ "Kalia". Native Hawaiian Plants. Kapi?olani Community College. Retrieved 2009-02-28.
2. ^ "Kalia". Hawaiian Ethnobotany Database. Bernice P. Bishop Museum. Retrieved 2009-02-28. [source - retrieved from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Elaeocarpus on 5/23/2013]

Blue Marble Tree is a fast growing, large, spreading, distinctive, rainforest tree, growing to 35 m tall. It is native to Australia. Alternately arranged oblong-elliptical leaves, 10-18 cm long, have shallow, toothed margins. Leaves are dark green above. Flowers are greenish or white, bell-shaped, with 5 fringed petals, in numerous racemes borne along branches from leaf scars. The white flowers in summer are followed by metallic blue fruits 3 cm diameter, which contain a hard pitted centre. Fruit stones were used by native Australians for necklaces. The natives were known to make up an edible paste of the ripe fruit by squashing them into a bark trough filled with water. [source - retrieved from http://flowersofindia.net/catalog/slides/Blue%20Marble%20Tree.html on 5/23 /2013]

In Genesis 1:11-13, "And God said, Let the earth put forth grass, herbs yielding seed, and fruit-trees bearing fruit after their kind, wherein is the seed thereof, upon the earth: and it was so. 12 And the earth brought forth grass, herbs yielding seed after their kind, and trees bearing fruit, wherein is the seed thereof, after their kind: and God saw that it was good. 13 And there was evening and there was morning, a third day. (American Standard Version, ASV)[for more details, go to www.jw.org].

To see pictures of this and other rare fruit, go to, http://images.search.yahoo.com/search/images?_adv_prop=image&fr=chr-greentree_ff&va=blue+marble%2C+elaeocarpus+ganitrus

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Your Friend in Christ Iris89

Francis David said it long ago, "Neither the sword of popes...nor the image of death will halt the march of truth."Francis David, 1579, written on the wall of his prison cell." Read the book, "What Does The Bible Really Teach" and the Bible today, and go to www.jw.org!

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the Blue sourplum Ximenia Americana

Post  Admin on Wed Jul 03, 2013 9:34 am

Hi Everyone:

Here is a Commentary on Bountiful Trees and Vegetables God (YHWH) has provided for mankind, specifically the Blue sourplum Ximenia Americana

Grows to be a 3m shrub. Pale grey bark, purple-red branches with waxy blooms. Yellowish-green/whitish flowers during Summer-Autumn. Yellow/red fruit, edible.

Sow Spring. Zone 10. (source - retrieved from http://www.seedman.com/fruit.htm on 4/4/2013)


Ximenia oil
Ximenia seed oil is rich in unsaturated fatty acids (approximately 92%) and therefore has a considerable nutritional value. The oil helps to preserve the integrity of the cell wall and has a restructuring effect and has an anti aging effect on the skin. Its long chain fatty acids bring a good substantivity and is nourishing and moisturizing, while Ximenia oil softens and revitalizes the skin naturally. (source - retrieved from http://www.essentialoils.co.za/ximenia-oil.htm on 4/4/2013)


Blue sourplum (Ximenia americana): This is the most common variety of the 2 found in Namibia, both very similar and almost impossible to tell apart. Common and widespread in central and northern Namibia it can be found in the far north-west of Kaokoland and the Kunene River region and Epupa Falls, along the Kunene River, Kavango River and all along the Caprivi Strip, Kwando River, Linyati Marshes and on to Victoria Falls. The habitat range is therefore varied.

It has many stems which form a thicket or sometimes a small tree growing 2 to 3m high. A smooth, pale grey bark is usually scattered with small, white flecks. Young branchlets are blue-green with straight thorns. The leaves are the same colour but with a blue-grey, waxy coating. Clusters of greenish-white flowers bloom from August to May, usually in November. The stone-fruit is yellow when ripe, although it turns dark blue when dried.

This fruit has many uses and can be eaten when yellow and ripe. It has a plum or prune flavour when over-ripe. Jelly can be made from the pulp and beer can be brewed and vinegar distilled from the fermented fruit. The peel can heal sores and oil is extracted from the seeds for cosmetic purpose, eland browse the leaves and Ella's Bar butterfly and the Common Dotted Border butterfly use the blue sourplum as a larval host-plant. Branches with leaves are used for a toothache remedy and the bark can treat ringworm, fever and sores. The roots aid in diarrhoea and headaches. (source - retrieved from http://www.namibian.org/travel/plants/trees/blue-sourplum.html on 4/4/2013)

In Genesis 1:11-13, "And God said, Let the earth put forth grass, herbs yielding seed, and fruit-trees bearing fruit after their kind, wherein is the seed thereof, upon the earth: and it was so. 12 And the earth brought forth grass, herbs yielding seed after their kind, and trees bearing fruit, wherein is the seed thereof, after their kind: and God saw that it was good. 13 And there was evening and there was morning, a third day. (American Standard Version, ASV)[for more details, go to www.jw.org].

View plant and fruit at, https://www.google.com/search?q=Blue+sourplum+Ximenia+Americana&hl=en&client=firefox&hs=XdD&rls=com.yahoo:en-US:official&tbm=isch&tbo=u&source=univ&sa=X&ei=KO5dUZ3hKtil4APa2YBQ&ved=0CD8QsAQ&biw=1280&bih=854


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Your Friend in Christ Iris89

Francis David said it long ago, "Neither the sword of popes...nor the image of death will halt the march of truth."Francis David, 1579, written on the wall of his prison cell." Read the book, "What Does The Bible Really Teach" and the Bible today, and go to www.jw.org!




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the Borojó Fruit Tree Borojoa patinoi

Post  Admin on Sat Jul 06, 2013 5:47 pm

Hi Everyone:

Here is a Commentary on Bountiful Trees and Vegetables God (YHWH) has provided for mankind, specifically the Borojó Fruit Tree Borojoa patinoi

It is a native of the rainforests of Colombia, Ecuador and Panama. In its natural habitat, the Borojó Tree lives with 85% humidity in the air. The tree reaches 3-5 meters high.

The Borojó Tree is cultivated for its fruits rich in calcium. They have 7-12 cm in diameter and their color is green. The pulp of these fruits is acid and very dense. It is also brown. Each fruit contains hundreds of seeds. They are ready to consume when they fall off the branches. The uses of the Borojó fruits vary from juice, ice cream, capsules and jelly.

The trunk of the tree is small and sometimes separated in two or three smaller trunks. The trunk is grey-brown and harsh. The tree is an evergreen. The foliage is dark green and the leaves have a smooth texture.

Hardiness zones 10-11 (1°C/35°F, 4°C/40°F) in winter. The Borojó Tree can resist small periods of frost and even floods. It needs an average temperature of 28°C. Easily grown in warm greenhouses in cooler climates.

The tree enjoys moderate light. It requires good watering, don’t let the soil dry out. You may fertilize monthly with a balanced fertilizer. (source - retrieved from http://www.seedman.com/fruit.htm on 4/2/2013)

Alibertia patinoi, commonly known as borojó, is a small (2-5m), dioecious tropical rainforest tree. It is one of the few of the Rubiaceae family that has edible fruit. It grows in the northwest area of Colombia in the Chocó Department and in the Esmeraldas Province of Ecuador, in areas of high humidity and temperature. Borojó is an Emberá word meaning: boro = head, ne-jo = fruit - head-shaped fruit, or round, globulous fruit.[1]

The tree has grey-brown bark and sometimes has two or three smaller trunks as well as one main one. It needs high humidity (over 85%) and temperature (an average of at least 25°C) to thrive, though it can tolerate brief frosts as well as floods.[2]

Fruit
The fruit is large (about 12 cm length), with a round shape and brown color and average weight of 740-1000 grams. The pulp represents 88% of the total weight. Each fruit has 90 to 640 seeds. Borojo has high levels of protein, ascorbic acid, calcium and iron and very high levels of phosphorus. [1] Borojo is used in the preparation of jam, wine, desserts and traditional medicines with supposed aphrodisiac effects. It is also used by the local communities against hypertension, bronchial diseases and malnutrition. Borojo extract is widely sold on the internet as a health food.

A study commissioned at Rutgers University by Nutropical, a private company, found that borojo fruit powder had a high and significant content of polyphenols as measured by the Folin-Ciocalteu polyphenol test. Most notably, the researchers believe the key polyphenol found in borojo may be novel. Work continues to identify the compound and/or elucidate its chemical structure. An analysis conducted by the same company found borojo has an ORAC value of over 54 ?molTE/g (5400 µmolTE/100g). The form of the fruit tested, however, is not mentioned (fresh, freeze-dried, spray-dried, etc.).[3]

Cultivation
Around 3000 ha is under cultivation by borojo.

Related Species
Alibertia sorbilis is a very similar species, also used with commercial purposes. Borojó de la Amazonia (Amazonas borojo), Duroia maguirei, is a wild species in a different Rubiaceae genus, which grows up to 8m and has a smaller, edible fruit. Claes Persson (1999)

References
1. ^ "Borojoa patinoi (Rubiaceae)". National Tropical Botanical garden. Retrieved 1 March 2013.
2. ^ "BOROJO Seeds". Plant World Seeds. Retrieved 1 March 2013.
3. ^ Nutropical Borojo Science
* Cuatrecasas, José 1948: "Borojoa, un nuevo género de Rubiáceas"; Revista de La Academia Colombiana de Ciencias Exactas Físicas y Naturales VII (28): 474-477. Bogotá.
* Cuatrecasas, José y Víctor Manuel Patiño 1949: Una nueva fruta tropical americana: el borojó. Secretaría de Agricultura y Ganadería. Servicio de Divulgación. Serie Botánica Aplicada. Año II. N°. 5. Cali. Imprenta Departamental.
* Persson, Claes 2000: "Phylogeny of the Neotropical Alibertia group (Rubiaceae), with emphasis on the genus Alibertia, inferred from ITS and 5S ribosomal DNA sequences"; American Journal of Botany 87:1018-1028.
* Robbrecht, E., and C. Puff. 1986: "A survey of the Gardenieae and related tribes (Rubiaceae)"; Botanische Jahrbücher für Systematik, Pflanzengeschichte und Pflanzengeographie 108: 63–137.
* Schumann, K. 1891: "Rubiaceae"; Die natürlichen Pflanzenfamilien 4(4): 1–154; A. Engler and K. Prantl [eds.], Engelmann, Leipzig, Germany. (source - retrieved from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alibertia_patinoi on 4/2/2013)

In Genesis 1:11-13, "And God said, Let the earth put forth grass, herbs yielding seed, and fruit-trees bearing fruit after their kind, wherein is the seed thereof, upon the earth: and it was so. 12 And the earth brought forth grass, herbs yielding seed after their kind, and trees bearing fruit, wherein is the seed thereof, after their kind: and God saw that it was good. 13 And there was evening and there was morning, a third day. (American Standard Version, ASV)[for more details, go to www.jw.org].

View of plant and fruit at, https://www.google.com/search?q=Boroj%C3%B3+Fruit+Tree+Borojoa+patinoi&hl=en&client=firefox&hs=1zt&rls=com.yahoo:en-US:official&tbm=isch&tbo=u&source=univ&sa=X&ei=AJFbUdO9Banq0gG7koC4DQ&ved=0CDoQsAQ&biw=1280&bih=854


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Francis David said it long ago, "Neither the sword of popes...nor the image of death will halt the march of truth."Francis David, 1579, written on the wall of his prison cell." Read the book, "What Does The Bible Really Teach" and the Bible today, and go to www.jw.org!

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the Brandybush Grewia flava

Post  Admin on Tue Jul 09, 2013 2:20 pm

Hi Everyone:

Here is a Commentary on Bountiful Trees and Vegetables God (YHWH) has provided for mankind, specifically the Brandybush Grewia flava

The Brandybush is a shrub found in the Kalahari. The tasteful, flesh rich fruits are gathered by the San people from February to August and are eaten in large quantities. They are also mashed, soaked and eaten as a porridge.

In the flowering season, the beautiful sweet-scented star-shaped yellow flowers can be found growing on the angles where the leaves grow on the branches. These in turn make way for the berry-like fruit that starts showing from December to April. The berry fruit is reddish brown in colour when ripe and ready to eat, is sweetish in flavour and has a fairly high sugar content. (source - retrieved from http://www.seedman.com/fruit.htm on 4/3/2013)

Tiliaceae
Full name:
Grewia flava DC.
ID status:
Fairly certain
Afrikaans common name(s):
Fluweelrosyntjie(bos), Wilderosyntjie, Brandewynbessie, Rosyntjiebos
English common name(s):
Velvet raisin, Wild currant, Brandy bush, Raisin tree
Synonym(s):
Grewia cana Sond.
Grewia hermannioides Harv.
Status:
Native
Description:
Yellow flowers.

Dense multi-stemmed shrub, up to 2 m tall, occasionally a taller small tree. Bark dark grey-brown; young branches velvety, becoming dark purple-black. Leaves alternate, often held upright, elliptic to oblanceolate-obovate, up to 7 x 2.5 cm, 3-veined from the almost symmetric base, grey-green above, paler below, finely hairy on both surfaces or more so below; margin finely to somewhat coarsely toothed. Flowers yellow fading to orange-brown, 1.5 cm in diameter, solitary or in few-flowered axillary heads. Fruit spherical or 2-lobed, c. 8 mm in diameter, reddish-brown when ripe, edible. (from Flora of Zimbabwe website)

Compact shrub about 2 m tall; young branchlets greyish or greyish brown, tomen-tellous; older branches dark purplish black. Leaf-blade 14-70 x 7.5-25 mm, elliptic or oblanceolate, rounded at the apex, cuneate and equal-sided at the base, margin finely serrulate to dentate, very finely and closely to-mentellous above, rarely glabrescent, somewhat paler and more densely tomentellous below, venation fairly prominent and reticulate; petiole about 2 mm long, tomentellous; stipules about 5 mm long, subulate, tomentellous. Inflorescences all axillary; peduncles 7.5-10 mm long, tomentellous; pedicels normally 1 per peduncle, up to 10 mm long, tomentellous; basal bracts 3-4 mm long, very caducous, subulate, tomentellous. Buds obovoid, slightly sulcate. Sepals about 8 mm long, rarely up to 14 mm long, linear-lanceolate to linear-oblong, greenish grey tomentellous without, yellow and glabrous within, 3-nerved. Petals yellow, about 2/3 the length of the sepals, linear-oblong to oblanceolate, with a basal nectariferous claw circumvillous within, ledged above and sparsely pilose outside. Androgynophore about 1 mm tall, glabrous except at the apex, not extended above the node. Ovary villous, shallowly 2-lobed or 1-lobed by abortion, when the style is eccentrically placed on the ovary; style about 4 mm long, glabrous, with flattened, broad, stigma-lobes. Fruit about 8 mm in diam., globose or bilobed-globose, sparsely setulose, glabrescent, reddish when ripe. (from JSTOR website / Flora of Southern Africa)

Branches and twigs rigid, canescent; leaves on short petioles, exactly elliptical, very obtuse, crenulate, glabrous above, canescent below, 3-nerved at base; peduncles one-flowered; fl.-buds oblong; sepals 3- nerved, longer than the bifid petals, canescent; drupes bilobed, black, hispid and furrowed. A rigid, divaricately much branched, canescent shrub, with small, exactly oval leaves and yellow flowers. The berries are eaten by the country-folk. Leaves 0.5 inch long, 0.25 inch wide. (from JSTOR website / Flora Capensis)

Compact shrub c. 2 m. tall; young branchlets greyish or greyish-brown, tomentellous; older branches dark purplish-black. Leaf-lamina 1•4–7 × 0•75 — 2•5 cm., elliptic or oblanceolate, rounded at the apex, margin finely serrulate to dentate, cuneate and equal-sided at the base, very finely and closely tomentellous above, somewhat paler and more densely tomentellous below, venation fairly prominent and reticulate; petiole c. 2 mm. long, tomentellous; stipules c. 5 mm. long, subulate, tomentellous. Inflorescences all axillary; peduncles 7•5–10 mm. long, tomentellous; pedicels normally 1 per peduncle, up to 1 cm. long, tomentellous; basal bracts 3–4 mm. long, very caducous, subulate, tomentellous. Flower-buds obovoid, slightly sulcate. Sepals c. 8 mm. long, linear-lanceolate to linear-oblong, greenish-grey-tomentellous without, yellow and glabrous within, 3-nerved. Petals yellow, c. 2/3 the length of the sepals, linear-oblong to oblanceolate, with a basal nectariferous claw circumvillous within ledged above and sparsely pilose outside. Androgynophore c. 1 mm. tall, glabrous except at the apex, not extended above the node. Ovary villous, shallowly 2-lobed or 1-lobed by abortion when the style is eccentrically placed on the ovary; style c. 4 mm. long, glabrous, with flattened, broad, stigma-lobes. Fruit reddish when ripe, c. 8 mm. in diam., globose or 2-lobed, sparsely setulose, glabrescent. (from JSTOR website / Flora Zambesiaca)
Link(s)

African Plant Database

JSTOR Plant Science
Kew Herbarium Catalogue
BGBM Berlin-Dahlem - Virtual Herbarium
Züricher Herbarien
iSpot: 159898
Flora of Zimbabwe
Fleurs de notre Terre - Galerie Namibie
Tree Atlas of Namibia
(source - retrieved from http://www.kyffhauser.co.za/Plants1/Grewia_flava/Index.htm on 4/3/2013)


In Genesis 1:11-13, "And God said, Let the earth put forth grass, herbs yielding seed, and fruit-trees bearing fruit after their kind, wherein is the seed thereof, upon the earth: and it was so. 12 And the earth brought forth grass, herbs yielding seed after their kind, and trees bearing fruit, wherein is the seed thereof, after their kind: and God saw that it was good. 13 And there was evening and there was morning, a third day. (American Standard Version, ASV)[for more details, go to www.jw.org].

View plant and fruit at, https://www.google.com/search?q=Brandy+Bush+Grewia+flava&hl=en&client=firefox&hs=ZkQ&rls=com.yahoo:en-US:official&tbm=isch&tbo=u&source=univ&sa=X&ei=cEZcUeOIKeHo0QG5r4DgCQ&ved=0CD8QsAQ&biw=1280&bih=854


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the Brazilian Guava, Psidium guineense Sw.

Post  Admin on Fri Jul 12, 2013 8:16 am

Hi Everyone:

Here is a Commentary on Bountiful Trees and Vegetables God (YHWH) has provided for mankind, specifically the Brazilian Guava, Psidium guineense Sw.
Psidium molle Bertol
Psidium schiedeanum Berg.
Psidium aracá Raddi

This guava relative has been the subject of much confusion, beginning with its scientific name, Psidium guineense Sw., based on the botanist Swartz' belief that it originated on the Guinea Coast of Africa. For a long time it was considered distinct from the guisaro, P. molle Bertol (syn. P. schiedeanum Berg.), but now these names as well as P. aracá Raddi, are treated as synonyms of P. guineense, and all the corresponding colloquial names should be applied to this one confirmed species.

In Brazil the popular names are aracá, aracá do campo, or aracahy; in the Guianas it is called wild guava or wilde guave. Among other regional names are: guabillo, huayava, guayaba brava and sacha guayaba (Peru); allpa guayaba (Ecuador); guayaba de sabana, guayaba sabanera and guayaba agria (Venezuela); guayaba, or guayaba acida, guayaba hedionda, chamach, chamacch, pataj and pichippul (Guatemala); guisaro, or cas extranjero (Costa Rica); guayabita, guayaba arraijan, and guayabita de sabana (Panama); guayabillo (El Salvador). The name, guayaba agria, seems to be the only one employed in Mexico. In California it is called either Brazilian or Castilian guava.

Description
The Brazilian guava is a relatively slow-growing shrub 3 to 10 ft (1-3 m) tall; sometimes a tree to 23 ft (7 m); with grayish bark, hairy young shoots and cylindrical or slightly flattened branchlets. The evergreen, grayish leaves, 1 1/3 to 5 1/2 in (3.5-14 cm) long and 1 to 3 1/8 (2.5-8 cm wide), are stiff, oblong, elliptic, ovate or obovate, sometimes finely toothed; scantily hairy on the upperside but coated beneath with pale or rusty hairs and distinctly dotted with glands. Flowers, borne singly or in clusters of 3 in the leaf axils, are white and have 150 to 200 prominent stamens. The fruit, round or pear-shaped, is from 1/8 to 1 in (1-2.5 cm) wide, with yellow skin, thick, pale-yellowish flesh surrounding the white central pulp, and of acid, resinous, slightly strawberry-like flavor. It contains numerous small, hard seeds and is quite firm even when fully ripe.

Distribution
The most wide-ranging guava relative, P. guineense occurs naturally from northern Argentina and Peru to southern Mexico, and in Trinidad, Martinique, Jamaica and Cuba, at medium elevations. It is cultivated to a limited extent in Martinique, Guadeloupe, the Dominican Republic and southern California. Trials in Florida have not been encouraging. At Agartala in Tripura, northeast India, this plant has become thoroughly naturalized and runs wild.

Cultivars
While no named cultivars have been reported, this species has been crossed with the common guava and the hybrids are dwarf, hardy and bear heavy crops.

Soil
The plant will not develop satisfactorily on light sandy soil.

Food Uses
This guava is suitable for baking and preserving. It makes a distinctive jelly which some consider superior to common guava jelly.

Other Uses
The wood is strong and used for tool handles, beams, planks and agricultural instruments. The bark, rich in tannin, is used for curing hides.

Medicinal Uses: In the interior of Brazil, a decoction of the bark or of the roots is employed to treat urinary diseases, diarrhea and dysentery. In Costa Rica, it is said to reduce varicose veins and ulcers on the legs. A leaf decoction is taken to relieve colds and bronchitis.

Related Species
The Pará guava has been known as Britoa acida Berg. Calvacante now shows this binomial as a synonym of Psidium acutangulum DC. and gives the Brazilian vernacular name as aracá-pera. Cruz (1965) calls it araca piranga, aracandiva, aracanduba and goiabarana. Le Cointe shows it as araca comum do Pará and he describes P. aracá Raddi as a separate species. In Bolivia, P. acutangulum is known as guabira; in Peru, as ampi yacu, puca yacu, guayava del agua.
The shrub or tree ranges in height from 26 to 40 ft (8-12 m). Its branchlets are quadrangular and winged near the leaf base. New growth is finely hairy. The leaves, with very short petioles, are elliptical, 4 to 5 1/2 in (10-14 cm) long, 1 1/2 to 2 3/8 in (4-6 cm) wide, rounded at the base, pointed at the apex. The long-stalked, white, 5-petalled flowers, with more than 300 stamens, are borne singly or in 2's or 3's in the leaf axils. The fruit is round, pear-shaped or ellipsoid, 1 1/4 to 3 3/16 in (3-8 cm) wide, pale-yellow, with yellowish-white, very acid but well-flavored pulp containing a few hard, triangular seeds. The crop ripens in the spring.

The tree occurs wild and cultivated at low and medium elevations throughout Amazonia and from Peru to Colombia, Bolivia, Venezuela and the Guianas. Some specimens have been grown in southern Florida in the past under the name P. aracá. The fruit is eaten mixed with honey or made into acid drinks or preserves.

Of recent interest as a possible new crop is Eugenia stipitata McVaugh, treated by Calvacante as a variable species, but separated by McVaugh (Flora of Peru, Vol. XIII, Pt. 4, No. 2, 1958) into 2 subspecies, as follows:

E. stipitata subsp. stipitata McVaugh, called pichi in Peru, araca-boi in Brazil, is a tree to 40 or 50 ft (12-15 m) tall, with short-petioled, opposite, broad-elliptic leaves, pointed at the apex, 3 to 7 in (7.5-18 cm) long and 1 1/3 to 3 1/4 in (3.4-8.25 cm) wide, with indented veins on the upper surface, densely hairy on the underside, faintly dotted with oil glands on both sides. The flowers, in compound, axillary racemes, are white, hairy, 3/4 in (2 cm) wide, with numerous prominent stamens.

According to horticulturists and Calvacante, the fruit is somewhat like a small guava; very aromatic, round to oblate, less than 2 oz (56 g) in the wild, up to 4 3/4 in (12 cm) wide under cultivation and weighing as much as 14 1/2 oz (420 g) or even 28 oz (800 g). The skin is thin and delicate; the pulp soft, juicy, very acid, containing 8 to 10 irregular-oblong or kidney-shaped seeds to 1 in (2.5 cm) long and 5/8 in (1.5 cm) wide. Ascorbic acid content has been reported as 38 to 40 mg per 100 g of edible portion. The fruiting season is February to May around Belem, Brazil. There may be 4 crops a year in Peru and Ecuador. The tree is native and abundant in the wild in Amazonian regions of Peru, Ecuador and Brazil. The fruit is eaten by the Indians and the tree is being cultivated experimentally in Peru and Ecuador and a collection of 360 seedlings has been established at Manaus. Seeds germinate in 4-12 months.

Seedlings grow slowly at first, are transplanted in about 6 months. They begin to fruit 18 months later. Yields of 12.7 tons per acre (28 T/ha) have been obtained in Peru. The tree is subject to leafspot and the fruit is prone to attack by fruit flies. The fruit loses flavor when cooked; is quick-boiled for jam. A Peruvian grower is exporting the frozen pulp to Europe.

Subspecies sororia, called rupina caspi in Peru, is a shrub or small tree to 10 ft (3 m) high with elliptic leaves 3 1/2 to 5 in (9-12.5 cm) long, 1 to 1 3/4 in (2.5-4.5 cm) wide with barely visible veins; minutely hairy beneath or hairless when fully mature; and having a few dark dots. The flowers are 1/2 in (1.25 cm) wide with 75 stamens. The fruit is oblate, 5/8 in (1.6 cm) wide, velvety, acid, with numerous kidney-shaped seeds, 1/8 to a little over 1/4 in (3-7 mm) long. McVaugh shows as native to Peru, Ecuador, Bolivia and Colombia. (source - retrieved from http://www.hort.purdue.edu/newcrop/morton/brazilian_guava_ars.html on 3/30/2013)

In Genesis 1:11-13, "And God said, Let the earth put forth grass, herbs yielding seed, and fruit-trees bearing fruit after their kind, wherein is the seed thereof, upon the earth: and it was so. 12 And the earth brought forth grass, herbs yielding seed after their kind, and trees bearing fruit, wherein is the seed thereof, after their kind: and God saw that it was good. 13 And there was evening and there was morning, a third day. (American Standard Version, ASV)[for more details, go to www.jw.org].

View fruit and plant at, http://www.bing.com/images/search?q=Psidium+guineense+Brazilian+Guava&qpvt=Psidium+guineense+Brazilian+Guava&FORM=IGRE

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]

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Re: Almighty God’s (YHWH) Great Gift to Mankind, The Rare Fruit Trees and Herbs

Post  Admin on Wed Jul 17, 2013 9:44 am

Hi Everyone:

Here is a Commentary on Bountiful Trees and Vegetables God (YHWH) has provided for mankind, specifically the Brosimum alicastrum, the breadnut or Maya nut, is a Brosimum tree species under the Moraceae family of flowering plants, whose other genera include fig and mulberries The plant is known by a range of names in indigenous Mesoamerican and other languages, including but not limited to: ramon,ojoche, ojite, ojushte, ujushte, ujuxte, capomo, mojo, ox, iximche, masica in Honduras, uje in Michoacan, and mojote in Jalisco.

Two subspecies are commonly recognized:

* Brosimum alicastrum ssp. alicastrum
* Brosimum alicastrum ssp. bolivarense (Pittier) C.C.Berg
Distribution and habitat: The west coast of central Mexico, southern Mexico, Guatemala, El Salvador, the Caribbean, and the Amazon. Large stands in moist lowland tropical forests 300–2000 m elevation (especially 125–800 m), in humid areas where rainfall of 600–2000 mm, and average temperature 24 C / 75 F.[1]
The breadnut fruit disperses on the ground at different times throughout its range. It has a large seed covered by a thin, citrus-flavored orange-colored skin favored by a number of forest creatures. More important, the large seed which is enveloped by the tasty skin is an edible ‘nut’ that can be boiled or dried and ground into a meal for porridge or flatbread. Breadnut is nutritious and has value as a food source, and formed a part of the diet of the pre-Columbian Maya of the lowlands region in Mesoamerica,[2][3] although to what extent has been a matter of some debate among Maya historians and archaeologists.

It was planted by the Maya civilization two thousand years ago and it has been claimed in several articles by Dennis E. Puleston to have been a staple food in the Maya diet,[4] although other research has downplayed its significance. In the modern era it has been marginalized as a source of nutrition and has often been characterized as a famine food.

The breadnut is extremely high in fiber, calcium, potassium, folic acid, iron, zinc, protein and B vitamins.[5] It has a low glycemic index (<50) and is very high in antioxidants. The fresh seeds can be cooked and eaten or can be set out to dry in the sun to roast and eaten later. Stewed the nut tastes like mashed potato, roasted it tastes like chocolate or coffee and can be prepared in numerous other dishes. In Petén, Guatemala, the breadnut is being cultivated for exportation and local consumption as powder, for hot beverages, and bread.

The tree can reach up to 45 meters (130 feet).
The tree lends its name to the Maya archaeological sites of Iximché and Topoxte, both in Guatemala and also of Tamuin (reflecting the Maya origin of the Huastec peoples). It is one of the twenty dominant species of the Maya forest.[6] Of the dominant species, it is the only one that is wind-pollinated. It is also found in traditional Maya forest gardens.[7]

References:
1. ^ Melgar in "Utilizacion Integral del Arbol Genero Brosimum" INCAP 1987
2. ^ Flannery, Kent; Puleston, Dennis E. (1982), "The Role of Ramon in Maya Subsistence", Maya Subsistence: Studies in Memory of Dennis E. Puleston, Academic Press, pp. 353-366
3. ^ 1. Harrison, Peter D.; Turner, B. L.; Puleston, Dennis E. (1978), "Terracing, Raised Fields, and Tree Cropping in the Maya Lowlands: A New Perspective on the Geography of Power", Pre-Hispanic Maya Agriculture, University of New Mexico Press, pp. 225-245
4. ^ 1. Harrison, Peter D.; Turner, B. L.; Puleston, Dennis E. (1978), "Terracing, Raised Fields, and Tree Cropping in the Maya Lowlands: A New Perspective on the Geography of Power", Pre-Hispanic Maya Agriculture, University of New Mexico Press, pp. 225-245
5. ^ Flannery, Kent; Puleston, Dennis E. (1982), "The Role of Ramon in Maya Subsistence", Maya Subsistence: Studies in Memory of Dennis E. Puleston, Academic Press, pp. 353-366
6. ^ Campbell, D. G., A. Ford, et al. "The Feral Forests of the Eastern Petén" (2006), Time and Complexity in the Neotropical Lowlands New York, Columbia University Press: 21-55.
7. ^ Ford, A. "Dominant Plants of the Maya Forest and Gardens of El Pilar: Implications for Paleoenvironmental Reconstructions" (2008), Journal of Ethnobiology 28(2): 179-199.
[source - retrieved from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Brosimum_alicastrum on 1/02/2013]

For pictures of this fruit, go to http://www.tradewindsfruit.com/breadfruit.htm

In Genesis 1:11-13, "And God said, Let the earth put forth grass, herbs yielding seed, and fruit-trees bearing fruit after their kind, wherein is the seed thereof, upon the earth: and it was so. 12 And the earth brought forth grass, herbs yielding seed after their kind, and trees bearing fruit, wherein is the seed thereof, after their kind: and God saw that it was good. 13 And there was evening and there was morning, a third day. (American Standard Version, ASV)[for more details, go to www.jw.org].

Uses:
The fruits reported to be nutritious and are usually consumed when immature. These are thinly sliced and boiled as a vegetable in soups or stews.

Breadnut has nutritious seeds that are a good source of protein and low in fat compared to nuts such as almonds, Brazil nuts and macadamia nuts.

The seeds are a valued food and are widely collected. Today gathered seeds are sold in village markets, providing an important source of income for women in some areas.

Other uses:
Breadnut trees provide shade, mulch, soil stabilization, animal fodder and are commonly used in mixed agroforestry systems and home gardens. Breadnut is a natural component of the forests of Papua New Guinea and is an important part of the subsistence economy of lowland areas. [Source - retrieved from http://www.fruitipedia.com/breadnut.htm on 1/02/2013]

How this tree and other plants absorb water from the ground. Plants have developed an effective system to absorb, translocate, store, and utilize water. Plants contain a vast network of conduits, which consists of xylem and phloem tissues. These conducting tissues start in the roots and continue up through the trunks of trees, into the branches and then into every leaf. Phloem tissue is made of living elongated cells that are connected to one another and responsible for translocating nutrients and sugars (carbohydrates), which are produced by leaves for energy and growth. The xylem is also composed of elongated cells but once the cells are formed, they die. The walls of the xylem cells still remain intact and serve as an excellent peipline to transport water from the roots to the leaves.

The main driving force of water uptake and transport into a plant is transpiration of water from leaves through specialized openings called stomata. Heat from the sun causes the water to evaporate, setting this ‘water chain’ in motion. The evaporation creates a negative water vapor pressure. Water is pulled into the leaf to replace the water that has transpired from the leaf. This pulling of water, or tension, occurs in the xylem of the leaf. Since the xylem is a continuous water column that extends from the leaf to the roots, this negative water pressure extends into the roots and results in water uptake from the soil. [adapted from: http://www.scientificamerican.com/article.cfm?id=follow-up-how-do-trees-ca ]

Clearly this clever water transport system shows a superior intelligence of the Creator (YHWH).


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the Broccoli is a plant in the cabbage family,

Post  Admin on Sat Jul 20, 2013 1:24 pm

Hi Everyone:

Here is a Commentary on Bountiful Trees and Vegetables God (YHWH) has provided for mankind, specifically the Broccoli is a plant in the cabbage family, whose large flower head is used as a vegetable. The word broccoli, from the Italian plural of broccolo, refers to "the flowering top of a cabbage".[3] Broccoli is usually boiled or steamed but may be eaten raw and has become popular as a raw vegetable in hors d'œuvre trays. The leaves may also be eaten.[4]
Broccoli is classified in the Italica cultivar group of the species Brassica oleracea. Broccoli has large flower heads, usually green in color, arranged in a tree-like structure on branches sprouting from a thick, edible stalk. The mass of flower heads is surrounded by leaves. Broccoli most closely resembles cauliflower, which is a different cultivar group of the same species.
Broccoli was derived from cultivated leafy cole crops in the Northern Mediterranean in about the 6th century BCE.[5] Since the Roman Empire, broccoli has been considered a uniquely valuable food among Italians.[6] Broccoli was brought to England from Antwerp in the mid-18th century by Peter Scheemakers.[7] Broccoli was first introduced to the United States by Italian immigrants but did not become widely known there until the 1920s.[8]
Although this vegetable is NOT rare, I am dealing with detailing it due to its important anti-carcinogenic properties that all need to know about.

In Genesis 1:11-13, "And God said, Let the earth put forth grass, herbs yielding seed, and fruit-trees bearing fruit after their kind, wherein is the seed thereof, upon the earth: and it was so. 12 And the earth brought forth grass, herbs yielding seed after their kind, and trees bearing fruit, wherein is the seed thereof, after their kind: and God saw that it was good. 13 And there was evening and there was morning, a third day. (American Standard Version, ASV)[for more details, go to www.jw.org].

Broccoli is high in vitamin C, as well as dietary fiber; it also contains multiple nutrients with potent anti-cancer properties, such as diindolylmethane and small amounts of selenium.[9] A single serving provides more than 30 mg of vitamin C and a half-cup provides 52 mg of vitamin C.[10] The 3,3'-Diindolylmethane found in broccoli is a potent modulator of the innate immune response system with anti-viral, anti-bacterial and anti-cancer activity.[11][12] Broccoli also contains the compound glucoraphanin, which can be processed into an anti-cancer compound sulforaphane, though the benefits of broccoli are greatly reduced if the vegetable is boiled.[13] Broccoli is also an excellent source of indole-3-carbinol, a chemical which boosts DNA repair in cells and appears to block the growth of cancer cells.[14][15]
Boiling broccoli reduces the levels of suspected anti-carcinogenic compounds, such as sulforaphane, with losses of 20–30% after five minutes, 40–50% after ten minutes, and 77% after thirty minutes.[13] However, other preparation methods such as steaming,[16] microwaving, and stir frying had no significant effect on the compounds.[13]
Broccoli has the highest levels of carotenoids in the brassica family.[17] It is particularly rich in lutein and also provides a modest amount of beta-carotene.[17]
A high intake of broccoli has been found to reduce the risk of aggressive prostate cancer.[18] Broccoli consumption may also help prevent heart disease.[19]
Broccoli sprouts are often suggested for their health benefits.[citation needed]
Varieties
There are three commonly grown types of broccoli. The most familiar is Calabrese broccoli, often referred to simply as "broccoli", named after Calabria in Italy. It has large (10 to 20 cm) green heads and thick stalks. It is a cool season annual crop. Sprouting broccoli has a larger number of heads with many thin stalks. Purple cauliflower is a type of broccoli sold in southern Italy, Spain, and the United Kingdom. It has a head shaped like cauliflower, but consisting of tiny flower buds. It sometimes, but not always, has a purple cast to the tips of the flower buds.
Other cultivar groups of Brassica oleracea include cabbage (Capitata Group), cauliflower and Romanesco broccoli (Botrytis Group), kale and collard greens (Acephala Group), kohlrabi (Gongylodes Group), and Brussels sprouts (Gemmifera Group). Chinese broccoli (Alboglabra Group) is also a cultivar group of Brassica oleracea.[20] Rapini, sometimes called "broccoli rabe" among other names, forms similar but smaller heads, and is actually a type of turnip (Brassica rapa). Broccolini or "Tender Stem Broccoli" is a cross between broccoli and Chinese broccoli.
Cultivation
Broccoli is a cool-weather crop that does poorly in hot summer weather. Broccoli grows best when exposed to an average daily temperature between 18 and 23 °C (64 and 73 °F).[21] When the cluster of flowers, also referred to as a "head" of broccoli, appear in the center of the plant, the cluster is green. Garden pruners or shears are used to cut the head about an inch from the tip. Broccoli should be harvested before the flowers on the head bloom bright yellow.[22]
References
1. ^ Buck, P. A (1956). "Origin and taxonomy of broccoli". Economic Botany 10 (3): 250–253. Retrieved 2012-04-24.
2. ^ Stephens, James. "Broccoli—Brassica oleracea L. (Italica group)". University of Florida. p. 1. Retrieved 2009-05-14.
3. ^ "broccoli". Merriam-Webster's Collegiate Dictionary (11th ed.). p. 156. ISBN 978-0-87779-809-5. Retrieved 24 August 2009.
4. ^ "Broccoli Leaves Are Edible". Retrieved 12 October 2012.
5. ^ Maggioni, Lorenzo; von Bothmer., R., Poulesen, G., Branca, F. (2010). "Origin and Domestication of Cole Crops (Brassica oleracea L.): Linguistic and Literary Considerations". Economic Botany 64 (2): 109–123.
6. ^ Nonnecke, Ib (November 1989). Vegetable Production. Springer-Verlag New York, LLC. p. 394. ISBN 978-0-442-26721-6.
7. ^ Smith,J.T. Nollekins and His Times, 1829 vol. 2:101: "Scheemakers, on his way to England, visited his birth-place, bringing with him several roots [sic] of brocoli, a dish till then little known in perfection at our tables."
8. ^ Denker, Joel (2003). The world on a plate. U of Nebraska Press. p. 8. ISBN 978-0-8032-6014-6. Retrieved 24 April 2012.
9. ^ "WHFoods: Broccoli". George Mateljan Foundation. Retrieved 2009-05-11.
10. ^ Understanding Nutrition, Eleanor N. Whitney and Eva M. N. Hamilton, Table H, supplement, page 373 Table 1, ISBN 0-8299-0419-0
11. ^ "Diindolylmethane Information Resource Center at the University of California, Berkeley". Retrieved 2007-06-10.
12. ^ "Diindolylmethane Immune Activation Data Center". Retrieved 2007-06-10.
13. ^ a b c Warwick Medical School, University of Warwick (15 May 2007). "Research Says Boiling Broccoli Ruins Its Anti Cancer Properties.".
14. ^ "Broccoli chemical's cancer check". BBC News. 7 February 2006. Retrieved 5 September 2010.
15. ^ "How Dietary Supplement May Block Cancer Cells". Science Daily. 30 June 2010. Retrieved 5 September 2010.
16. ^ "Maximizing The Anti-Cancer Power of Broccoli". Science Daily. 5 April 2005.
17. ^ a b "Breeding Better Broccoli: Research Points To Pumped Up Lutein Levels In Broccoli". Science Daily. 8 November 2009. Retrieved 5 September 2010.
18. ^ Kirsh, VA; Peters U, Mayne ST, Subar AF, Chatterjee N, Johnson CC, Hayes RB (2007). "Prospective study of fruit and vegetable intake and risk of prostate cancer". Journal of the National Cancer Institute 99 (15): 1200–9. doi:10.1093/jnci/djm065. PMID 17652276.
19. ^ Clout, Laura (5 September 2009). "Broccoli beats heart disease". Daily Express. Retrieved 5 September 2009.
20. ^ Dixon, G.R. (2007). Vegetable brassicas and related crucifers. Wallingford: CABI. ISBN 978-0-85199-395-9.
21. ^ Smith, Powell (June 1999). "HGIC 1301 Broccoli". Clemson University. Retrieved 25 August 2009.
22. ^ Liptay, Albert (source - retrieved from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Broccoli on 3/7/2013)
Note: Per reference #4, the leaves of Broccoli are edible as one would suspect since it is a member of the cabbage family of plants. This is important since the leaves can be used in place of cabbage in soups and other dishes.
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Re: Almighty God’s (YHWH) Great Gift to Mankind, The Rare Fruit Trees and Herbs

Post  Admin on Tue Jul 23, 2013 4:18 pm

Hi Everyone:

Here is a Commentary on Bountiful Trees and Vegetables God (YHWH) has provided for mankind, specifically the Buddha Fruit, Monk's Fruit, Luohan Guo Momordica grosvenorii

A climbing plant in the pumpkin family, native to southern China and Indochina, where it is widely cultivated for its fruit that is used in traditional Chinese medicine and to sweeten drinks.

More recently it has been made popular as a "superfood" in the west for its antioxidants, as an immune booster, for a glucose-lowering effect and its anti viral properties as well as its potential as a natural zero-calorie sweetener.
Rare in these parts, and one of the most desired cucurbits among collectors. Like ginseng, this is one of the chinese herbs that tonifies the yin. Household remedy for treating upper respiratory infection and gastric upset.

The medicine consists of the dried fruits. The entire plant is gently pubescent, and the fruits are densely covered in down, ovoid or rounded and extremely sweet. The leaves are somewhat heart shaped and entire, and the yellow flowers are somewhat atypical in shape for a cucurbit.

It is easy to grow in most warm temperate and tropical climates, and is said to handle light frosts. (source - retrieved from http://www.seedman.com/fruit.htm on 4/4/2013)

Siraitia grosvenorii is an herbaceous perennial vine of the Cucurbitaceae (gourd) family, native to southern China and northern Thailand. The plant is cultivated for its fruit, whose extract is nearly 300 times sweeter than sugar and has been used in China as a natural low-calorie sweetener for cooling drinks, and in traditional Chinese medicine to treat diabetes and obesity.[2][3]
The plant's fruit is often called in English language publications luo han guo[4] or luo han kuo (from the Chinese luóhàn gu?, ???/ ???). It may also be called la han qua (from Vietnamese la hán qu?), arhat fruit, Buddha fruit, monk fruit, or longevity fruit (although this name has been used for several other fruits).[2]
The scientific species name honors Gilbert Grosvenor who as president of the National Geographic Society helped to fund an expedition to find the living plant where it was being cultivated.[5]
Contents
* 1 Description
* 2 Cultivation
* 3 Traditional uses
o 3.1 Toxicity
* 4 Active agents
* 5 Cultivation and marketing
o 5.1 Traditional processing
o 5.2 The Procter & Gamble process
* 6 History
o 6.1 Western rediscovery in the 20th century
* 7 References
* 8 External linksDescription
The vine attains a length of 3 to 5 m, climbing over other plants by means of tendrils which twine round anything they touch. The narrow, heart-shaped leaves are 10–20 cm long. The fruit is round, 5–7 cm in diameter, smooth, yellow-brownish or green-brownish in colour, containing striations from the fruit stem end of the furrows with a hard but thin skin covered by fine hairs. The inside of the fruit contains an edible pulp, which, when dried, forms a thin, light brown, brittle shell about 1 mm in thickness. The seeds are elongated and almost spherical.
The fruit is sometimes mistaken for the unrelated purple mangosteen.
The interior fruit is eaten fresh, and the bitter rind is used to make tea.
The monk fruit is notable for its sweetness, which can be concentrated from its juice. The fruit contains 25 to 38% of various carbohydrates, mainly fructose and glucose. The sweetness of the fruit is increased by the mogrosides, a group of triterpene glycosides (saponins). The five different mogrosides are numbered from I to V; the main component is mogroside V, which is also known as esgoside.[3] The fruit also contains vitamin C.
Cultivation
Germination of seeds is slow, and may take several months. It is grown primarily in the far southern Chinese province of Guangxi (mostly in the mountains near Guilin), as well as in Guangdong, Guizhou, Hunan, and Jiangxi provinces. These mountains lend the plants shade and often are surrounded by mists which protected them from the sun. Nonetheless, the climate in this southern province is warm. The plant is rarely found in the wild, so has been cultivated for hundreds of years.
Records as early as 1813 mention the cultivation of this plant in the Guangxi province. At present, the Guilin mountains harbor a plantation of 16 km2 (6.2 sq mi) with a yearly output of about 10,000 fruits.[citation needed]Most of the plantations are located in Yongfu County and Lingui County.
Longjiang Town in Yongfu County has acquired the name "home of the Chinese luohanguo fruit"; a number of companies specialised in making luohanguo extracts and finished products have been set up in the area. The Yongfu Pharmaceutical Factory is the oldest of these.
Traditional uses
The plant is most prized for its sweet fruits, which are used for medicinal purposes and as a sweetener.[6][7] The fruits are generally sold in dried form, and traditionally used in herbal tea or soup.
Toxicity
No incidents of negative side effects of luohan guo have been reported.[citation needed] It is classed by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) as generally recognized as safe (GRAS). A notification for GRAS status for using monk fruit juice concentrate to sweeten edible products was submitted to the FDA in 2009.[8] No restrictions on consuming the fruit or its extracts were made.
Active agents
The sweet taste of the fruit comes mainly from mogrosides, a group of triterpene glycosides that make up about 1% of the flesh of the fresh fruit. Through solvent extraction, a powder containing 80% mogrosides can be obtained, the main one being mogroside-5 (esgoside) Other similar agents in the fruit are siamenoside and neomogroside.[9]
Recent research suggests isolated mogrosides have antioxidant properties[10] and may have limited anticancer effects.[11][12]
Mogrosides have also been shown to inhibit induction of Epstein-Barr virus in vitro.[13]
The plant also contains the glycoprotein momorgrosvin, which has been shown to inhibit ribosomal protein synthesis.[14]
Cultivation and marketing
Traditional processing


Dried Siraitia grosvenorii fruit, cut open and seeds removed
Luohan guo is harvested in the form of a round, green fruit, which becomes brown on drying. It is rarely used in its fresh form, as it is hard to store. Furthermore, it develops a rotten taste on fermentation, which adds to the unwanted flavours already present.
Thus, the fruits are usually dried before further use and are sold in precisely this fashion in Chinese herbal shops. The fruits are slowly dried in ovens, preserving them and removing most of the unwanted aromas. However, this technique also leads to the formation of several bitter and astringent flavors. This limits the use of the dried fruits and extracts to the preparation of diluted tea, soup, and as a sweetener for products that would usually have sugar or honey added to them.[15]
The Procter & Gamble process
The process for the manufacture of a useful sweetener from luo han guo was patented in 1995 by Procter & Gamble. The patent states, while luo han guo is very sweet, it has too many interfering aromas, which render it useless for general application. So, the company developed a process for the removal of the interfering aromas.
In this process, the fresh fruit is harvested before it is fully mature, and is then matured in storage so it may be processed precisely when it is mature. The shell and seeds are then removed, and the pulped fruit is made into a fruit concentrate or puree. This is then used in the further production of food. Solvents are used, amongst other things, to remove the interfering aromas.
History
During the Tang dynasty, Guilin was one of the most important Buddhist retreats containing many temples. The fruit was named after the arhats (luóhàn, ??), a group of Buddhist monks who, due to their proper way of life and meditation, achieved enlightenment and were said to have been redeemed. According to Chinese history, the fruit was first mentioned in the records of the 13th-century monks who used it.
However, plantation space was limited: it existed mainly in the slopes of the Guangxi and Guangdong mountains, and to a lesser degree in Guizhou, Hunan, Jiangxi, and Hainan. This and the difficulty of cultivation meant the fruit did not become part of the Chinese herbal tradition, which depended on more readily available products. This is also the reason no mention of it is found in the traditional guides to herbs.
Western rediscovery in the 20th century
The first report on the herb in English was found in an unpublished manuscript written in 1938 by Professor G. W. Groff and Hoh Hin Cheung. The report stated the fruits were often used as the main ingredients of "cooling drinks", that is, as remedies for hot weather, fever, or other dysfunctions traditionally associated with warmth or heat (i.e. inflammation).
The juice of the fruits was then known to be very sweet.
Groff and Hoh realised the fruit was an important Chinese domestic remedy for the treatment of cold and pneumonia, when consumed with pork. Interviews have confirmed the fruit only recently gained importance in Chinese history. Nonetheless, a small group of people apparently had mastered its cultivation a long time ago and had accumulated extensive knowledge on growth, pollination, and climatic requirements of the plant.
The fruit was taken to the United States in the early 20th century. Groff mentioned, during a visit to the American ministry of agriculture in 1917, the botanist Frederick Coville showed him a luohanguo fruit bought in a Chinese shop in Washington. Seeds of the fruit which had been bought in Chinese shop in San Francisco were entered into the botanic description of the species in 1941.
The first research into the sweet component of luohan guo is attributed to C. H. Lee, who wrote an English report on it in 1975, and also to Tsunematsu Takemoto, who worked on it the early 1980s in Japan (later Takemoto decided to concentrate on the similar sweet plant, jiaogulan).
The development of luohan guo products in China has continued ever since, focusing in particular on the development of concentrated extracts.
References
1. ^ "The Plant List".
2. ^ a b Ling Yeouruenn, A New Compendium of Materia Medica, 1995 Science Press, Beijing.
3. ^ a b Dharmananda S (2004). Luo han guo: Sweet fruit used as sugar substitute and medicinal herb. Inst Trad Med Online. Retrieved 30 October 2012.
4. ^ "USDA GRIN Taxonomy".
5. ^ Walter T. Swingle (1941). "Momordica grosvenori sp. nov.: The source of the Chinese Lo Han Kuo". Journal of the Arnold Arboretum 22: 197–203.
6. ^ Kinghorn AD and Soejarto DD, Discovery of terpenoid and phenolic sweeteners from plants, Pure Applied Chemistry 2002; 74(7): 1169-1179.
7. ^ Dai Yin-Fang and Liu Cheng-Jun, translated by Ron Edwards and Gong Zhi-Mei (1986), "Fruits As Medicine: A Safe and Cheap Form of Traditional Chinese Food Therapy". The Ram's Skull Press, Kuranda, Australia.
8. ^ Letter Notifying FDA for GRAS Status, 2009
9. ^ Subhuti Dharmananda, "Luo Han Guo - Sweet Fruit Used as Sugar Substitute and Medicinal Herb". From the Institute for Traditional Medicine website.
10. ^ Shi H, et al. (1996). "Antioxidant property of fructus momordicae extract". Biochemistry and Molecular Biology International 40 (6): 1111–1121. PMID 8988323.
11. ^ Konoshima T and Takasaki M (2002). "Cancer-chemopreventive effects of natural sweeteners and related compounds". Pure Applied Chemistry 74 (7): 1309–1316. doi:10.1351/pac200274071309.
12. ^ Katiyar SK and Mukhtar H (1997). "Tea antioxidants in cancer chemoprevention". Journal of Cellular Biochemistry 27: 59–67. PMID 9591194.
13. ^ Akihisa, T; Hayakawa, Y; Tokuda, H; Banno, N; Shimizu, N; Suzuki, T; Kimura, Y (2007). "Cucurbitane glycosides from the fruits of Siraitia gros venorii and their inhibitory effects on Epstein-Barr virus activation". Journal of Natural Products 70 (5): 783–8. doi:10.1021/np068074x. PMID 17477572.
14. ^ Tsang, K.Y. and T.B. Ng (2001). "Isolation and characterization of a new ribosome inactivating protein, momorgrosvin, from seeds of the monk's fruit Momordica grosvenorii". Life Sciences 68 (7): 773–784. doi:10.1016/S0024-3205(00)00980-2. PMID 11205869.
15. ^ Hsu HY, et al., Oriental Materia Medica, 1986 Oriental Healing Arts Institute, Long Beach, California (source - retrieved from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Siraitia_grosvenorii on 4/4/2013)

In Genesis 1:11-13, "And God said, Let the earth put forth grass, herbs yielding seed, and fruit-trees bearing fruit after their kind, wherein is the seed thereof, upon the earth: and it was so. 12 And the earth brought forth grass, herbs yielding seed after their kind, and trees bearing fruit, wherein is the seed thereof, after their kind: and God saw that it was good. 13 And there was evening and there was morning, a third day. (American Standard Version, ASV)[for more details, go to www.jw.org].

View plant and fruit at, https://www.google.com/search?q=Buddha+Fruit,+Monk%27s+Fruit,+Luohan+Guo+Momordica+grosvenorii&hl=en&client=firefox&hs=0xC&rls=com.yahoo:en-US:official&tbm=isch&tbo=u&source=univ&sa=X&ei=GeRdUd3tFabE4AO14YH4AQ&ved=0CGAQsAQ&biw=1280&bih=854

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the Sterculia alata, Common Name(s): buddha's cocoanut,

Post  Admin on Fri Jul 26, 2013 10:12 am

Hi Everyone:

Here is a Commentary on Bountiful Trees and Vegetables God (YHWH) has provided for mankind, specifically the Sterculia alata, Common Name(s): buddha's cocoanut,

Buddha Coconut is a tall tree, which gets is name from its coconut like fruit. Leaves are carried on 3-10 cm long stalks, crowded towards the ends of branches. Leaves are blade broadly ovate-heartshaped, 10-25 cm long, 7-15 cm broad, wavy, smooth, pointed or tapering. Flowers are borne in small, few-flowered racemes. Flowers are 1-1.5 cm across, on 2-3 mm long stalks. Flowers have no petals, sepals are 5, nearly free, linear-lance- shaped or elliptic, 1.2-1.5 cm long, 3-4 mm broad, fleshy, densely ferruginous pubescent outside, sparsely pubescent and purple with red streaks within. Anthers in male flowers are united into 1-2 mm broad head on 4-6 mm long staminal column. In bisexual flowers sessile anthers are arranged in clusters of 4 or 5 in the sinuses formed by the carpels. Carpels are 5;ovaries sessile, 2-3 mm long, pubescent; style recurved. Fruit is large, woody, 7-12 cm in diameter, obliquely round. Seeds are about 40 per follicle, oblong, compressed, in 2 rows, winged. In India, seeds are eaten, and plant used medicinally. Buddha Coconut is native to India, and found variously in S.E. Asia. (source - retrieved from http://flowersofindia.net/catalog/slides/Buddha%20Coconut.html on 3/27/2013)
This is a rare tree of which little is known by the science community which is just now debating whether any part of the tree is edible.
In Genesis 1:11-13, "And God said, Let the earth put forth grass, herbs yielding seed, and fruit-trees bearing fruit after their kind, wherein is the seed thereof, upon the earth: and it was so. 12 And the earth brought forth grass, herbs yielding seed after their kind, and trees bearing fruit, wherein is the seed thereof, after their kind: and God saw that it was good. 13 And there was evening and there was morning, a third day. (American Standard Version, ASV)[for more details, go to www.jw.org].

View plant and fruit at, http://www.bing.com/images/search?q=+Sterculia+alata+Buddha+Coconut&qpvt=+Sterculia+alata+Buddha+Coconut&FORM=IGRE

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the Ziziphus mucronata, known as the Buffalo Thorn,

Post  Admin on Tue Jul 30, 2013 12:35 pm

Hi Everyone:

Here is a Commentary on Bountiful Trees and Vegetables God (YHWH) has provided for mankind, specifically the Ziziphus mucronata, known as the Buffalo Thorn, "blinkblaar-wag-'n-bietjie" in Afrikaans and "mphasamhala" in Tsonga, is a species in the Rhamnaceae family.

fruit & foliage

The Buffalo Thorn is a small to medium sized tree, reaching a height of about 10m (33ft). It can survive in a variety of soil types, occurring in many habitats, mostly open woodlands, often on soils deposited by rivers, and grows frequently on termite mounds.

Buffalo thorn has distinctive zigzag branchlets, and hooked and straight thorns.
The bark is a red-brown (on young stems) or roughly mottled grey which is cracked in small rectangular blocks revealing a stringy red underbark.
The fruit are roughly grape size, and ripen into a deep red.

Uses
Many farmers use the buffalo thorn as a natural fence, it is also becoming more popular for this reason in schools and domestic homes. Some Bantu tribes believe that it is safe to shelter under a buffalo thorn during a thunderstorm, as protection from lightning.

The leaves are edible, and can be cooked into tasty spinach; the fruit are also very nutritional, though not very tasty. The leaves can be used as an aphrodisiac, either by being chewed or used in dishes. During the Anglo-Boer war the stones were roasted and ground as a substitute for coffee. A beer can be made from the fruit. The Ovambo people call the fruit of the Buffalo Thorn eenghekete and use it to distill Ombike, their traditional liquor.[1]
The Buffalo Thorn also has medicinal properties, an extract of the roots is given as a painkiller and a solution of the bark and leaves in water is used for chest complaints.

References
1. ^ Shaanika, Helvy (26 October 2012). "Ombike – a potent traditional brew". New Era. (source - retrieved from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ziziphus_mucronata on 3/31/2013)

In Genesis 1:11-13, "And God said, Let the earth put forth grass, herbs yielding seed, and fruit-trees bearing fruit after their kind, wherein is the seed thereof, upon the earth: and it was so. 12 And the earth brought forth grass, herbs yielding seed after their kind, and trees bearing fruit, wherein is the seed thereof, after their kind: and God saw that it was good. 13 And there was evening and there was morning, a third day. (American Standard Version, ASV)[for more details, go to www.jw.org].

View plant and fruit at, https://www.google.com/search?q=Ziziphus+mucronata+Buffalo+Thorn&hl=en&client=firefox&hs=7fR&rls=com.yahoo:en-US:official&tbm=isch&tbo=u&source=univ&sa=X&ei=cLFYUfGnLfjl4APpioCoBg&ved=0CEMQsAQ&biw=1280&bih=854

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the Pleiogynium timorense, commonly known as the Burdekin Plum,

Post  Admin on Fri Aug 02, 2013 11:46 am

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Here is a Commentary on Bountiful Trees and Vegetables God (YHWH) has provided for mankind, specifically the Pleiogynium timorense, commonly known as the Burdekin Plum, is a medium-sized fruit-bearing tree native to Australia.

This semi-deciduous tree can naturally reach up to 20 m high but in cultivation generally grows to approximately 12 m. It has a dense canopy with glossy dark green leaves and rough dark bark. The tree has yellowish-green flowers which flower between January and March and later grow into a fruit. The fruit's flesh is generally plum coloured however, white varieties have been reported. The fruit is edible when ripe. Fruit must be removed from tree to ripen for several days in a dark, damp place. Native aboriginals are known to have buried the fruit underground to ripen. Fruit can be cooked, eaten raw or used in jellies, jams and preserves. [source - retrieved from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pleiogynium_timorense#cite_note-1 on 1/02/2013]

the Burdekin Plum has a dark grey trunk and often glossy, compound leaves. This tree can be found in vine thickets, gallery rainforest and along creek lines in tropical Queensland and Papua New Guinea.

Even within a small area, Burdekin Plum can be extremely variable in appearance and the fruit vary considerably in size, colour and taste. In the wild, fruiting occurs in the winter months and seeds are apparently dispersed by flying foxes and wallabies. As with its close relative, the Mango, the flowers are small and insignificant.

Seeds germinate readily if they have been soaked in a bucket of water for 24 hours prior to planting. Burdekin Plum can be a little slow in the first couple of years, but soon puts on some fairly rapid growth. Eight years seems to be the minimum age for fruiting. However, grafting may produce some interesting effects. Burdekin Plums are widely grown in Townsville gardens and revegetation projects. [source - retrieved from http://www.sgapqld.org.au/bushtucker7.html on 1/02/2013]

These plants have male and female flowers occurring on separate plants. The flowers are small and yellowish – green. Male flowers are on drooping branchlets, while the female flowers occur on spikes.

Fruit is globular and turns a deep purple colour, resembling a typical plum. This fruit is excellent for making jams but may often need ripening for days before they are soft enough to eat. It contains a large stone inside the flesh. Fruit attracts a wide variety of birds (eg Red-tailed Black Cockatoos), bats, insects and bees. These trees can grow on a broad range of soils. They are drought tolerant but look best when given extra water. They are slow growing and have been known to withstand harsh weather condidions. [source - retrieved from http://wiki.bdtnrm.org.au/index.php/Burdekin_Plum on 1/02/2013]

For pictures of the fruit, go to http://www.flickr.com/photos/tgerus/4559852611/

In Genesis 1:11-13, "And God said, Let the earth put forth grass, herbs yielding seed, and fruit-trees bearing fruit after their kind, wherein is the seed thereof, upon the earth: and it was so. 12 And the earth brought forth grass, herbs yielding seed after their kind, and trees bearing fruit, wherein is the seed thereof, after their kind: and God saw that it was good. 13 And there was evening and there was morning, a third day. (American Standard Version, ASV)[for more details, go to www.jw.org].

The large, black, globular or pumpkin-shaped fruit vary in taste. Those that have red-purplish flesh are quite tart, those with a pale greenish-white flesh are milder but less tasty. Some fruit are half red - half white, and these are delicious! This variety occurs naturally around Townsville.

The riper the fruit, the less unpleasant the drying effect of eating the fruit. In the centre is a large pitted stone which usually fills 70-80% of the total fruit. They do not ripen on the tree, but must be stored, either buried in sand or kept in paper bags in a dark spot for a few days.

They can either be eaten raw, cooked into jam or jelly, used to flavour meat, or to make wine. A ripe fruit is mostly water (73%), but has moderate levels of energy, fat, vitamin C and is high in fibre and most minerals. Analysis has shown that, like tree shape and fruit colour, the nutritional content is extremely variable between trees. [source - retrieved from http://www.sgapqld.org.au/bushtucker7.html on 1/02/2013]

This tree is very rare outside of Australia and New Guinea,
How this tree and other plants absorb water from the ground. Plants have developed an effective system to absorb, translocate, store, and utilize water. Plants contain a vast network of conduits, which consists of xylem and phloem tissues. These conducting tissues start in the roots and continue up through the trunks of trees, into the branches and then into every leaf. Phloem tissue is made of living elongated cells that are connected to one another and responsible for translocating nutrients and sugars (carbohydrates), which are produced by leaves for energy and growth. The xylem is also composed of elongated cells but once the cells are formed, they die. The walls of the xylem cells still remain intact and serve as an excellent peipline to transport water from the roots to the leaves.

The main driving force of water uptake and transport into a plant is transpiration of water from leaves through specialized openings called stomata. Heat from the sun causes the water to evaporate, setting this ‘water chain’ in motion. The evaporation creates a negative water vapor pressure. Water is pulled into the leaf to replace the water that has transpired from the leaf. This pulling of water, or tension, occurs in the xylem of the leaf. Since the xylem is a continuous water column that extends from the leaf to the roots, this negative water pressure extends into the roots and results in water uptake from the soil. [adapted from: http://www.scientificamerican.com/article.cfm?id=follow-up-how-do-trees-ca ]

Clearly this clever water transport system shows a superior intelligence of the Creator (YHWH).


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the Burmese grape (Baccaurea ramiflora, Phyllanthaceae (Euphorbiaceae))

Post  Admin on Mon Aug 05, 2013 2:34 pm

Hi Everyone:

Here is a Commentary on Bountiful Trees and Vegetables God (YHWH) has provided for mankind, specifically the Burmese grape (Baccaurea ramiflora, Phyllanthaceae (Euphorbiaceae))

The fruits of the Burmese grape may resemble those of longkong/lansat/duku of the mahogany family (Lansium domesticum, Meliaceae), but the Burmese grape has a more reddish tinge of both peel and pulp. Both fruits can be confused with longan fruit (Dimocarpus longan, Sapindaceae) of the litchi family, but longan pulp is one unit while Burmese grape and longkong have segments. The scientific nameBaccaurea is derived from Latin ‘bacca’ meaning ‘fruit’ and ‘aureus’ meaning ‘golden’. The Central Thai name is ‘mafai’.

The scientific name ‘ramiflora’ means ‘flowers grown on branches’. Most literature claim Burmese grape is dioecious, i.e. you would need a female plant individual to get the fruits. However, I have several times seen solitary trees far from any other tree individual, loaded with fruits. Where do these female trees get the pollen for fertilization? I spoke to Ketsanee’s parents who said that one tree is enough, contradicting the theoretical literature. Some literature also claims that female flowers are mainly born on the older branches and trunk, and male flowers mainly under the leaves. This individual has a bounty of flowering buds also far down on the main trunk and I am therefore most curious to see them when they open.

Other species of Euphorbiaceae may have plant individuals forming male and female flowers at different times, such as Jatropha podagrica, but according to my observations they may overlap for a short time. In the closely related tropical cranberry (Antidesma bunius,Phyllanthaceae) which we also grow here at Dokmai Garden, the male and female trees are indeed separated. The sexes still meet thanks to the terrible stench of the flowers, attracting carrion flies which perform the pollination. I can not detect any fragrance of the Burmese grape flowers.

The reason to separate male and female blossom, either in time or between individuals, is to promote cross-pollination, resulting in seeds with a higher genetic diversity to ensure survival in an ever changing world. In animals that is OK because males and females can seek up and find each other, but plants can not move. A lonely tree boy would be very lonely. The separation of boy and girl plants are rare in the plant kingdom (less than 10% of the plant species), and to my knowledge that would mostly occur in species forming natural monocultures, such as date, willow or governor’s plum. Burmese grape does not fit that profile so something fishy is going on. However, there are other mechanisms to prevent self-fertilization, so the actual number of plant species adapted to prevent that is greater.

Dicliny is a phenomenon where each flower is unisexual (either male or female, not androgynous like in the majority of plants). Coconut has dicliny but the two flower genders occur in the same inflorescence. A dioecious plant species has different male and female plants, like in date palms. Some plants like papaya may produce seeds which are either female, male or androgynous. Since Burmese grape is not a big commercial crop, and since old back-yard trees die with the older Thai generation, knowledge about it is scarce. Are the conflicting observations due to a mix-up of species, a mix-up of dioecious and monoecious cultivars like in papaya, the ability to form male and female flowers at different times or different sites in the same tree or unawareness of nearby males? I urge the Dokmai Dogma readers to share information from actual cultivation of the Burmese grape! We have to trust our eyes here, not sayings.
Another interesting question about its biology is what insects pollinate it? The male flowers are tiny, 2 mm, and the sepals are curved over the stamens, so I do not believe wind is a pollinator. When I studied the flowers under the microscope I saw thrips, and according to Haegens (Flora Malesiana) thrips as pollinators are a theoretical possibility. In the old world tropics, bees, beetles and flies are the most important pollinators. Again, please share if you know or if you have made observations!

Although Flora Malesiana claims Burmese grape is a species from primary rain forests, a statement repeated by Flora of Thailand, that can not be its restriction since it also grows in monsoon areas such as northern Thailand, Burma, Vietnam and Assam. However, judging from my own cultivation efforts and ‘A Field Guide to Forest Trees of Northern Thailand‘ it seems to demand evergreen forests. The Dokmai Garden seedling was planted in 2007 and did not take off until two years ago when it got sufficient shade from the adjacent evergreenArtabotrys hexapetalus (Annonaceae).

Although the fruits are frequently sold in the local markets, it is not commonly planted in the Chiang Mai valley so a sight is a delight. I believe the rare occurrence is due to its need for care (moisture and screen), while most local home gardeners are used to fruit trees they can grow without effort (e.g. mango, longan, banana, strawberry tree, guava, Indian jujube, tamarind, coconut, hog plum, papaya and pineapple).

The genus Baccaurea encompass many species in the Indomalayan and western Pacific regions, but very few species have been domesticated. In Flora of Thailand (8:1) Dr Kongkanda lists 12 species growing in Thailand. Baccaurea racemosa is another commercial species you may encounter further south in the markets of Malaysia and Indonesia.

Baccaurea ramiflora was coined by the Portuguese jesuit Joao de Loureiro in his Flora Cochinchinensis from 1790. [source - retrieved from http://dokmaidogma.wordpress.com/2013/02/05/burmese-grape/ on 5/24/2013]


In Genesis 1:11-13, "And God said, Let the earth put forth grass, herbs yielding seed, and fruit-trees bearing fruit after their kind, wherein is the seed thereof, upon the earth: and it was so. 12 And the earth brought forth grass, herbs yielding seed after their kind, and trees bearing fruit, wherein is the seed thereof, after their kind: and God saw that it was good. 13 And there was evening and there was morning, a third day. (American Standard Version, ASV)[for more details, go to www.jw.org].

To see pictures, go to, http://dokmaidogma.wordpress.com/2013/02/05/burmese-grape/

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Re: Almighty God’s (YHWH) Great Gift to Mankind, The Rare Fruit Trees and Herbs

Post  Admin on Wed Aug 07, 2013 11:32 pm

Ever wonder what causes fruit to ripen?

What Causes Fruit to Ripen?
The unripe fruit on the left is hard, green, sour, has no smell, and is mealy because of the presence of
starch. Fruits ripen because there is a ripening signal: a burst of ethylene production. Ethylene is
produced by rapidly growing tissue in the tips of roots,
flowers, ripening fruit and damaged fruit. Ethylene is a
simple hydrocarbon gas (H2C=CH2) that ripening fruits
make and shed into the atmosphere. Sometimes a
wound on the fruit will cause rapid ethylene
production. Just picking a fruit will sometimes signal it
to ripen. An infection of bacteria or fungi on the fruit
will signal the ripening process.
This ethylene signal causes developmental changes
that result in fruit ripening. New enzymes are made
such as hydrolases to help break down chemicals
inside the fruits, amylase to accelerate hydrolysis of starch into sugar, pectinase to catalyze digestion of
pectin, the glue between cells. Ethylene activates the genes that make these enzymes. The enzymes
then catalyze reactions to alter the characteristics of the fruit. The action of the enzymes cause the
ripening responses. Chlorophyll is broken down and sometimes new pigments are made so that the fruit
skin changes color to red, yellow, or blue. Acids are broken down so that the fruit changes from sour to
neutral. The digestion of starch by amylase produces sugar. This reduces the mealy quality and increases
juiciness. The breakdown of pectin between the fruit cells unglues them resulting in softer fruit. Enzymes
break down large organic molecules into smaller ones that are volatile, evaporating into the air around the
fruit causing an aroma.
If you think of this process in bananas, the ethylene signal causes the fruit to change from green to
yellow, from hard to soft, from mealy to juicy, from tart to sweet, from odorless to fragrant.
Commercial banana distributors use this naturally occurring gas when bananas are shipped to the U.S.
as hard, green, sour, unripen fruits When they arrive into a distributor's warehouse the bananas are put in
a room and gassed with ethylene; they all begin to ripen.
At home you can allow the bananas to ripen to the stage you like them and then put them in the
refrigerator. This slows the process down drastically. For several days after that you can take bananas
from the refrigerator and enjoy the fruit inside. The peel will turn very dark in color after only a short time
in the refrigerator but the fruit inside remains just as it was before you put the banana into the refrigerator.
Bananas can also be frozen, just peel the skin off and seal them in a plastic bag.
(source - retrieved from The February Member newsletter of the Palm Beach Chapter Of Rare Fruit Council, International on 2/9/2013)

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Well Here We See The Islamic Goal Of World Control – Read The Evidence

Post  Admin on Thu Aug 08, 2013 9:24 pm

Well Here We See The Islamic Goal Of World Control – Read The Evidence

Clearly they are NOT for freedom of religion.

The Return of Al Qaeda and Jihad
by Raymond Ibrahim
FrontPageMagazine.com
August 8, 2013
http://www.meforum.org/3575/al-qaeda-return
In the ousting of Muhammad Morsi and the Muslim Brotherhood in Egypt, al-Qaeda has been vindicated and the terror-jihad exonerated, in the opinion of many Islamists, that is.
According to the Associated Press, in a new video, al-Qaeda leader Ayman Zawahiri "said the military coup that ousted Egyptian President Mohammed Morsi provides proof that Islamic rule cannot be established through democracy and urged the Islamist leader's followers to abandon the ballot box in favor of armed resistance [i.e., jihad]."
In fact, in the Arabic video, Zawahiri gloats over two points that he has championed for decades despite widespread opposition: that the Brotherhood was foolish to engage in democracy and elections in the first place, and that the triumph of Islam can only be achieved through jihad.
Interestingly, these two points go back to a long but internal debate between nonviolent Islamists, like the Muslim Brotherhood, and violent jihadis, like al-Qaeda. While both groups pursue the same exact goals—a Sharia-ruling caliphate followed by the subjugation of the "infidel" world, according to Islamic teachings—they follow different strategies. The Brotherhood has long argued that, because the Islamic world is militarily weaker than the West, now is not the time for an all-out jihad, but rather a time for infiltration and subversion, a time for taqiyya and short-lived promises. Conversely, jihadis generally disavow pretense and diplomacy, opting for jihad alone.
Since the 1960s in Egypt, Ayman Zawahiri was an outspoken proponent of jihad (see "Ayman Zawahiri and Egypt: A Trip Through Time for a brief biography). In the early 1990s, he wrote an entire book titled Al Hissad Al Murr, or "The Bitter Harvest," where he argued that the Brotherhood "takes advantage of the Muslim youths' fervor by bringing them into the fold only to store them in a refrigerator. Then, they steer their onetime passionate, Islamic zeal for jihad to conferences and elections…. And not only have the Brothers been idle from fulfilling their duty of fighting to the death, but they have gone as far as to describe the infidel governments as legitimate, and have joined ranks with them in the ignorant style of governing, that is, democracies, elections, and parliaments."
Even so, after the terror strikes of 9/11, many became critical of al-Qaeda, whose actions were seen as setting back the Islamist agenda by creating more scrutiny and awareness in the West. The attacks further set off the U.S. invasion of Afghanistan and gave many Arab governments—including former President Mubarak's—free reign to suppress all Islamists. As Montasser al-Zayyat, Zawahiri's biographer, wrote:
The poorly conceived decision to launch the attacks of September 11 created many victims of a war of which they did not choose to be a part…. Bin Laden and Zawahiri's behavior was met with a lot of criticism from many Islamists in Egypt and abroad…. In the post-September 11 world, no countries can afford to be accused of harboring the enemies of the United States. No one ever imagined that a Western European country would extradite Islamists who live on its lands. Before that, Islamists had always thought that arriving in a European city and applying for political asylum was enough to acquire permanent resident status. After September 11, 2001, everything changed…. Even the Muslim Brotherhood was affected by the American campaign, which targeted everything Islamic.
If the West "targeted everything Islamic," that was obviously short lived; for, from a different perspective, the post 9/11 world has proven to be the heyday of the Muslim Brotherhood. For starters, many Islamists began to see the wisdom of the Muslim Brotherhood's strategy of publicly renouncing violence (jihad) and appropriating Western language and paradigms in an effort to infiltrate and subvert.
And it certainly worked: the Brotherhood got what they wanted; their strategy of opting for elections and renouncing jihad, coupled with a highly sympathetic Obama administration, culminated with the Brotherhood leaving Egypt's prisons and filling the highest posts of government, beginning with the presidency.
However, now that the Brotherhood and Morsi have been ousted, the jihadis—chief among them Zawahiri, leader of al-Qaeda—are in full "we told you so" mode, renewing the argument that Islamic Sharia can never be established through infidel democracy, but rather only through jihad, long recognized as the only way to force people—including Muslims themselves—to comply with Allah's rule on earth. And it's becoming harder for nonviolent Islamists to argue otherwise, especially the now disgraced Brotherhood.
Thus, among an increasing number of Islamists, al-Qaeda's strategy—jihad and terror—has been justified and may well return in full force. Indeed, it's in this context that one must understand recent news that the U.S. "ordered the unprecedented closure of embassies in 19 countries across the Middle East and Africa," a decision sparked by Ayman Zawahiri's recent communiques.
No doubt Western apologists will now argue that it's in the West's interest to support and make concessions to the Muslim Brotherhood, since the alternative will be a renewal in jihadi terror. However, aside from the fact that such an argument is tantamount to submitting to blackmail—or that the resumption of jihad is just another reminder that al-Qaeda and the Brotherhood are two faces of the same coin—is it not better to get the ugly truth out in the open now, while the U.S. still has some power and influence, rather than later, when it will likely be even more infiltrated and handicapped?
Raymond Ibrahim is author of Crucified Again: Exposing Islam's New War in Christians (published by Regnery in cooperation with Gatestone Institute, April 2013). He is a Shillman Fellow at the David Horowitz Freedom Center and an associate fellow at the Middle East Forum.
Related Topics: Radical Islam, Terrorism | Raymond IbrahimThis text may be reposted or forwarded so long as it is presented as an integral whole with complete and accurate information provided about its author, date, place of publication, and original URL.

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Interesting How Politian’s Who Are Members Of Islam Are Against The Rights Of Others – Read Reality

Post  Admin on Thu Aug 08, 2013 9:45 pm

Interesting How Politian’s Who Are Members Of Islam Are Against The Rights Of Others – Read Reality

Freedom Of Religion Is Swept Under The Rug.

Erdogan has abandoned his moderate facade
by Sam Nunberg
The Washington Times
August 8, 2013
http://www.legal-project.org/4175/silencing-a-secularist-in-turkey

The Turkish criminal courts have increasingly been used to further Turkish Prime Minister Recep Tayyip Erdogan's Islamist agenda through hate-speech prosecutions. The May 22 sentencing of Turkish-Armenian Sevan Nisanyan continues this disturbing trend of strangling political and social discourse.

Mr. Nisanyan is a man of many interests and talents. Linguist, journalist and hotel entrepreneur, Mr. Nisanyan is not only known for his guidebook to small, affordable hotels in Turkey, but also was awarded the 2004 Freedom of Thought Award by Turkey's Human Rights Association for advocating the open discussion on the Armenian genocide. In 2008, he authored "The Mistaken Republic: 51 Questions about Ataturk and Kemalism," arguing that Turkey's founder, Mustafa Kemal Ataturk, established a fascist dictatorship under the guise of nationalism. Mr. Nisanyan continues to frequently publish witty critical posts against the authoritarian bodies of the Turkish government on his blog, often with direct critiques on the Erdogan regime.

Following the worldwide protests last September by Muslims enraged by the release of the satirical YouTube film "The Innocence of Muslims," Mr. Nisanyan argued in a Sept. 29 post that such discourse should not be criminalized. While mocking Muhammad is "ugly," it does not constitute a "hate crime." Putting emphasis on the distinction, Mr. Nisanyan wrote:
"Mocking an Arab leader — who claimed that he contacted God hundreds of years ago and who gained political, financial and sexual profit from this — is not a hate crime. Almost at the level of kindergarten, it is a test case of the thing called 'freedom of expression.'"

Mr. Nisanyan subsequently explained that his 377-word posting was spawned by Mr. Erdogan's uproar over "that cheapo Muhammad film" and his demand that the West recognize "Islamophobia as a crime against humanity."

The post not only prompted 15 separate criminal complaints, but Deputy Prime Minister Bekir Bozdag, an Erdogan confidant, called on prosecutors to launch an investigation. Breeching the sovereignty of the Turkish judiciary, he declared, "I'm announcing a crime. This is a typical hate crime. It is a hate crime, and it is a crime that is defined in our penal code."
On Oct. 15, Mr. Nisanyan appeared on CNN Turk's "Contrary to the Questions" to discuss the "The Innocence of Muslims" riots and the Turkish government's denouncements of the film. The Supreme Board of Radio and Television fined the private broadcast on the grounds that Mr. Nisanyan's comments "insulted the Prophet Muhammad," "exceeded the boundaries of freedom of expression" and were "insulting and injurious" to society.

In April, a month before Mr. Nisanyan's trial, world-renowned pianist Fazil Say was handed a 10-month suspended jail sentence under Article 216(3) for tweets made in jest about a call to prayer and heaven. On April 15, European Union foreign-policy chief Catherine Ashton's office criticized Mr. Say's sentence, calling for Turkey "to fully respect freedom of expression." Three days later, Mr. Bozdag defended the conviction because Mr. Say "was swearing at someone's values," and "[n]obody should confuse freedom of thought with freedom of swearing."

With both Mr. Bozdag's public declaration of Mr. Nisanyan's guilt and endorsement of the Say verdict, combined with the radio-TV board's ruling, Mr. Nisanyan could not expect an impartial trial. Prosecuted under Turkish Criminal Code Article 216(3), which declares, "Any person who openly disrespects the religious belief of a group is punished with imprisonment from six months to one year if such act causes potential risk for public peace," the magistrate judge of course found Mr. Nisanyan guilty, sentencing him to a 13-month prison sentence, six weeks beyond the statutorily permissible punishment.


Currently appealing his conviction in the Court of Cessation, Mr. Nisanyan will have to serve the entire jail sentence should the magistrate's sentence be upheld. The sentence violates the European Convention on Human Rights' Article 6 (right to a fair trial) and Article 10 (freedom of expression). Mr. Nisanyan's next best course is an appeal with the European Court of Human Rights.

Reporters Without Borders immediately condemned the sentence as a "grave violation of freedom of information" and called for the immediate repeal of the "draconian" Article 216(3), which "has no place in a secular country such as Turkey."

While the Turkish government is secular, the Erdogan regime is not. Following his narrow 2002 victory, Mr. Erdogan declared, "Secularism is the protector of all beliefs and religions. We are the guarantors of this secularism, and our management will clearly prove that." Now in the 11th year of his rule, Mr. Erdogan has abandoned any moderate facade.
Neither the State Department nor any EU agency has issued a statement about Mr. Nisanyan's plight. At this critical juncture, human rights organizations should file appeals on his behalf in the European Court of Human Rights. It is imperative that the international community become engaged; otherwise, opinions will continue to be criminalized by the Erdogan regime.

Sam Nunberg serves as director of the Legal Project, an activity of the Middle East Forum.
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the Cabernet Grape, Cabernet Sauvignon

Post  Admin on Sun Aug 11, 2013 7:07 pm

Hi Everyone:

Here is a Commentary on Bountiful Trees and Vegetables God (YHWH) has provided for mankind, specifically the Cabernet Grape, Cabernet Sauvignon (French: [ka.b??.n? so.vi'???]) is one of the world's most widely recognized red wine grape varieties.

It is grown in nearly every major wine producing country among a diverse spectrum of climates from Canada's Okanagan Valley to Lebanon's Beqaa Valley. Cabernet Sauvignon became internationally recognized through its prominence in Bordeaux wines where it is often blended with Merlot and Cabernet Franc. From France, the grape spread across Europe and to the New World where it found new homes in places like California's Napa Valley, Australia's Coonawarra region and Chile's Maipo Valley. For most of the 20th century, it was the world's most widely planted premium red wine grape until it was surpassed by Merlot in the 1990s.[1]

Despite its prominence in the industry, the grape is a relatively new variety, the product of a chance crossing between Cabernet franc and Sauvignon blanc during the 17th century in southwestern France. Its popularity is often attributed to its ease of cultivation—the grapes have thick skins and the vines are hardy and resistant to rot and frost—and to its consistent presentation of structure and flavours which express the typical character ("typicity") of the variety. Familiarity and ease of pronunciation have helped to sell Cabernet Sauvignon wines to consumers, even when from unfamiliar wine regions. Its widespread popularity has also contributed to criticism of the grape as a "colonizer" that takes over wine regions at the expense of native grape varieties.[2] rican wine regions

Cabernet Franc
For many years, the origin of Cabernet Sauvignon was not clearly understood and many myths and conjectures surrounded it. The word "Sauvignon" is believed to be derived from the French sauvage meaning "wild" and to refer to the grape being a wild Vitis vinifera vine native to France. Until recently the grape was rumoured to have ancient origins, perhaps even being the Biturica grape used to make ancient Roman wine and referenced by Pliny the Elder. This belief was widely held in the 18th century, when the grape was also known as Petite Vidure or Bidure, apparently a corruption of Biturica. There was also belief that Vidure was a reference to the hard wood (French vigne dure) of the vine, with a possible relationship to Carménère which was once known as Grand Vidure.[2] Another theory was that the grapevine originated in the Rioja region of Spain.[3]

While the period when the name Cabernet Sauvignon became more prevalent over Petite Vidure is not certain, records indicate that the grape was a popular Bordeaux planting in the 18th century Médoc region. The first estates known to have actively grown the variety (and the likely source of Cabernet vines for other estates) were Château Mouton and Château d'Armailhac in Pauillac.[2]
The grape's true origins were discovered in 1996 with the use of DNA typing at the UC Davis Department of Viticulture and Enology, by a team led by Dr. Carole Meredith. The DNA evidence determined that Cabernet Sauvignon was the offspring of Cabernet franc and Sauvignon blanc and was most likely a chance crossing that occurred in the 17th century. Prior to this discovery, this origin had been suspected from the similarity of the grapes' names and the fact that Cabernet Sauvignon shares similar aromas with both grapes—such as the black currant and pencil box aromas of Cabernet franc and the grassiness of Sauvignon blanc.[2]



Sauvignon blanc
Offspring and White Cabernet
While not as prolific in mutating as Pinot noir nor as widely used in production of offspring, Cabernet Sauvignon has been linked to other grape varieties. In 1961, a cross of Cabernet Sauvignon and Grenache produced the French wine grape Marselan.[4] In 1977 a vine producing 'bronze' grapes was found in the vineyards of Cleggett Wines in Australia. They propagated this mutant, registered it under the name of Malian, and sold pale red wines under that name. In 1991 one of the Bronze Cabernet vines started producing white grapes. Cleggett registered this "White Cabernet" under the name of Shalistin.[5] Compared to its Cabernet parent, Malian appears to lack anthocyanins in the subepidermal cells but retains them in the epidermis, whereas Shalistin has no anthocyanins in either layer. The team that went on to discover the VvMYBA1 and VvMYBA2 genes that control grape colour have suggested that a gene involved in anthocyanin production has been deleted in the subepidermis of Malian, and then subepidermal cells invaded the epidermis to produce Shalistin.[6]

Viticulture
Cabernet Sauvignon leaf. In cooler climate conditions, vines will focus more energy in producing foliage, which is needed to capture sunlight for photosynthesis, rather than ripening grapes. This makes canopy management and aggressive pruning an important consideration for growers.[1]
While Cabernet Sauvignon can grow in a variety of climates, its suitability as a varietal wine or as a blend component is strongly influenced by the warmth of the climate. The vine is one of the last major grape varieties to bud and ripen (typically 1–2 weeks after Merlot and Cabernet franc[1]) and the climate of the growing season affects how early the grapes will be harvested. Many wine regions in California give the vine an abundance of sunshine with few problems in ripening fully, which increases the likelihood of producing varietal Cabernet wines. In regions like Bordeaux, under the threat of inclement harvest season weather, Cabernet Sauvignon is often harvested a little earlier than ideal and is then blended with other grapes to fill in the gaps. In some regions, climate will be more important than soil. In regions that are too cool, there is a potential for more herbaceous and green bell pepper flavours from less than ideally ripened grapes. In regions where the grape is exposed to excess warmth and over-ripening, there is a propensity for the wine to develop flavours of cooked or stewed blackcurrants.[2]

The Cabernet grape variety has thriven in a variety of vineyard soil types, making the consideration of soil less of concern particularly for New World winemakers. In Bordeaux, the soil aspect of terroir was historically an important consideration in determining which of the major Bordeaux grape varieties were planted. While Merlot seemed to thrive in clay and limestone based soils (such as those of the Right Bank regions of the Gironde estuary), Cabernet Sauvignon seemed to perform better in the gravel based soil of the Médoc region on the Left Bank. The gravel soils offered the benefit of being well drained while absorbing and radiating heat to the vines, aiding ripening. Clay and limestone based soils are often cooler, allowing less heat to reach the vines, delaying ripening. In regions where the climate is warmer, there is more emphasis on soil that is less fertile, which promotes less vigor in the vine which can keep yields low.[2] In the Napa Valley wine regions of Oakville and Rutherford, the soil is more alluvial and dusty. Rutherford Cabernet Sauvignon has been often quoted as giving a sense of terroir with a taste of "Rutherford dust".[7] In the South Australian wine region of Coonawarra, Cabernet Sauvignon has produced vastly different results from grape vines planted in the region's terra rosa soil – so much so that the red soil is considered the "boundary" of the wine region, with some controversy from wine growers with Cabernet Sauvignon planted on red soil.[8]

In addition to ripeness levels, the harvest yields can also have a strong influence in the resulting quality and flavors of Cabernet Sauvignon wine. The vine itself is prone to vigorous yields, particularly when planted on the vigorous SO4 rootstock. Excessive yields can result in less concentrated and flavorful wine with flavors more on the green or herbaceous side. In the 1970s, a particular clone of Cabernet Sauvignon that was engineered to be virus free was noted for its very high yields-causing many quality conscious producers to replant their vineyards in the late 20th century with different clonal varieties. To reduce yields, producers can plant the vines on less vigorous rootstock and also practice green harvesting with aggressive pruning of grape clusters soon after veraison.[2]
In general, Cabernet Sauvignon has good resistance to most grape diseases, powdery mildew being the most noted exception. It is, however, susceptible to the vine diseases Eutypella scoparia and excoriose.[1]

One of the older plantings of Cabernet Sauvignon in Washington State, planted in 1973 at Red Willow Vineyard in the Yakima Valley.

There are a couple of noted Cabernet Sauvignon flavors that are intimately tied to viticultural and climate influences. The most widely recognized is the herbaceous or green bell pepper flavor caused by pyrazines, which are more prevalent in under-ripened grapes. Pyrazine compounds are present in all Cabernet Sauvignon grapes and are gradually destroyed by sunlight as the grape continues to ripen. To the human palate this compound is detectable in wines with pyrazine levels as low as 2 nanograms (ng) per liter. At the time of veraison, when the grapes first start to fully ripen, there is the equivalent pyrazine level of 30 ng/l. In cooler climates, it is difficult to get Cabernet Sauvignon grapes to ripen fully to the point where pyrazine is not detected. The green bell pepper flavor is not considered a wine fault but it may not be desirable to all consumers' tastes. The California wine region of Monterey was noted in the late 20th century for its very vegetal Cabernet Sauvignon with pronounced green pepper flavor, earning the nickname of "Monterey veggies". In addition to its cool climate, Monterey is also prone to being very windy, which can have the effect of shutting down the grape vines and further inhibiting ripeness.[2]

Two other well known Cabernet Sauvignon flavors are mint and eucalyptus. Mint flavors are often associated with wine regions that are warm enough to have low pyrazine levels but are still generally cool, such as Australia's Coonawarra region and some areas of Washington State. There is some belief that soil could also be a contributor to the minty notes, since the flavor also appears in some wines from the Pauillac region but not from similar climate of Margaux. Resinous Eucalyptus flavors tend to appear in regions that are habitats for the eucalyptus tree, such as California's Napa and Sonoma valleys and parts of Australia, but there has been no evidence to conclusively prove a direct link between proximity of eucalyptus trees and the presence of that flavor in the wine.[2]

Winemaking
During the maceration period, color, flavor and tannins are extracted from the skins. The addition of stems and seeds will increase the tannic content of the wine.
In many aspects, Cabernet Sauvignon can reflect the desires and personality of the winemaker while still presenting familiar flavors that express the typical character of the variety. The most pronounced effects are from the use of oak during production. Typically the first winemaking decision is whether or not to produce a varietal or blended wine. The "Bordeaux blend" of Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot and Cabernet franc, with potentially some Malbec, Petit Verdot or Carménère, is the classic example of blended Cabernet Sauvignon, emulated in the United States with wines produced under the "Meritage" designation. But Cabernet Sauvignon can be blended with a variety of grapes such as Shiraz, Tempranillo and Sangiovese.[2] The decision to blend is then followed by the decision of when to do the blending—before, during or after fermentation. Due to the different fermentation styles of the grapes, many producers will ferment and age each grape variety separately and blend the wine shortly before bottling.[9]
The Cabernet Sauvignon grape itself is very small, with a thick skin, creating a high 1:12 ratio of seed (pip) to fruit (pulp).[10] From these elements the high proportions of phenols and tannins can have a stark influence on the structure and flavor of the wine—especially if the must is subjected to long periods of maceration (skin contact) before fermentation. In Bordeaux, the maceration period was traditionally three weeks, which gave the winemaking staff enough time to close down the estate after harvest to take a hunting holiday. The results of these long maceration periods are very tannic and flavorful wines that require years of aging. Wine producers that wish to make a wine more approachable within a couple of years will drastically reduce the maceration time to as a little as a few days. Following maceration, the Cabernet must can be fermented at high temperatures up to 30 °C (86 °F). The temperature of fermentation will play a role in the result, with deeper colors and more flavor components being extracted at higher temperatures while more fruit flavors are maintained at lower temperature. In Australia there has been experimentation with carbonic maceration to make softer, fruity Cabernet Sauvignon wines.[2]

The tannic nature of Cabernet Sauvignon is an important winemaking consideration. As the must is exposed to prolonged periods of maceration, more tannins are extracted from the skin and will be present in the resulting wine. If winemakers choose not to shorten the period of maceration, in favor of maximizing color and flavor concentrations, there are some methods that they can use to soften tannin levels. A common method is oak aging, which exposes the wine to gradual levels of oxidation that can mellow the harsh grape tannins as well as introduce softer "wood tannins". The choice of fining agents can also reduce tannins with gelatin and egg whites being positively-charged proteins that are naturally attracted to the negatively-charged tannin molecules. These fining agents will bond with some of the tannins and be removed from the wine during filtration. One additional method is micro-oxygenation which mimics some of the gradual aeration that occurs with barrel aging, with the limited exposure to oxygen aiding in the polymerization of the tannins into larger molecules, which are perceived on the palate as being softer.[3]

Affinity for oak
Large oak barrels, like these used in Tuscany bring less wine in contact with the wood and therefore leave the resulting wine with less oak influence.
One of the most noted traits of Cabernet Sauvignon is its affinity for oak, either during fermentation or in barrel aging. In addition to having a softening effect on the grape's naturally high tannins, the unique wood flavors of vanilla and spice complement the natural grape flavors of black currant and tobacco. The particular success of Cabernet-based Bordeaux blends in the 225 liter (59 gallon) barrique were a significant influence in making that barrel size one of the most popular worldwide. In winemaking, the decision for the degree of oak influence (as well as which type of oak) will have a strong impact on the resulting wine. American oak, particularly from new barrels, imparts stronger oak flavors that are less subtle than those imparted by French oak. Even within the American oak family, the location of the oak source also plays a role with oak from the state of Oregon having more pronounced influence on Cabernet Sauvignon than oak from Missouri, Pennsylvania and Virginia. Winemakers often use a variety of oak barrels from different locations and of different ages and blend the wine as if they are blending different grape varieties.[2]
Winemakers can also control the influence of oak by using alternatives to the standard barrique barrels. Larger barrels have a smaller wood-to-wine ratio and therefore less pronounced oak flavors. Winemakers in Italy and Portugal sometimes use barrels made from other wood types such as chestnut and redwood. Another method that winemakers consider is tea bagging with oak chips or adding oak planks to the wines while fermenting or aging it in stainless steel tanks. While these methods are less costly than oak barrels, they create more pronounced oak flavors, which tend not to mellow or integrate with the rest of the wine's components; nor do they provide the gradual oxidation benefit of barrel aging.[3]

Wine regions

Bordeaux
Armand d'Armailhac of Château d'Armailhac (bottle picture) and Baron Hector de Brane of Château Mouton were important figures in the establishment of Cabernet Sauvignon in Bordeaux.

The Bordeaux wine region is intimately connected with Cabernet Sauvignon, even though wine is rarely made without the blended component of other grape varieties. It is the likely "birthplace" of the vine, and producers across the globe have invested heavily in trying to reproduce the structure and complexity of Bordeaux wines. While the "Bordeaux blend" of Cabernet Sauvignon, Cabernet franc and Merlot created the earliest examples of acclaimed Cabernet Sauvignon wine, Cabernet Sauvignon was first blended in Bordeaux with Syrah, a pairing that is widely seen in Australia and some vin de pays wines from the Languedoc. The decision to first start blending Cabernet Sauvignon was partly derived from financial necessity. The sometime temperamental and unpredictable climate of Bordeaux during the "Little Ice Age" did not guarantee a successful harvest every year; producers had to insure themselves against the risk of losing an entire vintage by planting a variety of grapes. Over time it was discovered that the unique characteristics of each grape variety can complement each other and enhance the overall quality of wine. As a base, or backbone of the wine, Cabernet Sauvignon added structure, acidity, tannins and aging potential. By itself, particularly when harvested at less than ideal ripeness, its can lack a sense of fruit or "fleshiness" on the palate which can be compensated from by adding the rounder flavors of Merlot. Cabernet franc can add additional aromas to the bouquet as well as more fruitiness. In the lighter soils of the Margaux region, Cabernet-based wines can lack color, which can be achieved by blending in Petit Verdot. Malbec, used today mostly in Fronsac, can add additional fruit and floral aromas.[2]

DNA evidence has shown Cabernet Sauvignon is the result of the crossing of two other Bordeaux grape varieties— Cabernet franc and Sauvignon blanc— which has led grapevine historians, or ampelographers, to believe that the grape originated in Bordeaux. Early records indicate that the grape was a popular planting in the Médoc region during the 18th century. The loose berry clusters and thick skins of the grape provided a good resistance to rot in the sometimes wet maritime climate of Bordeaux. The grape continued to grow in popularity till the Powdery mildew epidemic of 1852 exposed Cabernet Sauvignon's sensitivity to that grape disease. With vineyards severely ravaged or lost, many Bordeaux wine growers turned to Merlot, increasing its plantings to where it soon became the most widely-planted grape in Bordeaux. As the region's winemakers started to better understand the area's terroir and how the different grape varieties performed in different region, Cabernet Sauvignon increased in plantings all along the Left Bank region of the Gironde river in the Médoc as well as Graves region, where it became the dominant variety in the wine blends. In the Right bank regions of Saint-Émilion and Pomerol, Cabernet is a distant third in plantings behind Merlot & Cabernet franc.[2]

In the wine regions of the Left Bank, the Cabernet influence of the wine has shown unique characteristics in the different regions. In Saint-Estèphe and Pessac-Léognan, the grape develops more mineral flavors. Aromas or violets are a characteristic of Margaux. Pauillac is noted by a strong lead pencil scent and Saint-Julien by cedar and cigar boxes. The Cabernet wines of the Moulis are characterized by their soft tannins and rich fruit flavors while the southern Graves region is characterized by strong black currant flavors, though in less intense wines over all.[2] The percentage of Cabernet Sauvignon used in the blend will depend on terroir and the winemakers styles as well as the vintage. The First Growth estates of Château Mouton Rothschild and Château Latour are noted for regularly producing wines with some of the highest percentage of Cabernet— often around 75%.[1]

A common factor affecting the flavors of Bordeaux wines is the harvest yields of Cabernet Sauvignon. Throughout Bordeaux there is a legal maximum permitted yield of 50 hectoliters (hl) per hectare (ha). With the aid of global warming and vigorous rootstocks, many Bordeaux vineyards can easily surpass 60 hl/ha, with some estates taking advantage of the legal loophole of plafond limite de classement ("ceiling limit classification") that permits higher yields during "exceptional" years. This has had an adverse effect on the quality of production from some producers who regularly use grapes harvested at excessive yields. In recent years there has been more of an emphasis on keeping yields low, particularly for an estate's Grand vin.[2]

Other French regions
The Bordeaux wine region accounts for more than 60% of the Cabernet Sauvignon grown in France. Outside of Bordeaux, Cabernet Sauvignon is found in varying quantities throughout Le Midi and in the Loire Valley. In general, Cabernet Sauvignon wines are lighter and less structured, drinkable much earlier than Bordeaux wine. In the southwest French appellation d'origine contrôlée (AOCs) of Bergerac and Buzet it is used to make rosé wine. In some regions it is used to add flavor and structure to Carignan while it is blended with Négrette in Gaillac and Fronton as well as Tannat in Madiran. In Provence, the grape had some presence in the region in the mid 19th century, when viticulturist Jules Guyot recommended it as a blending partner with Syrah. In recent years, several Midi wine estates, such as Mas de Daumas Gassac have received international acclaim for their Cabernet Sauvignon blended in Hérault, with Rhône grapes like Syrah. It is often made as a single varietal in the vin de pays of the Languedoc. The influence of Australian flying winemakers has been considerable in how Cabernet Sauvignon is treated by some Languedoc wine estates, with some producers making wines that can seem like they are from the New World. Overall, the grape has not exerted it dominance of the region, generally considered less ideally situated to the dry climate than Syrah. The Languedoc producers who give serious consideration to Cabernet Sauvignon, generally rely on irrigation to compensate for the climate.[1]

Italy


In the 1970s, Italian winemakers started to blend Cabernet Sauvignon with Sangiovese (pictured) to create wines known as "Super Tuscans".
Cabernet Sauvignon has a long history in Italian wines, being first introduced to the Piedmont region in 1820. In the mid-1970s, the grape earned notoriety and controversy as a component in the so-called "Super Tuscan" wines of Tuscany. Today the grape is permitted in several Denominazioni di origine controllata (DOCs) and is used in many Indicazione Geografica Tipica (IGT) wines that are made outside DOC perimeters in certain regions. For most of its history the grape has been viewed with suspicion as a "foreign influence" that distracts from the native grape varieties. After decades of experimentation, the general view of Cabernet Sauvignon has improved as more winemakers find ways to complement their native grape varieties with Cabernet as a blending component.[2]

In Piedmont, the grape was sometimes used as an "illegal" blending partner with Nebbiolo for DOC classified Barolo with the intention of adding color and more fruit flavors. In the DOCs of Langhe and Monferrato, Cabernet is a permitted blending grape with Nebbiolo as well as Barbera. Wines that are composed of all three grape varieties are often subjected to considerable oak treatment to add a sense of sweet spiciness to compensate for the high tannins of Cabernet Sauvignon and Nebbiolo as well as the high acidity of Barbera. There are varietal styles of Cabernet Sauvignon produce in Piedmont with qualities varying depending on the location. In other regions of northern Italy, such as Lombardy, Emilia-Romagna and Friuli-Venezia Giulia, the grape is often blended with Merlot to produce Bordeaux style blends. In the Veneto region, Cabernet Sauvignon is sometimes blended with the main grapes of Valpolicella-Corvina, Molinara and Rondinella. In southern Italy, the grape is mostly used as a blending component with local varieties-such as Carignan in Sardinia, Nero d'Avola in Sicily, Aglianico in Campania and Gaglioppo in Calabria.[2]

Cabernet Sauvignon has had a controversial history in Tuscan wine, particularly for its role in the arrivals of "Super Tuscan" in the mid-1970s. The origin of Super Tuscans is rooted in the restrictive DOC practices of the Chianti zone prior to the 1990s. During this time Chianti could be composed of no more than 70% Sangiovese and had to include at least 10% of one of the local white wine grapes. Many Tuscan wine producers thought they could produce a better quality wine if they were not hindered by the DOC regulations, particularly if they had the freedom to use Cabernet Sauvignon in the blend and not required to use white grape varieties. The marchese Piero Antinori was one of the first to create a "Chianti-style" wine that ignored the DOC regulations, releasing a 1971 Sangiovese-Cabernet Sauvignon blend known as Tignanello in 1978. Other producers followed suit and soon the prices for these Super Tuscans were consistently beating the prices of some of the most well known Chianti.[11] Other Tuscan wine regions followed suit, blending Cabernet Sauvignon with Sangiovese and even making varietal versions of the grape. Gradually the DOC system caught on and began allowing more regions to use the grape in their DOC designated wines. Cabernet Sauvignon in Tuscany is characterized by ripe black cherry flavors that can give a perception of sweetness as well as strong notes of black currant. The wines typically reach an alcohol level around 14% but can still maintain notable levels of acidity. When blended with Sangiovese in significant quantities, Cabernet Sauvignon can dominate the blend with most Tuscan producers aiming to find a particular balance that suits their desired style.[2]

Other Old World producers
In Spain, Cabernet Sauvignon is often blended with Tempranillo.(pictured)
The introduction of Cabernet Sauvignon in Spanish wine occurred in the Rioja region when the Marqués de Riscal planted cuttings from Bordeaux. By 2004, it was the sixth most widely planted red wine grape in Spain.[1] Today it is found in some quantities in every Spanish wine region, though it is not permitted in every Denominación de Origen (DO) designated region. In those areas, wines with Cabernet Sauvignon are relegated to less distinguished designations such as Vino de la Tierra or Vino de Mesa.[2] The grape is most prominent in the Catalan wine region of Penedès, where its use was revived by the estates of Bodegas Torres and Jean León. There the grape is often blended with Tempranillo. It is also primarily a blending grape in the Ribera del Duero, but producers in Navarra have found some international acclaim for their varietal wines.[3]

In the United Kingdom, English wine producers have experimented with growing the variety in plastic tunnels which can create a greenhouse effect and protect the grapes from the less than ideal climate of the wine region. While the grape is permitted to be planted in some German wine regions (such as the Mosel), the vineyard sites best suited for ripening Cabernet are generally already occupied with Riesling; many producers are ill-inclined to uproot the popular German variety in favor of Cabernet Sauvignon. In the 1980s, inexpensive Bulgarian Cabernet Sauvignon was highly touted for its value and helped to establish that country's wine industry and garner it more international presence in the wine market. The grape is performing a similar function for many countries in Eastern Europe, including Turkey, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Georgia, Hungary, Moldova, Romania, Russia, Slovenia, and Ukraine. It can be in the eastern Mediterranean wine regions of Cyprus, Greece, Israel and Lebanon.[2] In Russia there is the similarly named, but otherwise unrelated hybrid grape, Cabernet Severny that has begun to supplant Cabernet Sauvignon plantings due to its more consistent performance in that region's cooler climate.[1]

California
In California, Cabernet Sauvignon has developed its characteristic style and reputation, recognizable in the world's market. Production and plantings of the grape in California are similar in quantity to those of Bordeaux.[1] The 1976 Judgment of Paris wine tasting event helped to catapult Californian Cabernet Sauvignons onto the international stage when Stag's Leap Wine Cellars' 1973 Stags Leap District Cabernet Sauvignon beat out classified Bordeaux estates like Château Mouton Rothschild, Château Montrose, Château Haut-Brion and Château Léoville-Las Cases in a blind tasting conducted by French wine experts.[3] In the 1980s, a new epidemic of phylloxera hit California, devastating many vineyards, which needed replanting. There was some speculation that ravaged Cabernet vineyards would be replanted with other varietals (such as those emerging from the Rhone Rangers movement) but in fact California plantings of Cabernet Sauvignon doubled between 1988 and 1998; many wine regions— such as Napa Valley north of Yountville and Sonoma's Alexander Valley— were almost completely dominated by the grape varieties. It also started to gain a foothold in Dry Creek Valley, Sonoma Mountain and Mendocino County.[2] Cabernet from Sonoma County has shown a tendency to feature anise and black olive notes while Napa County Cabernets are characterized by their strong black fruit flavors.[3]
In California, the main stylistic difference in Cabernet Sauvignon is between hillside/mountain vineyards and those on flatter terrain like valley floors or some areas of the Central Valley. In Napa, the hillside vineyards of Diamond Mountain District, Howell Mountain, Mt. Veeder, Spring Mountain District have thinner, less fertile soils which produces smaller berries with more intense flavors, reminiscent of Bordeaux wines that require years of aging to mature. The yields are also much lower, typically in the range of 1–2 tons per acre in contrast to the 4–8 tons that can be produced in the more fertile valley floors.[2] Wines produced from mountainside vineyards tend to be characterized by deep inky colors and strong berry aromas. Throughout California there are many wine regions that have the potential to grow Cabernet Sauvignon to full ripeness and produce fruity, full-bodied wines with alcohol levels regularly above the Bordeaux average of 12–13%—often in excess of 14%.[3]

Old vine Cabernet Sauvignon at Chateau Montelena in Napa Valley. As the grapes mature they will darken to a bluish purple hue.

The use of oak in California Cabernet has a long history, with many producers favoring the use of new oak barrels heavily composed of American oak. After the early 1980s' unsuccessful trend to create more "food friendly" wines, with less ripeness and less oak influence, winemakers' focus shifted back to oak influence, but producers were more inclined to limit and lighten the use of oak barrels, with many turning to French oak or a combination of new and older oak barrels.[2]

Other American wine regions
After Merlot, Cabernet Sauvignon is the second most widely planted grape variety in Washington State. It is generally found in the warmer sites of the Columbia Valley. The vines are choice plantings for growers due to their hardy vine stalks and resistance to the cold winter frost that is commonplace in Eastern Washington. Washington Cabernet Sauvignon is characterized by its fruitiness and easy drinking styles that are not overly tannic.[2] Recent Washington American Viticultural Areas (AVAs) that have seen some success with their Cabernet Sauvignons include Red Mountain, Walla Walla Valley and parts of the Yakima Valley AVA near the Tri-Cities region.[3]

In Oregon there are small quantities of Cabernet Sauvignon planted in the warmer southern regions of the Umpqua and Rogue Valleys.[2] It has also started to develop a presence in the Arizona, New York, Texas and Virginia wine industries-particularly in the Texas Hill Country and North Fork of Long Island AVAs. Throughout the United States, Cabernet Sauvignon is made in both varietal and blended styles. Under the American system, varietal Cabernet Sauvignon can include up to 25% other grapes.[3]

South America
Cabernet Sauvignon is grown in nearly every South American country including Chile, Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Peru and Uruguay. In Chile, the wines were historically limited by the excessively high yields that were commonplace throughout the country. As producers begun to concentrate on limiting yields, regional differences began to emerge that distinguished Chilean Cabernets. For vineyard plantings along flat river valleys, the climate of the region is the most important consideration; as plantings move to higher elevations and along hillsides, soil type is a greater concern. The wines of the Aconcagua region are noted for their ripe fruit but closed, tight structure that needs some time in the bottle to develop. In the Maipo Valley, Cabernet Sauvignon wines are characterized by their pervasive black currant fruit and an earthy, dusty note. In warmer regions, such as the Colchagua Province and around Curicó, the grapes ripen more fully; they produce wines with rich fruit flavors that can be perceived as sweet due to the ripeness of the fruit. The acidity levels of these wines will be lower and the tannins will also be softer, making the wines more approachable at a younger age.[2]

In Argentina, Cabernet Sauvignon lags behind Malbec as the country's main red grape but its numbers are growing. The varietal versions often have lighter fruit flavors and are meant to be consumed young. Premium examples are often blended with Malbec and produce full, tannic wines with leather and tobacco notes.[2] In recent years, there have been increased plantings of Cabernet Sauvignon in the Uco Valley of the Mendoza Province; the wines coming from vineyards planted at higher altitudes garner some international attention.[3]

Australia
Unlike other clay-based soils, the free-draining terra rosa of Australia's Coonawarra region contributes to a unique style of Cabernet Sauvignon.
In the 1970s, the Coonawarra region first brought international attention to Australian Cabernet Sauvignons with intense fruit flavors and subtle minty notes. The Margaret River region soon followed with wines that were tightly structured with pronounced black fruit notes. In the 1980s, Australia followed California's contemporary trend in producing lighter, more "food friendly" wines with alcohol levels around 11-12% percent; by the early 1990s, the styles changed again to focus on balance and riper fruit flavors. Today Cabernet Sauvignon is the second most widely planted red wine grape in Australia, following Shiraz with which it is often blended. It can be found in several wine regions with many large producers using grapes from several states. Notable regional differences characterize Australian Cabernet Sauvignon: in addition to the wine styles of Coonawarra and Margaret River, the Barossa Valley produces big, full bodied wines while the nearby, cooler Clare Valley produces wines with more concentrated fruit, and wines of the Victorian wine region of the Yarra Valley are noted for their balance in acidity, tannins and fruit flavors.[2]
Other New World producers

Since the end of apartheid, the South African wine industry has been working to reestablish itself in the world's wine markets with many regions actively promoting their Cabernet Sauvignon. Today it is the most widely planted red wine grape in South Africa. It is produced in both varietal and blended styles; some producers favor a Bordeaux blend, while others follow the Australian example of blending with Syrah.[1] Early examples of South African Cabernet Sauvignon were produced by grapes planted in vineyard locations that were cooler than ideal, creating very herbaceous wines with the distinctive "green bell pepper" notes. In the mid-1990s, there was more emphasis on harvesting at fuller ripeness, and new clones were introduced that produced riper, sweeter fruit. As the vines age, and better vineyards locations are identified, regional styles are starting to emerge among South African Cabernet Sauvignons: the Stellenbosch region is noted for heavy, full bodied wines while Constantia's wines are characterized by their herbal and minty flavors.[2]

In New Zealand, climate has been a challenge in finding wine regions suitable for producing Cabernet Sauvignon. Most of the industry focus has centered on the North Island. The Hawke's Bay region was the first to make a significant effort in producing Cabernet Sauvignon but the cool climate of the region, coupled with the high yields and fertile alluvial soils, produced wines that were still marked with aggressive green and vegetal flavors. Added focus on canopy management, which gives the grapes more sunlight to ripen by removing excess foliage, and low vigor rootstock and pruning combine to achieve lower yields and have started to produce better results. The grape is sometimes blended with Merlot to help compensate for climate and terroir. Other regions in New Zealand have sprung up with a renewed focus on producing distinctive New Zealand Cabernet Sauvignon:[2] The Gimblett Road and Havelock North regions of Hawke's Bay, with their warm gravel soils, have started to achieve notice as well as Waiheke Island near Auckland.[3] Overall the grape lags far behind Pinot noir in New Zealand's red wine grape plantings.[1]

Popularity and criticism
In the past century, Cabernet Sauvignon has enjoyed a swell of popularity as one of the noble grapes in the world of wine. Built partially on its historical success in Bordeaux as well as New World wine regions like California and Australia, planting the grape is considered a solid choice in any wine region that is warm enough to cultivate it. Among consumers Cabernet has become a familiar wine which has aided in its accessibility and appeal even from obscure wine regions and producers. In the 1980s, the Bulgarian wine industry was largely driven and introduced to the international wine market by the success of its Cabernet Sauvignon wines. The widespread popularity of Bordeaux has contributed to criticism of the grape variety for its role as a "colonizer" grape, being planted in new and emerging wine regions at the expense of focus on the unique local grape varieties. Some regions, such as Portugal with its abundance of native grape varieties, have largely ignored Cabernet Sauvignon as it seeks to rejuvenate its wine industry beyond Port production.[2]

Wine styles
New World Cabernet Sauvignons, such as this one from California's Alexander Valley, often have more pronounced, ripe fruit flavors than Old World wines from regions like Bordeaux.

The style of Cabernet Sauvignon is strongly influenced by the ripeness of the grapes at harvest. When more on the unripe side, the grapes are high in pyrazines and will exhibit pronounced green bell peppers and vegetal flavors. When harvested overripe the wines can taste jammy and may have aromas of stewed black currants. Some winemakers choose to harvest their grapes at different ripeness levels in order to incorporate these different elements and potentially add some layer of complexity to the wine. When Cabernet Sauvignon is young, the wines typically exhibit strong fruit flavors of black cherries and plum. The aroma of black currants is one of the most distinctive and characteristic element of Cabernet Sauvignon that is present in virtually every style of the wine across the globe. Styles from various regions and producers may also have aromas of eucalyptus, mint and tobacco. As the wines age they can sometimes develop aromas associated with cedar, cigar boxes and pencil shavings. In general New World examples have more pronounced fruity notes while Old World wines can be more austere with heightened earthy notes.[2]

Ability to age
See also: Aging of wine
In the 19th and 20th centuries, a large part of Cabernet Sauvignon's reputation was built on its ability to age and develop in the bottle. In addition to softening some of their austere tannins, as Cabernet wines age new flavors and aromas can emerge and add to the wines' complexity. Historically this was a trait characterized by Bordeaux with some premium examples in favorable vintages having the potential to last for over a century, but producers across the globe have developed styles that could age and develop for several decades. Even with the ability to age, some Cabernet Sauvignon wines can still be approachable a few years after vintage. In Bordeaux, the tannins of the wines tend to soften after ten years and can typically last for at least another decade-sometimes longer depending on the producer and vintage. Some Spanish and Italian Cabernet Sauvignons will need similar time as Bordeaux to develop but most examples are typically made to be drunk earlier.[2]

While New World Cabernets are characterized as being drinkable earlier than Bordeaux, premium producers such as the Californian cult wines will produce wines that need time to age and could potentially develop for two to three decades. Overall, the majority of Californian Cabernets are meant to be approachable after only a couple of years in the bottle but can still have the potential to improve further over time. Similarly many premium Australian Cabernet will also need at least ten years to develop though many are approachable after two to five years. New Zealand wines are typically meant to be consumed young and will often maintain their green herbal flavors even with extended bottle aging. South American Cabernets have very pronounced fruit flavors when they are young and the best made examples will maintain some of those flavors as they age. South African wines tend to favor more Old World styles and typically require six to eight years' aging before they start to develop further flavors.[2]

Pairing with food
Fatty red meats, such as lamb, pair well with Cabernet Sauvignon due to the ability of proteins and fats to negate some of the tannic qualities of the wine.
Cabernet Sauvignon is a very bold and assertive wine that has potential to overwhelm light and delicate dishes. The wine's high tannin content as well as the oak influences and high alcohol levels associated with many regional styles play important roles in influencing how well the wine matches with different foods. When Cabernet Sauvignon is young, all those elements are at their peak, but as the wine ages it mellows; possibilities for different food pairings open up. In most circumstances, matching the weight (alcohol level and body) of the wine to the heaviness of the food is an important consideration. Cabernet Sauvignons with high alcohol levels do not pair well with spicy foods due to hotness levels of the capsaicins present in spices like chili peppers being enhanced by the alcohol with the heat accentuating the bitterness of the tannins. Milder spices, such as black pepper, pair better due to their ability to minimize the perception of tannins—such as in the classic pairings of Cabernet Sauvignon with steak au poivre and pepper-crusted ahi tuna.[3]

Fats and proteins reduce the perception of tannins on the palate. When Cabernet Sauvignon is paired with steak or dishes with a heavy butter cream sauce, the tannins are neutralized, allowing the fruits of the wine to be more noticeable. In contrast, starches such as pastas and rice will have little effect on tannins. The bitterness of the tannins can also be counterbalanced by the use of bitter foods, such as radicchio and endive, or with cooking methods that involve charring like grilling. As the wine ages and the tannins lessen, more subtle and less bitter dishes will pair better with Cabernet Sauvignon. The oak influences of the wine can be matched with cooking methods that have similar influences on the food-such as grilling, smoking and plank roasting. Dishes that include oak-influenced flavors and aromas normally found in Cabernet Sauvignon—such as dill weed, brown sugar, nutmeg and vanilla—can also pair well.[3]

The different styles of Cabernet Sauvignon from different regions can also influence how well the wine matches up with certain foods. Old World wines, such as Bordeaux, have earthier influences and will pair better with mushrooms. Wines from cooler climates that have noticeable vegetal notes can be balanced with vegetables and greens. New World wines, with bolder fruit flavors that may even be perceived as sweet, will pair well with bolder dishes that have lots of different flavor influences. While Cabernet Sauvignon has the potential to pair well with bitter dark chocolate, it will not pair well with sweeter styles such as milk chocolate. The wine can typically pair well with a variety of cheeses, such as Cheddar, mozzarella and Brie, but full flavored or blue cheeses will typically compete too much with the flavors of Cabernet Sauvignon to be a complementary pairing.[3]

Health benefits
See also: Wine and health
In late 2006, the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology published the result of studies conducted at the Mount Sinai School of Medicine that showed the beneficial relationship of resveratrol, a compound found in all red wine, in reducing the risk factors associated with Alzheimer's disease. The study showed that resveratrol found in Cabernet Sauvignon can reduce levels of amyloid beta peptides, which attack brain cells and are part of the etiology of Alzheimer's.[12] Resveratrol has also been shown to promote the clearance of amyloid-beta peptides.[13] It has also been shown that non-alcoholic extracts of Cabernet Sauvignon protect hypertensive rats during ischaemia and reperfusion.[14]

See also
* International variety
References
1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Robinson, J., ed. (2006). The Oxford Companion to Wine (Third ed.). Oxford University Press. pp. 119–121. ISBN 0-19-860990-6.
2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai Clarke, Oz (2001). Encyclopedia of Grapes. Harcourt Books. pp. 47–56. ISBN 0-15-100714-4.
3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n Goldstein, E. (2006). Perfect Pairings. University of California Press. pp. 134–139. ISBN 978-0-520-24377-4.
4. ^ Alley, L. (September 30, 2007). "New French Wine Grape Arrives in US Market". The Wine Spectator. p. 17.
5. ^ Cleggett wines: history and pictures of the gris and white mutants; Transcript of ABC show about bronze and white mutants
6. ^ Walker, A. R.; Lee, E.; Robinson, S. P. (2006). "Two new grape cultivars, bud sports of Cabernet Sauvignon bearing pale-coloured berries, are the result of deletion of two regulatory genes of the berry colour locus". Plant Mol Biol 62 (4–5): 623–635. doi:10.1007/s11103-006-9043-9.
7. ^ Rutherford Dust Society "About us" Accessed: February 22nd, 2008
8. ^ Stevenson, T. (2005). The Sotheby's Wine Encyclopedia. Dorling Kindersley. pp. 578–581. ISBN 0-7566-1324-8.
9. ^ D. Mouer "Meritage: What's in a Name" Wine Maker Magazine, August 2004
10. ^ For contrast, Sémillon has a 1:25 pip to pulp ratio.
11. ^ Ewing-Mulligan, M.; McCarthy, E. (2001). Italian Wines for Dummies. Hungry Minds. pp. 155 & 167–169. ISBN 0-7645-5355-0.
12. ^ J. Gaffney "Drinking Cabernet May Cut Risk of Alzheimer's, Study Finds", Wine Spectator Magazine, December 31, 2006, pg 17
13. ^ Marambaud P, Zhao H, Davies P. (2005-11-11). "Resveratrol promotes clearance of Alzheimer's disease amyloid-beta peptides". National Institute of Health.
14. ^ Fantinelli, J. C.; Mosca, S. M. (2007). "Cardioprotective effects of a non-alcoholic extract of red wine during ischaemia and reperfusion in spontaneously hypertensive rats". Clin Exp. Pharmacol. Physiol. 34 (3): 166–169. doi:10.1111/j.1440-1681.2007.04567.x. PMID 17250634. (source - retrieved from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cabernet_Sauvignon on 4/4/2013)

In Genesis 1:11-13, "And God said, Let the earth put forth grass, herbs yielding seed, and fruit-trees bearing fruit after their kind, wherein is the seed thereof, upon the earth: and it was so. 12 And the earth brought forth grass, herbs yielding seed after their kind, and trees bearing fruit, wherein is the seed thereof, after their kind: and God saw that it was good. 13 And there was evening and there was morning, a third day. (American Standard Version, ASV)[for more details, go to www.jw.org].

View vine and fruit at, https://www.google.com/search?q=cabernet+grape&hl=en&client=firefox&hs=EOW&rls=com.yahoo:en-US:official&tbm=isch&tbo=u&source=univ&sa=X&ei=btFdUcrWH66-4AOp6IGoDQ&ved=0CEoQsAQ&biw=1280&bih=854


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Francis David said it long ago, "Neither the sword of popes...nor the image of death will halt the march of truth."Francis David, 1579, written on the wall of his prison cell." Read the book, "What Does The Bible Really Teach" and the Bible today, and go to www.jw.org!



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the Citrofortunella microcarpa, the Calamondin or Calamansi,

Post  Admin on Wed Aug 14, 2013 12:06 pm

Hi Everyone:

Here is a Commentary on Bountiful Trees and Vegetables God (YHWH) has provided for mankind, specifically the Citrofortunella microcarpa, the Calamondin or Calamansi, is a fruit tree in the family Rutaceae native to the Philippine Islands and has been dubbed the calamondin, golden lime, panama orange, chinese orange, acid orange, calamonding, or calamandarin in English. It is believed to originate from China and has spread throughout Southeast Asia, India, Hawaii, the West Indies, Central and North America.[2] The plant is characterized by wing-like appendages on the leaf stalks and white or purplish flowers. Its fruit has either a spongy or leathery rind with a juicy pulp that is divided into sections.

The tree is the result of a hybrid between species in the genus Citrus and unknown in the wild. It is generally held that most species in cultivation are ancient apomictic hybrids and selected cultivars of these hybrids, including crosses with segregate 'citrus' genera such as Fortunella and Poncirus. Hybrids between Citrus genera and species have been cultivated for so long that the origins of most are obscure. The Calamondin is sometimes described as a hybrid 'native' to the Philippines.

The calamondin is a cross between Citrus reticulata (Mandarin orange group) and Fortunella japonica (Kumquat group). The calamondin is treated as an intergeneric hybrid in the nothogenus ×Citrofortunella as ×Citrofortunella microcarpa.


Citrofortunella microcarpa is a shrub or small tree growing to 3–6 metres (9.8–20 ft). The fruit of the calamondin resembles a small, round lime, usually 25-35mm in diameter, but sometimes up to 45mm. It has the orange color of a tangerine with a very thin green or orange colored peel.
The Calamondin bears a small citrus fruit that is used to flavor foods and drinks. Despite its outer appearance and its aroma, the taste of the fruit itself is quite sour, although the peel is sweet. Eating a whole fruit has a surprise with the combination of sweet and sour Calamondin marmalade can be made in the same way as orange marmalade. Like other citrus fruits, the calamondin is high in vitamin C.

The fruit can be frozen whole and used as ice cubes in beverages such as tea, soft drinks, water, and cocktails. The juice is extracted by crushing the whole fruit, and makes a flavorful drink similar to lemonade. A liqueur can be made from the whole fruits, in combination with vodka and sugar. In Asian cuisines, the juice is used to season fish, fowl, and pork. It is commonly used as a condiment in Filipino dishes like Pancit. Calamondin halves or quarters may be served with iced tea, seafood and meats, the acid juice is often employed like lime or lemon juice to make gelatin salads or desserts, custard pie or chiffon pie. In the Philippines, the extracted juice, with the addition of gum tragacanth as an emulsifier, is pasteurized and bottled commercially.

Cultivation
In North America, ×Citrofortunella microcarpa is grown primarily as an ornamental plant in gardens, and in pots and container gardens on terraces and patios. The plant is especially attractive when the calamondin fruits are present.
The plant is frost sensitive and therefore limited outdoors to frost-free climates (such as Florida, coastal California, south Texas, and Hawaii in the United States). Potted plants are brought into a greenhouse, conservatory, or indoors as a houseplant during the winter periods in regions with cooler climates.[4]

However in its native homeland in Southeast Asia, the Calamondin is easy to cultivate. The plant grows well in cool and elevated areas and in sandy soils rich in organic matter. Waterlogged areas are not suitable for cultivation because calamansi plants cannot tolerate too much moisture. Calamansi can be propagated by seeds using its vegetative parts. To produce big, luscious fruits, applying fertilizer, such as ammonium sulfate or urea, around each tree one month after planting is essential. The trees will start to bear fruit one or two years after planting. Trees have an average life span of five years

Medicine
Calamondin citrus has found several alleged alternative medicinal uses. When rubbed on insect bites, the juice will relieve the itching and reduce the irritation. It can also be used as a natural acne medicine or taken orally as cough medicine (often mixed with green tea), and is a natural anti-inflammatory. For problems with constipation the juice is warmed and diluted with water. It bleaches freckles and helps to clear up acne vulgaris and pruritus vulvae. In Malaysia, it is used as an antidote for poison, and a poultice of pandanus leaves mixed with salt and the juice of citrus microcarpa, can be used to treat abscesses. In Peninsular Malaysia, it is combined with pepper to help expel phlegm. Its root is used in the Philippines at childbirth. [source - retrieved from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Calamondin on 1/02/2013]
In Genesis 1:11-13, "And God said, Let the earth put forth grass, herbs yielding seed, and fruit-trees bearing fruit after their kind, wherein is the seed thereof, upon the earth: and it was so. 12 And the earth brought forth grass, herbs yielding seed after their kind, and trees bearing fruit, wherein is the seed thereof, after their kind: and God saw that it was good. 13 And there was evening and there was morning, a third day. (American Standard Version, ASV)[for more details, go to www.jw.org].

The calamondin plant can stay a dwarfed potted ornamental houseplant or grow into a 25-foot tall tree. Its shiny, evergreen, aromatic leaves are alternate singles about 3 inches long. The fragrant all-white flowers have five narrow, oblong petals. The calamondin fruit is round and averages 1.5 inches wide. The very thin peel is glossy dark green when unripe, turning bright yellow-orange as it ripens. The calamondin's pulp has about 10 segments that are very juicy and extremely tart.

Growth and Propagation
Calamondin trees are propagated through seeds, cuttings and budding. They are best grown outdoors, under full sun. They are sensitive to temperatures below 50 degrees F; therefore, potted plants grown in cool climates must be taken indoors during the winter. Calamondins thrive in clay-loam, limestone and sandy soil and start to bear fruit year-round in their second year.

Food Uses
Because of its sour and acid taste, calamondin is never eaten as a snack fruit. It is usually sliced into halves and squeezed to season fish and meat dishes or flavor ice tea, gelatins, pies and desserts. The fruit is also preserved in sugar to make pickles and marmalade, or added as special tart flavoring to chutneys, curries and sauces. The calamondin's acid properties make it an excellent tenderizer in pork and beef marinades. In the Philippines, the calamondin is a common cooking ingredient and a favorite dip for fried and grilled cuisine. [source - retrieved from http://www.ehow.com/about_5079023_calamondin.html on 1/02/2013]
How this tree and other plants absorb water from the ground. Plants have developed an effective system to absorb, translocate, store, and utilize water. Plants contain a vast network of conduits, which consists of xylem and phloem tissues. These conducting tissues start in the roots and continue up through the trunks of trees, into the branches and then into every leaf. Phloem tissue is made of living elongated cells that are connected to one another and responsible for translocating nutrients and sugars (carbohydrates), which are produced by leaves for energy and growth. The xylem is also composed of elongated cells but once the cells are formed, they die. The walls of the xylem cells still remain intact and serve as an excellent peipline to transport water from the roots to the leaves.

The main driving force of water uptake and transport into a plant is transpiration of water from leaves through specialized openings called stomata. Heat from the sun causes the water to evaporate, setting this ‘water chain’ in motion. The evaporation creates a negative water vapor pressure. Water is pulled into the leaf to replace the water that has transpired from the leaf. This pulling of water, or tension, occurs in the xylem of the leaf. Since the xylem is a continuous water column that extends from the leaf to the roots, this negative water pressure extends into the roots and results in water uptake from the soil. [adapted from: http://www.scientificamerican.com/article.cfm?id=follow-up-how-do-trees-ca ]

Clearly this clever water transport system shows a superior intelligence of the Creator (YHWH).


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Francis David said it long ago, "Neither the sword of popes...nor the image of death will halt the march of truth."Francis David, 1579, written on the wall of his prison cell." Read the book, "What Does The Bible Really Teach" and the Bible today, and go to www.jw.org!

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the California Bay Laurel, Umbellularia californica

Post  Admin on Sat Aug 17, 2013 12:33 pm

Hi Everyone:

Here is a Commentary on Bountiful Trees and Vegetables God (YHWH) has provided for mankind, specifically the California Bay Laurel, Umbellularia californica is a large hardwood tree native to coastal forests of California and slightly extended into the state of Oregon.[1] It is endemic to the California Floristic Province. It is the sole species in the genus Umbellularia.

The tree was formerly known as Oreodaphne californica.[2] In Oregon, this tree is known as Oregon Myrtle, while in California it is called California Bay Laurel, which may be shortened to California bay or California laurel. It has also been called pepperwood, spicebush, cinnamon bush, peppernut tree, headache tree,[3] mountain laurel,[4] and Balm of Heaven.[4]

The tree's pungent leaves have a similar flavor to bay leaves, though stronger, and it may be mistaken for Bay Laurel. The dry wood has a color range from blonde (like maple) to brown (like walnut). It is considered a world-class tonewood and is sought after by luthiers and woodworkers.

The tree is a host of the pathogen that causes sudden oak death.

This tree, on Permanente Creek in Rancho San Antonio Park, Santa Clara County, California, is one of the largest of its species in the state. Since this photograph, the tree was split, and half the tree broke off and fell in a storm. The other half is still thriving, and has more or less resumed the original canopy shape.

This tree mostly inhabits Redwood forests, California mixed woods, Yellow Pine Forest, and oak woodlands. Bays occur in oak woodlands only close to the coast, or in extreme northern California where there is sufficient moisture.
During the Miocene, oak-laurel forests were found in Central and Southern California. Typical tree species included oaks ancestral to present-day California oaks, as well as an assemblage of trees from the Laurel family, including Nectandra, Ocotea, Persea, and Umbellularia.[5][6] Only one native species from the Laurel family, Umbellularia californica, remains in California today.

Distribution
In the north, it reaches its distributional limit through SW Oregon to (infrequently) Newport Lincoln County, Oregon on the coast, extending from there south through California to San Diego County. It is also found in the western foothills of the Sierra Nevada mountains. It occurs at altitudes from sea level up to 1600 m.

Description
It is an evergreen tree growing to 30 m tall with a trunk up to 80 cm thick. The largest recorded tree is in Mendocino County, California, and measured (as of 1997) 108 feet (33 m) in height and 119 feet (36 m) in spread.[7]

Leaves
The fragrant leaves are smooth-edged and lance-shaped, 3–10 cm long and 1.5–3 cm broad, similar to the related Bay Laurel though usually narrower, and without the crinkled margin of that species.


Flowers open in late winter and early spring.
The flowers are small, yellow or yellowish-green, produced in a small umbels (hence the scientific name Umbellularia, "little umbel").

An unripe Bay nut
The fruit, also known as "California Bay nut", is a round and green berry 2–2.5 cm long and 2 cm broad, lightly spotted with yellow, maturing purple. Under the thin, leathery skin, it consists of an oily, fleshy covering over a single hard, thin-shelled pit, and resembles a miniature avocado. Umbellularia is in fact closely related to the avocado's genus Persea, within the Lauraceae family.[citation needed] The fruit ripens around October–November in the native range.

Uses
Historical usage
Umbellularia has long been valued for its many uses by Native Americans throughout the tree's range, including the Cahuilla, Chumash, Pomo, Miwok, Yuki, Coos and Salinan people.[8] The Concow tribe call the plant s?-?’-bä (Konkow language).[9]

The leaf has been used as a cure for headache, toothache, and earache—though the volatile oils in the leaves may also cause headaches.[10] Poultices of Umbellularia leaves were used to treat rheumatism and neuralgias.[11] A tea was made from the leaves to treat stomach aches, colds, sore throats, and to clear up mucus in the lungs.[12] The leaves were steeped in hot water to make an infusion that was used to wash sores.[11] The Pomo and Yuki tribes of Mendocino County treated headaches by placing a single leaf in the nostril or bathing the head with a laurel leaf infusion.[12]

The chemical responsible for the headache-inducing effects of Umbellularia is known as Umbellulone.[13]


Nearly ripe Bay nuts being prepared for roasting.
Both the flesh and the inner kernel of the fruit have been used as food by Native Americans. The fatty outer flesh of the fruit, or mesocarp, is palatable raw for only a brief time when ripe; prior to this the volatile aromatic oils are too strong, and afterwards the flesh quickly becomes bruised, like that of an overripe avocado.[14] Native Americans dried the fruits in the sun and ate only the lower third of the dried mesocarp, which is less pungent.[12]
The hard inner seed underneath the fleshy mesocarp, like the pit of an avocado, cleaves readily in two when its thin shell is cracked. The pit itself was traditionally roasted to a dark chocolate-brown color, removing much of the pungency and leaving a spicy flavor.[11] Roasted, shelled "bay nuts" were eaten whole, or ground into powder and prepared as a drink which resembles unsweetened chocolate. The flavor, depending on roast level, has been described variously as "roast coffee," "dark chocolate" or "burnt popcorn".[15] The powder might also be used in cooking or pressed into cakes and dried for winter storage.[11] It has been speculated that the nuts contain a stimulant;[16][17] however this possible effect has been little documented by biologists.

Modern usage
The leaf can be used in cooking, but is spicier and "headier" than the mediterranean bay leaf, and should be used in smaller quantity. Umbellularia leaf imparts a somewhat stronger camphor/cinnamon flavor compared to the mediterranean bay.[18]


Roasted Baynuts ready for eating, or grinding into a powdery paste for beverages and cooking.

Some modern-day foragers and wild food enthusiasts have revived Native American practices regarding the edible roasted fruit, the bay nut.[14][16][19]
Umbellularia californica is also used in woodworking. It is considered a tonewood, used to construct the back and sides of acoustic guitars. The wood is very hard and fine, and is also made into bowls, spoons, and other small items and sold as "myrtlewood".

Umbellularia californica is also grown as an ornamental tree, both in its native area, and further north up the Pacific coast to Vancouver in Canada, and in western Europe. It is occasionally used for firewood.

According to a modern Miwok recipe for acorn soup, "it is essential that you add a generous amount of California laurel" when storing acorns to dry, to keep insects away from the acorns.[20]

One popular use for the leaves is to put them between the bed mattresses to get rid of, or prevent, flea infestations.

"Myrtlewood" money
"Myrtlewood" is the only wood still in use as a base "metal" for legal tender.[21] During the 1933 "interregnum of despair" between Franklin Roosevelt's election and his inauguration, the only bank in the town of North Bend, Oregon—the First National—was forced to temporarily close its doors, precipitating a cash-flow crisis for the City of North Bend. The city solved this problem by minting its own currency, using myrtlewood discs printed on a newspaper press. These coins, in denominations from 25 cents to $10, were used to pay employees, with the city promising to redeem them for cash as soon as it became available.

However, when the bank reopened and the city appealed for people to bring their myrtlewood money in to redeem it, many opted to keep their tokens as collector's items. After several appeals, the city announced that the tokens would remain legal tender in the city of North Bend in perpetuity. The unredeemed tokens have become very valuable, because of scarcity and historical interest. Fewer than 10 full sets are believed to exist.[22]

Sudden oak death
Umbellularia californica is a host of Phytophthora ramorum, the pathogen that causes the disease sudden oak death. It is important in this sense because it is one of two tree species (tanoak is the other) on which the pathogen readily produces spores.[23]

References
1. ^ "Umbellularia californica (Hook. & Arn.) Nutt.". CalFlora. Retrieved 2012-02-05.
2. ^ "The Plant List".
3. ^ Nassini, R. et al (2011). "The 'headache tree' via umbellulone and TRPA1 activates the trigeminovascular system". Brain (Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press) 125.
4. ^ a b John Henry Clarke (1986). A Dictionary of Practical Materia Medica. B. Jain Publishers/Médi-T. ISBN 8170210135, 9788170210139.
5. ^ Axelrod, D. I. (2000). "A Miocene (10-12 Ma) Evergreen Laurel-Oak Forest from Carmel Valley, California". University of California Publications: Geological Sciences (Berkeley, CA, USA: University of California Press) 145.
6. ^ Barbour, M. G.; Keeler-Wolf, T.; Schoenherr A. A. (2007). Terrestrial Vegetation of California. Berkeley, CA, USA: University of California Press. p. 56.
7. ^ "National register of big trees: California-laurel: Umbellularia californica". Retrieved 2012-09-21.
8. ^ "Umbellularia Californica". USDA Plant Guide.
9. ^ Chesnut, Victor King (1902). Plants used by the Indians of Mendocino County, California. Government Printing Office. p. 408. Retrieved 24 August 2012.
10. ^ Barrett, S. A.; Gifford, E. W. (1933) (PDF). Miwok Material Culture. Board of Trustees of the Public Museum of the City of Milwaukee. p. 360. ISBN 978-1-4286-6168-4.
11. ^ a b c d Goodrich, J. S.; Lawson, C.; Lawson, V. P. (1980). Kashaya Pomo Plants. Heyday Books. p. 176. ISBN 978-0-930588-86-1.
12. ^ a b c Chesnut, V. K. (1902). Plants Used by the Indians of Mendocino County, California. Contributions from the U.S. National Herbarium Vol. VII. Reprinted 1974 by Mendocino County Historical Society. p. 114. ISBN [[Special:BookSources/2940005197115|2940005197115]].
13. ^ Nassini, R.; Materazzi, S.; Vriens, J.; Prenen, J.; Benemei, S.; De Siena, G.; La Marca, G.; Andre, E. et al. (2011). "The 'headache tree' via umbellulone and TRPA1 activates the trigeminovascular system". Brain 135 (Pt 2): 376–90. doi:10.1093/brain/awr272. PMID 22036959. edit
14. ^ a b FeralKevin: Foraging, Bushcraft, Permaculture, and Rewilding blog.
15. ^ Kelly, I. (1978). Coast Miwok. Handbook of North American Indians. 8. Smithsonian Institution. p. 108. ISBN 0-16-004574-6.
16. ^ a b "The California Bay Laurel". Paleotechnics. Paleotechnics.com.
17. ^ Moerman, D. E. (1998). Native American Ethnobotany. Timber Press. p. 927. ISBN 978-0-88192-453-4.
18. ^ Vizgirdas, R. S.; Rey-Vizgirdas, E. M. (2006). Wild Plants of the Sierra Nevada. University of Nevada Press. p. 108. ISBN 978-0-87417-535-6.
19. ^ Sunny Savage (March 6, 2008). "California Bay Laurel". Wild Food Plants (blog). Retrieved 2012-09-21.
20. ^ "Nupa (Acorn) Soup". NativeTech: Indigenous Food and Traditional Recipes. Retrieved 2012-09-16.
21. ^ "Myrtle Tree Story". Realoregongift.com. Retrieved 2012-08-17.
22. ^ Finn J.D. John (August 29, 2010). "When banks closed, town of North Bend minted its own money — out of wood". Offbeat Oregon History. Retrieved 2012-08-17.
23. ^ "UC Tries to Stop Northward Movement of Sudden Oak Death". University of California, Division of Agriculture and Natural Resources. May 3, 2006. Retrieved 2012-09-21. (source - retrieved from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Umbellularia on 3/9/2013)

In Genesis 1:11-13, "And God said, Let the earth put forth grass, herbs yielding seed, and fruit-trees bearing fruit after their kind, wherein is the seed thereof, upon the earth: and it was so. 12 And the earth brought forth grass, herbs yielding seed after their kind, and trees bearing fruit, wherein is the seed thereof, after their kind: and God saw that it was good. 13 And there was evening and there was morning, a third day. (American Standard Version, ASV)[for more details, go to www.jw.org].

For a picture of California Bay Laurel and more information on it, go to, http://www.smgrowers.com/products/plants/plantdisplay.asp?plant_id=1577

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Re: Almighty God’s (YHWH) Great Gift to Mankind, The Rare Fruit Trees and Herbs

Post  Admin on Tue Aug 20, 2013 10:08 am

Hi Everyone:

Here is a Commentary on Bountiful Trees and Vegetables God (YHWH) has provided for mankind, specifically the Campanula rapunculus, common name Rampion Bellflower, Rampion, or Rover Bellflower, is a species of bellflower (Campanula) in the family Campanulaceae.[1]

This species was once widely grown in Europe for its leaves, which were used like spinach, and its parsnip-like root, which was used like a radish.[2] The Brothers Grimm's tale Rapunzel may have taken its name from this plant.

The genus Latin name (“campanula”), meaning small bell, refers to the bell-shape of the flower, while the specific name (“rapunculus”) is a diminutive of the Latin “rapa” (turnip) and means 'little turnip', which refers to the shape of the root.

Description

Close-up on flower of Campanula rapunculus
This biennial herbaceous plant reaches on average 40–80 centimetres (16–31 in) of height, with a maximum of 100 centimetres (39 in) . The stem is erect, lightly hairy, branched on the top. The basal leaves are petiolated, ovate, slightly toothed and arranged in a rosette, while the upper leaves are sessile and narrow lanceolate. The hermaphrodite flowers are clustered in a racemose inflorescence, with a bell-shaped, light blue or violet corolla, about two centimeters long. They are arranged along the stem in a fairly narrow one-sided facing cluster. The flowering period extends from May through September. The fruit is a dehiscent capsule in the form of inverted cone with many seeds. The thick root looks like a small turnip and it is edible.

Distribution

Campanula rapunculus is present in western Asia, northern Africa and in most of Europe, except Iceland, Ireland and Norway. It has been introduced in Denmark, southern Sweden and Great Britain

Habitat

This species prefers limestone soils and grows in dry meadows, cultivated beds, forests of oaks and pine trees, along roadsides and lane, at an altitude of 0–1,500 metres (0–4,900 ft) above sea level.

Synonyms

* Campanula elatior Hoffmanns. & Link[disambiguation needed]
* Campanula lusitanica f. bracteosa (Willk.) Cout.
* Campanula lusitanica f. racemoso-paniculata (Willk.) Cout.
* Campanula lusitanica f. verruculosa (Hoffmanns. & Link) Cout.
* Campanula lusitanica var. cymoso-spicata (Willk.) Cout.
* Campanula lusitanica auct.
* Campanula verruculosa Hoffmanns. & Link

Notes

1. ^ Anderberg, Arne; Anderberg, Anna-Lena. "Campanula rapunculus". Den virtuella floran (in Swedish). Swedish Museum of Natural History. Retrieved 27 November 2010.
2. ^ "Rampion". Encyclopedia Americana. 1920.

References

* Pignatti S. - Flora d'Italia – Edagricole – 1982, Vol. II, pag. 687 [source - retrieved from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Campanula_rapunculus on 6/21/2013]

In Genesis 1:11-13, "And God said, Let the earth put forth grass, herbs yielding seed, and fruit-trees bearing fruit after their kind, wherein is the seed thereof, upon the earth: and it was so. 12 And the earth brought forth grass, herbs yielding seed after their kind, and trees bearing fruit, wherein is the seed thereof, after their kind: and God saw that it was good. 13 And there was evening and there was morning, a third day. (American Standard Version, ASV)[for more details, go to www.jw.org].

See pictures at, https://www.google.com/search?q=Campanula+Rapunculus&client=firefox-a&hs=J2X&rls=org.mozilla:en-US:official&tbm=isch&tbo=u&source=univ&sa=X&ei=t_LEUYi1EYaG9QTg9IGgCg&ved=0CDsQsAQ&biw=1280&bih=833

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Your Friend in Christ Iris89

Francis David said it long ago, "Neither the sword of popes...nor the image of death will halt the march of truth."Francis David, 1579, written on the wall of his prison cell." Read the book, "What Does The Bible Really Teach" and the Bible today, and go to www.jw.org!


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the Myrciaria dubia, commonly known as Camu camu, Camucamu, Cacari, and Camocamo,

Post  Admin on Fri Aug 23, 2013 10:33 am


Hi Everyone:

Here is a Commentary on Bountiful Trees and Vegetables God (YHWH) has provided for mankind, specifically the Myrciaria dubia, commonly known as Camu camu, Camucamu, Cacari, and Camocamo, is a small (approx. 3–5 m tall) bushy riverside tree from the Amazon rainforest vegetation in Peru and Brazil, which bears a red/purple cherry-like fruit. It is a close relative of the Jaboticaba (Myrciaria cauliflora) and the Guavaberry or Rumberry (Myrciaria floribunda). The extraordinarily high Vitamin C content (in the order of 2–3% of fresh weight) is the most important property of the fruit, which has been exploited in positioning camu camu on international markets.
The features of this tree are as follows:

Description
Camu camu has small flowers with waxy white petals and a sweet-smelling aroma. It has bushy feathery foliage. The evergreen, opposite leaves are lanceolate to elliptic. Individual leaves are 3–20 cm in length and 1–2 cm wide.

Native range
The current range of Camu camu comprises the Amazonian lowlands of Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia and Brazil. The distribution of Camu camu extends from the center of Pará state, Brazil, along the mid and upper Amazon River to the eastern part of Peru; in the north it appears in the Casiquiare and the upper and middle Orinoco River. In Brazil it is found in Rondônia along the Maçangana and Urupa Rivers and in Amazonas, in the municipalities of Manaus and Manacapuru and along the Javarí, Madeira and Negro Rivers.

Harvest
Long used by native peoples, wild Camu camu fruit is harvested directly into canoes. The fruit has only recently come into large-scale cultivation and sale to the world market with Japan being the major buyer. It is relatively easy to cultivate. It survives best in hot, damp tropical climates but will grow in the subtropics, surviving temperatures down to just above freezing. It requires copious water. Fair trade is present in low-land production from the Association of Camu Camu Producers of the Peruvian Amazon.

The tree occurs in locally dense populations (1000/ha) or even monospecific stands in Amazonian flood plains and riparian vegetation. The plant is extremely tolerant of flooding, withstanding 4 to 5 months with the roots and even much of the aerial parts submerged in water. The species propagates through seeds. In cultivation, the tree begins bearing fruits after attaining 2 cm in stem girth (three years after emergence of the seedling). Plants flower at the end of the dry season and fruit at the peak of the rainy season. Observations with both wild and cultivated plants suggest that trees can remain productive for several decades.

Wild trees have been found to yield 12 kg of fruit on average. At suggested planting densities of 600–1100 trees/ha, about 12 t fruit can be derived in cultivation from one hectare. However, with improved horticultural techniques, such as the use of clonal elite material, pruning and fertilization, much higher yields could be achieved.

Uses
Documentation of traditional Camu camu uses is scarce. It is unlikely that in traditional Amazonian societies Camu camu has ever been nutritionally relevant. The fruit is extremely acidic, and the flavour can only be appreciated in recipes requiring a blender, dilution in milk/water and the addition of sugar.
Camu camu has an extraordinarily high vitamin C content (in the order of 2–3% of fresh weight,[1] second only to the Australian native Terminalia ferdinandiana) and is the most important property of the Camu camu fruit, which has been exploited consistently in positioning Camu camu on international markets. Vitamin C content declines as full maturity is reached, and there is a trade-off between vitamin C and flavour expression. As a myrtaceous fruit, Camu camu most likely provides other nutritional benefits,[citation needed] but these are less understood and communicated to consumers. Camu camu has also a unique aroma and fruit pigmentation. A reddish pigment in the leathery skin (probably anthocyanins) imparts an attractive and unique pink color on juices extracted from Camu camu. The aroma is subtle, but is not as captivating as in more popular fruits. Camu camu is more recently also used in ice creams, sweets, etc.
Processed powder from the fruit pulp is beginning to be sold in the west as a health food in loose powder or capsule form. In addition to the high vitamin C content it contains the amino acids valine, leucine and serine.[2]
It is also rich in flavonoids, such as anthocyanins, flavonols and flavanols, catechins, delphinidin 3-glucoside, cyanidin 3-glucoside, ellagic acid and rutin; other analysis revealed the presence of gallic and ellagic acids, suggesting that Camu camu fruit possesses hydrolyzed tannins (gallo- and/or ellagitannins).[3]

* Constraints to the expansion of current usePrice. At FOB prices in Peru soaring to USD 3500 per ton of single-strength juice, Camu camu is 4–5 times more expensive than comparable fruit pulps and even concentrates. The high price of Camu camu is a consequence of the difficult logistics involved in production for off-site consumption. The fruits are locally collected, processed and frozen, then shipped over long distances, and exported via ocean freight. The high price of Camu camu obviously limits demand.[citation needed]
* Competition from natural sources of vitamin C. Concentrates and extracts of rose hips, acerola (a Malpighiaceous fruit) are less expensive per unit of vitamin C, probably because of economies of scale.[citation needed]
* Irregularity of quality and timing of raw material supplies from wild populations. Prices paid to fruit collectors on the Rio Napo in Peru in Jan 2006 soared to $1/kg fresh fruit because of drought-induced low harvests. Local markets are still able to pay such prices for limited quantities, but local processors and exporters have been put out of business, at least until prices relax to make the purchase of raw material affordable again. Exporters insure themselves against irregular raw material supplies by maintaining large stocks of frozen finished produce, but this further adds to cost.[citation needed]
* Food safety legislation in export markets. As a food product Camu camu has probably not been available in the EU prior 1997 and may therefore be subject to the Novel Food Regulation (NFR), which requires very stringent food safety requirements to be met before a product is granted access to the community’s market. The scientific documentation as to the toxicity, nutritional composition and potential allergenic hazards required by NFR is currently not available. The NFR has discouraged investment in export-oriented supply chains and has emerged as a serious constraint to many NUS products (see external links to GFU documentation, Hermann 2004).

References
1. ^ Peruvian Camu Camu fruit conquers Japan Percy Takayama, Living in Peru - Business, February 12, 2007. Accessed July 2012.
2. ^ 3rd Party Research - Camu Camu Mama Camu
3. ^ Antioxidant compounds and antioxidant capacity of Peruvian camu camu (Myrciaria dubia (H.B.K.) McVaugh) fruit at different maturity stages. Rosana Chirinos, Jorge Galarza, Indira Betalleluz-Pallardel, Romina Pedreschi and David Campos, Food Chemistry, Volume 120, Issue 4, 15 June 2010, Pages 1019-1024, doi:10.1016/j.foodchem.2009.11.041
* Penn, J.W., Jr. 2006. The cultivation of camu camu (Myrciaria dubia): A camel urine harvesting programme in the Peruvian Amazon. Forests, Trees and Livelihoods. Vol. 16 (1), pp. 85–101. [source - retrieved from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/CamuCamu on 1/02/2013]
In Genesis 1:11-13, "And God said, Let the earth put forth grass, herbs yielding seed, and fruit-trees bearing fruit after their kind, wherein is the seed thereof, upon the earth: and it was so. 12 And the earth brought forth grass, herbs yielding seed after their kind, and trees bearing fruit, wherein is the seed thereof, after their kind: and God saw that it was good. 13 And there was evening and there was morning, a third day. (American Standard Version, ASV)[for more details, go to www.jw.org].

Myrciaria dubia

This is a small, round fruit that is usually red to dark purple that is very rich in vitamin ‘C’ and has over 100 times the amount of this vitamin, per weight, as does the orange.

It does best in hot, damp tropical climates but will grow in the subtropics such as extreme south Florida, and can survive temperatures down to 32 degrees F. It requires a lot of water and will stand intermittent flooding. It can be propagated from seeds.

While it can be eaten fresh, although the pulp is very acidic; it is usually used to flavor drinks, ice creams, etc.

How this tree and other plants absorb water from the ground. Plants have developed an effective system to absorb, translocate, store, and utilize water. Plants contain a vast network of conduits, which consists of xylem and phloem tissues. These conducting tissues start in the roots and continue up through the trunks of trees, into the branches and then into every leaf. Phloem tissue is made of living elongated cells that are connected to one another and responsible for translocating nutrients and sugars (carbohydrates), which are produced by leaves for energy and growth. The xylem is also composed of elongated cells but once the cells are formed, they die. The walls of the xylem cells still remain intact and serve as an excellent peipline to transport water from the roots to the leaves.

The main driving force of water uptake and transport into a plant is transpiration of water from leaves through specialized openings called stomata. Heat from the sun causes the water to evaporate, setting this ‘water chain’ in motion. The evaporation creates a negative water vapor pressure. Water is pulled into the leaf to replace the water that has transpired from the leaf. This pulling of water, or tension, occurs in the xylem of the leaf. Since the xylem is a continuous water column that extends from the leaf to the roots, this negative water pressure extends into the roots and results in water uptake from the soil. [adapted from: http://www.scientificamerican.com/article.cfm?id=follow-up-how-do-trees-ca ]

Clearly this clever water transport system shows a superior intelligence of the Creator (YHWH).


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Francis David said it long ago, "Neither the sword of popes...nor the image of death will halt the march of truth."Francis David, 1579, written on the wall of his prison cell." Read the book, "What Does The Bible Really Teach" and the Bible today, and go to www.jw.org!

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the Canary Island Date Palm, Phoenix canariensis

Post  Admin on Mon Aug 26, 2013 11:57 am

Hi Everyone:

Here is a Commentary on Bountiful Trees and Vegetables God (YHWH) has provided for mankind, specifically the Canary Island Date Palm, Phoenix canariensis is a species of flowering plant in the palm family Arecaceae, native to the Canary Islands. It is a relative of Phoenix dactylifera, the true date palm. It is the natural symbol of the Canary Islands, together with the canary Serinus canaria.[1]

Description
It is a large solitary palm, 10–20 m (33–66 ft) tall, occasionally growing to 40 m (131 ft). The leaves are pinnate, 4–6 m (13–20 ft) long, with 80–100 leaflets on each side of the central rachis. The fruit is an oval, yellow to orange drupe 2 cm long and 1 cm in diameter and containing a single large seed; the fruit pulp is edible but too thin to be worth eating.

Names
The most used common name in English is Canary Island date palm. The common name in Spanish speaking countries and in the Canary Islands is palmera canaria. It is also widely known as the pineapple palm.

Cultivation
The Canary Island date palm is very widely planted as an ornamental plant in warm temperate regions of the world, particularly in areas with Mediterranean climates. It can be cultivated where temperatures rarely fall below 10 °C (50 °F).[2] It is a slowly growing tree, exclusively propagated by seed.
The palm is easily recognized through its crown of leaves and trunk characteristics. It is not uncommon to see Canary Island date palms pruned and trimmed to enhance the appearance.[3] When pruned, the bottom of the crown, also called the nut, appears to have a pineapple shape.
It has gained the Royal Horticultural Society's Award of Garden Merit.[4]

Other uses
In the Canary Islands, the sap of this date palm is used to make palm syrup. La Gomera is where most of the sap is produced in the Canary Islands.

Invasiveness
In some mediterranean and subtropical countries, P. canariensis has proven to be an invasive plant. In New Zealand, it has invaded a range of habitats. New Zealand's Landcare Research has classified the palm as a 'sleeper weed' - "a plant that spreads slowly and goes unnoticed until it becomes widespread". In Auckland, New Zealand, the palm has itself become a host for the naturalised Australian strangler fig, Ficus macrophylla.

References
1. ^ Ley 7/1991, de 30 de abril, de símbolos de la naturaleza para las Islas Canarias - in spanish
2. ^ RHS A-Z encyclopedia of garden plants. United Kingdom: Dorling Kindersley. 2008. p. 1136. ISBN 1405332964.
3. ^ http://realpalmtrees.com/palm-blog/a-e/canary-island-date-palm-phoenix-canariensis/
4. ^ "RHS Plant Selector - Phoenix canariensis". Retrieved 25 May 2013. [source - retrieved from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Phoenix_canariensis on 6/6/2013]
Danger:

Plant has spines or sharp edges; use extreme caution when handling

Fruit:

Fleshy drupe, elliptical, 1/2 to 1 inch long, orange-brown to dark purple, date-like, occurs in up to 18 inch hanging clusters, may be produced in quantity, ripen in summer and are edible. [source - retrieved from http://dendro.cnre.vt.edu/dendrology/syllabus2/factsheet.cfm?ID=597 on 6/6/2013]

In Genesis 1:11-13, "And God said, Let the earth put forth grass, herbs yielding seed, and fruit-trees bearing fruit after their kind, wherein is the seed thereof, upon the earth: and it was so. 12 And the earth brought forth grass, herbs yielding seed after their kind, and trees bearing fruit, wherein is the seed thereof, after their kind: and God saw that it was good. 13 And there was evening and there was morning, a third day. (American Standard Version, ASV)[for more details, go to www.jw.org].

To view pictures and for additional detail, go to, http://dendro.cnre.vt.edu/dendrology/syllabus2/factsheet.cfm?ID=597

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Your Friend in Christ Iris89

Francis David said it long ago, "Neither the sword of popes...nor the image of death will halt the march of truth."Francis David, 1579, written on the wall of his prison cell." Read the book, "What Does The Bible Really Teach" and the Bible today, and go to www.jw.org!





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the Canistel, Pouteria Campechiana:

Post  Admin on Mon Sep 02, 2013 2:53 pm

Hi Everyone:

Here is a Commentary on Bountiful Trees and Vegetables God (YHWH) has provided for mankind, specifically the Canistel, Pouteria Campechiana:

In Genesis 1:11-13, "And God said, Let the earth put forth grass, herbs yielding seed, and fruit-trees bearing fruit after their kind, wherein is the seed thereof, upon the earth: and it was so. 12 And the earth brought forth grass, herbs yielding seed after their kind, and trees bearing fruit, wherein is the seed thereof, after their kind: and God saw that it was good. 13 And there was evening and there was morning, a third day. (American Standard Version, ASV)

The Canistel, Pouteria Campechiana, is a fruit native to Central America, Cuba, and south Florida. The fruit can be eaten at various stages, but is most favorable when fully ripe tasting somewhat like an excellent mango at this stage. At earlier stages it is rather dry of texture and not to the likening of many individuals. It is often called the egg fruit tree due to the shape of its fruit being that of a giant egg.

The height and bushiness of the tree is highly variable. I have seen both bush and tree forms including trees over 20 feet. Also, the fruit and leaves are highly variable, but there is as yet no recognized name variety, but the Hispanic community of south Florida is attempting to selectively breed this tree. I myself am a part of this experiment, but I have not been having much success.

When some one gets a good/better specimen as a result of a 'sport' of nature, a scion is taken from it and usually side-grafted onto a tree with less desirable fruit. Only about 1 graft in 5 actually takes so one usually side-grafts a number of scions on the tree if size permits. The Rare Fruit Council International is very active in this area, and of course I am a member.

This tree would NOT make a good indoor house plant for the north.

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To enjoy an online Bible study called “Follow the Christ” go to, http://religioustruths.lefora.com/2012/04/03/18-part-follow-christ-bible-study/

Your Friend in Christ Iris89

Francis David said it long ago, "Neither the sword of popes...nor the image of death will halt the march of truth. "Francis David, 1579, written on the wall of his prison cell." Read the book, "What Does The Bible Really Teach" and the Bible today, and go to www.jw.org!

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Re: Almighty God’s (YHWH) Great Gift to Mankind, The Rare Fruit Trees and Herbs

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